Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Androscoggin County, Maine .."

See other formats





Androscoggin  County, 



"Out  of  monuiuents,  names,  words,  proverbs,  traditions,  records, 
fragments  of  stone,  passages  of  books,  and  the  like,  we^ 
recover  somewhat  from  the  deluge  of  time."  ■"■■^  "     'j';?C^>v 

JAN  26  1892 



W.  A.  FERGUSSON  &  CO. 



Copyright,  1891. 



FROM  innumerable  sources  of  information, —  many  of  them  broken,  frag- 
mentary, and  imperfect, —  from  books,  manuscripts,  records,  and  private 
documents,  we  have  gathered  much  of  value  respecting  this  valley  of 
Androscoggin  and  its  savage  and  civilized  occupancy.  In  our  labors  we  liave 
endeavored  to  separate  truth  from  error,  fact  from  fiction,  as  they  come  down 
to  us  from  the  half-forgotten  days  in  legend,  tradition  and  the  annals  of 
the  past. 

We  express  our  thanks  to  those  who  have  willingly  given  of  their  time  and 
lab(jr  to  aid  us  ;  to  those  who  have  contributed  the  illustrations,  thereby  adding 
much  to  the  value  of  this  work;  to  those  whose  cheering  words  and  earnest 
assistance  have  ever  been  at  our  service  ;  and  to  those  whose  courtesy  has  been 
extended  to  us  during  our  sojourn  in  this  most  progressive  of  counties. 



Chapter  I i' 

The  County  of  Androscoggin.  —  Territory  —  Organization  —  Towns  Included  — 
Name— Location  and  Area— Agriculture,  Population,  and  Valuation— Manufactures  and 
Wealth— Census  Statistics— Financial  Condition  from  Organization— State  Tax,  1890 
and  1891. 

Chapter  II 22 

Geology.  —  Rock  Formations  —  Unstratified  or  Igneous  Rocks— Stratified  Rocks  — 
Formations  in  Maine— Age  of  Ice— Glacial  Drift— Lower  and  Upper  Till— Cliamplain 
Period— Modified  Drift— Surface  Geology— Drift  Period— Beach  and  Terrace  Periods, 
etc.— Montalban  or  White  Mountain  Formation— Tourmalines  and  Associate  Minerals- 
Pratt's  Cave — Gneiss — Mica  Schist — Saccharoid  Azoic  Limestone — Dunes,  etc.       * 

Chapter  III. 32 

The  Androscoggin  River. — Williamson's  Description  — Piiysical  and  Geological 
Features— Drainage  District— Altitudes— Principal  Tributaries  in  this  County — Water- 

Chapter  IV. 44 

Aboriginal  Tribes  and  History. — (By  J.  G.  Elder). 

Chapter  V 49 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.— The  Cabots— Mary  of  Guilford— English  Claims— 
Norumbega— Bartholomew  Gosnold  and  Other  Discoverers— Acadia — French  Claims 
and  Occupancy — Captain  Weymouth— Grants  by  James  I— North  Virginia— Plymouth 
Company— Captain  John  Smith— New  England— Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges  and  Captain 
John  Mason— Province  of  Maine— Laconia— First  English  Settlements— Kennebec  and 
Other  Patents— Plymouth  Council— The  Twelve  Grand  Divisions— Resignation  of  Ply- 
mouth Patent— William  Gorges— New  Patent  of  Maine— Gorgeana— Settlement  under 
Gorges — Massachusetts  Claims  and  Proprietorship. 

Chapter  VI. 56 

The  Pejepscot  Claim  (By  J.  G.  Elder).— Thomas  Purchase— Purchase  and  Way's 
Patent— Assignment  to  Governor  Winthrop— Richard  Wharton— The  Six  Indian  Saga- 
mores' Deed — Pejepscot  Proprietors— Definition  of  Territory. 

Chapter  VII 64 

Early  Settlements. — Early  Settlements  in  Androscoggin  Valley — After  the  Revo- 
lution—Population from  1780  to  1800 — Commencement  of  the  Nineteenth  Century — 
Effects  of  the  War  of  1812— Severity  of  Climate— The  Cold  Year— Improvement  in  Con- 
dition— Changes  and  Progress  in  Agriculture — Development  and  Change— Manufact- 

vi  Contents. 

Chapter  VIII 69 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County. — (By  II.  E.  Walter). 

Chapter   IX 94 

Mail  Uodtes,  Railroads,  and  Post-offices.— Early  MailRoutes— Staging— Railroads- 
Post-offices  and  Postmasters. 

Chapter  X.  105 

Military  Affairs.— Maine  Regiments  in  the  Civil  War— The  Soldiers  of  Androscoggin 
Countj'— The  Grand  Army  Posts  and  Associate  Bodies. 

Chapter  XI 183 

Bates  College. — (By  Rev.  James  Albert  Howe,  D.D.). — Difficulties  in  Founding  a 
College  in  New  England.  Raison  d'etre:  Denominational  Need — Co-education — Indigent 
Students — Local  Support— General  Public.  The  Beginning  of  the  College:  The  Maine  State 
Seminary— Organization  of  the  College — Au  Honored  Name — Other  Details — The  Terms  of 
Admission — First  Faculty — College  and  Seminary  Separated — The  Latin  School — Cobb 
Divinity  School— Faculty — Courses  of  Study.  Growth  of  the  College — Storm  and  Stress — 
Relief— Benefactors  and  Benefactions — The  Equipment  of  the  College — The  Gymnasiixm — 
The  Libraries — The  Cabinet — Instructors  and  Instruction — Characteristic  Features:  Co-edu- 
cation— Open  Societies — Needy  Students  Helped — Forensics — Prizes — Outside  Lectures — 
Morals  and  Religion— Interest  of  the  Faculty  in  Students— The  Alumni— Alumni  Asso- 

Chapter  XII 208 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies. 

Chapter  XIII 281 

The  Press  of  Androscoggin— County  Medical  Association  — The  Grange— Women's  Chris- 
tian Temperance  Union. 

Chapter  XIV 300 

National,  State,  and  County  Officers.— United  States  Senators— Representatives  in 
Congress— State  Officers— Representatives  to  the  Massachusetts  Legislature— Members  of 
the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1819— State  Senators— Members  of  Maine  Legislature- 
Clerks  of  Court— County  Attorneys— Sheriffs— Judges  of  Probate— Registers  of  Probate- 
County  Treasurers— County  Commissioners— Registers  of  Deeds. 

(Chapter  XV 307 

The  Courts  and  Bench  and  Bar.— The  Courts- Supreme  Judicial  Court— Probate 
and  Insolvent  Courts— Court  of  County  Commissioners— Auburn  Municipal  Court— Lew- 
iston  Municipal  Court— County  Buildings— The  Little  Family— Bench  and  Bar. 


LEWISTON.-(By  J.  G.  Elder). 
Chapter  XVI 343 

The  Town.     Situation,  Extent,  Natural   Features,  Products,  etc.— Conditions  of 
Grant— Pioneer  Settlers— Incorporation— Growth— Civil  List. 

Contents.  vii 

Chapter  XVII 357 

Ecclesiastical  History — Church  Organizations — Schools. 

Chapter  XVIII 382 

Saw  and  Grist  Mills^Lewiston  Falls  Water-Power  Co. — R.  C.  Pingree  &  Co. — Read, 
Small  &  Co. — Barker's  Mills — Other  Mills — Lewiston  Falls  Manufacturing  Co. — The  First 
Cotton  Mill — Lewiston  Water-Power  Co. — Franklin  Co. — Lincoln  Mill— Bates  Manufact- 
uring Company — Hill  Manufacturing  Co. — Androscoggin  Mill — Continental  Mills— The 
Lewiston  Mill — Avon  Mill — Lewiston  Bleachery — Cowan  Woolen  Co. — Cumberland  Mill — 
Union  Water-Power  Co.  —  Lewiston  Machine  Co.  —  Gay- Woodman  Co.  —  Jordan,  Frost 
&  Co. — Lewiston  Bobbin  Shoii— H.  H.  Dickey  &  Son — Lewiston  Monumental  Works — Other 

Chapter  XIX 395 

Railroads — County  and  State  Agricultural  Societies — Fire  Department — Lewiston  Gas 
Light  Co.— Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Library  Association — Lewiston  City  Buildings — 
City  Park — Soldiers'  Monument — Lewiston  Water  Works — Lewiston  &  Auburn  Horse  Rail- 
road—First National  Bank — Manufacturers  National  Bank — Androscoggin  County  Savings 
Bank — People's  Savings  Bank^Board  of  Trade — Central  Maine  General  Hospital — French 
Hospital — Y.  M.  C.  A. — Nealey  Rifles — Frye  Light  Guards — Associations. 

Chapter  XX 406 

Physicians — Merchants — Business  Interests — Personal  Sketches — Resume. 

LISBON.— (By  Asa  P.  Moore,  Esq.). 
Chapter  XXI 433 

Early  Boundaries — Petitions — Town  of  Bowdoin — Incorporation  of  Thompsonborough — 
Situation,  Limits,  and  Formation — Surface  and  Soil — Description— Old  Houses— Education — 
Occupation  of  First  Settlers — Early  History  —  Other  Settlers  and  Descendants  —  Early 
Mills  —  War  of  1812 — Physicians  —  First  Town  Meeting  of  Thompsonborough  —  School 
Districts  —  Extracts  from  Town  Records — Action  in  the  Civil  War — Civil  List. 

Chapter  XXII 450 

Religious  Societies — Free  Baptists — Congregationalists — Universalists — IVIethodists—  Bap- 
tist Church  of  Lisbon  Falls — The  Roman  Catholic  Church. 

Chapter  XXIII 456 

Lisbon  Business  Interests — Traders,  etc. — Farwell's  Cotton  Mills— The  Farnsworth  Co. — 
New  England  Mineral  Paint  Co. — Personal  Sketches — Lisbon  Falls — Worumbo  Manu- 
facturing Co. — The  Androscoggin  Water-Power  Co. — Lisbon  Falls  Fibre  Co. — Lisbon  Falls 
Cooperative  Association — Lisbon  Falls  Creamery  Association — Merchants,  etc. — Personal 

Chapter  XXIV 468 

Incorporation — Elevations,  Ponds,  and  Streams — Grants,  Surveys,  and  Soil — Settlers — 
Early  Roads — Some  First  Things — Early  Values — First  Magistrates — Lawyers — Physicians — 
Other  Settlers  and  Descendants — First  Town  Meeting  and  Excerpts  from  Town  Records — 
Webster  in  the  Civil  War — Civil  List. 

viii  Contents. 

Chapter  XXV 477 

Sabattus  — Saw  and  Grist  Mills  — Niles's  Mills  — Webster  M^oolen  Co.  — Traders,  etc.— 
Sabattus  CcxJperative  Association— Webster  Corner— Farmers— Churches— Schools. 

WALES.— (By  John  C.  Fogg,  Esq.). 

Chapter  XXVI 485 

Organization- Surface  and  Soil— Settlements  and  Settlers— Churches— Schools— Mills 
and  Manufactures— Civil  List  and  Town  Records— Action  in  the  Kebellion. 

Chapter  XXVII 499 

Area— Boundaries— Elevations— Ponds— Soil— Productions— The  First  Settlers— Petition 
for  Incorporation— Remonstrance  Against  Incorporation— Incorporation— Development  of 
Business— Pearly  Conveyances— Valuation  and  Residents  in  1818— Lots  and  Occupants  in 
1820— Gleanings  from  Town  Records — Early  Action  Concerning  Schools. 

Chapter  XXVIII 511 

Settlers  and  Descendants. 

Chapter  XXIX 529 

Baptist  Church — First  Meeting-House— First  Church  Bell — Universalism — Free  Baptist 
Church  —Methodists — Adventists— Schools  and  Teachers — Temperance — Revolution — War 
of  1812 — Madawaska  War— Rebellion — Centennial—  Longevity — Burying  Grounds — Physi- 
cians— Orcliardiiig  and  Orchardists— Merchants — Some  Smart  Things  Done  by  Greene  Men- 
Natives  of  Greene  Attaining  Prominence — Civil  List. 

Chapter  XXX 550 

Boundaries— Formation-Surface  and  Soil— Dead  River— Its  Peculiarities— Indian  Vil- 
lage—Thomas and  Roger  Stinchfield— Early  Settlers— Heads  of  Families  in  the  First  Part 
of  this  Century— Character  of  the  Early  Settlers— Soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  War  and 
War  of  1812— Early  Roads. 

Chapter  XXXI 557 

Excerpts  from  Town  Records— First  Town  Meeting— First  Officers— Action  in  the  Civil 
War— Civil  List. 

Chapter  XXXII. 562 

The  First  Baptist  Church  — Universalism  — Methodism  — The  First  Freewill  Baptist 
Church— The  Quakers— Schools— Temperance— Mills— Other  Industries— Sketches. 

EAST  LIVERMORE.— (By  Cyrus  Knapp,  Esq.). 

Chapter  XXXIII 584 

Incorporation— Topography— Li vermore  Falls  — Early  Mills  — Freshet— Early  Business 
Places  and  Residences— Advent  of  the  Railroad— Hotels  and  Stores— Dr  Millett  and  Lawyer 
Knapp  — Toll  Bridge  — Railroad  Extension  — Mills  and  Manufacturing  — Churches  — I.  O. 
G.  T.— Camp-Ground— Physicians— Lawyers— Civil  List— Personal  Sketches. 

Contents.  ix 



Chapter  XXXIV 599 

Auburn— Indian  Occupancy— Territory — Title— Surface— Soil— Early  Settlers  and  Lots  — 
Incorporation— Action  and  Growth— Goff's  Corner — Early  Settlements— Stores  and  Trad- 
ers— The  Carpet  Factory — First  Teacher— First  Hotel — Increase  in  Values— Business  Houses 
in  1851— Formation  of  Androscoggin  County— The  Great  Fire— Auburn  Village  Corporation- 
Auburn  Village  in  1859— East  Auburn— West  Auburn— North  Auburn— Stevens  Mills— New 

Chapter  XXXV 611 

City  of  Auburn. — Its  Growth  and  Prosperity — Extracts  from  Official  Reports,  etc. — 
Statistics — Action  in  the  Rebellion — Civil  List. 

Chapter  XXXVI 027 

Early  Shoe  Manufacturing— Progress  from  1800  to  1870 — Manufacturers  Twenty  Years 
Ago— Statistics  from  1871  to  1881— Manufacturers  Ten  Years  Ago— From  1881  to  1891— Shoe 
and  Other  Manufactories,  January,  1891 — The  Shoe  Companies — Other  Manufacturing — 
Minor  Industries,  etc. 

Chapter  XXXVII 642 

Auburn  Bank — First  National  Bank — Auburn  Savings  Bank — National  Shoe  and  Leather 
Bank — Mechanics  Savings  Bank — American  Banking  and  Trust  Co. — Auburn  Trust  Co. — 
Municipal  Court — Board  of  Trade — Maine  Benefit  Association — Auburn  Loan  and  Building 
Association — Androscoggin  Land  Association — Lake  Auburn  Fish  Protective  Association — 
Auburn  Aqueduct  Co.  —  Little  Androscoggin  Water- Power  Co.  —  Lewiston  and  Auburn 
Electric  Light  Co. — Physicians — Leading  Traders — Merchants  and  Business  Men — Organ- 

Chapter  XXXVIIT 657 

Universalist  Churches  —  Congregational  Churches  —  Baptist  Churches  —  Free  Baptist 
Church — Methodist  Episcopal  Churches — Episcopal  Church — Y.  M.  C.  A. — Schools — Ladies' 
Charitable  Society — Auburn  Art  Club — Associated  Charities — Public  Library. 

DANVILLE.— (By  George  Thomas  Little). 

Chapter  XXXIX 691 

Municipal  Affairs — Civil  List — Settlement  and  Social  Life,  etc. — Matters  Ecclesiastical. 

Chapter  XL 703 

Educational  History  and  Lewiston  Falls  Academy — Biographical. 

Chapter  XLI 716 

Bakerstown. — Grant  of — First  Location — Origin  of  Name — Proprietors  of — "A  Town- 
ship Lost" — The  New  Grant — First  Division  of  Lots — Action  of  Proprietors — Settlers  and 
Improvements  in  1783— Petit'on  of  Settlers,  1785  —  Bridgham  &  Glover  Purchase  —  Liti- 
gation— Final  Settlement  and  Award  to  Little. 


Chapter  XLII 725 

Incorporation— Surface  and  Soil— Early  Settlers— Hackett's  Mills— Poland  Corner— West 
Poland— Early  Traders,  etc.— Early  Taverns— South  Poland— Poland  Spring— Mechanic 
Falls— Paper-Making— Poland  Paper  Company— Other  Business  Interests— Mechanic  Falls 
Ledger — Physicians,  etc. 

Chapter  XLIII 7il 

Congregational  Churches— Universalist  Church— Methodist  Episcopal  Church— Freewill 
Baptist  Churches— Adventism— Shakers— Baptist  Church— Gleanings  from  Town  Records- 
Civil  List. 

Chapter  XLIV 757 

Incorporation — Boundaries — Name— Physical  Features,  Soil,  Population  and  Valuation — 
First  Settler— Captain  Daniel  Bucknam  and  Descendants— Early  and  Other  Settlers— Voters 
of  1800. 

Chapter  XLV 768 

Town  Records,  Happenings,  etc. — Minot  in  the  War— Civil  List— Churches — Schools — 

Chapter  XLVI 779 

Mechanic  Falls — Minot  Corner  —  West  Minot  —  Some  of  Minot's  Principal  Farmers 
from  1840. 


Chapter  XLVII 791 

Derivation  of  Name — Boundaries — Surface  and  Soil — Royalsborough — First  Plantation 
Meeting — Extracts  from  Plantation  Records — Plantation  Committees — Incorporation  of 
Durham — First  Town  Meeting — Extracts  from  Town  Records — War  of  1812 — Rebellion — 
Civil  List. 

Chapter  XLVIII 796 

Prominent  Early  and  Other  Settlers  — Congregational  Church — First  Free  Baptist 
Church  — Quakers  — Methodist  Episcopal  Church  —  Baptist  Church  — Universalists  — Tem- 
perance— Centennial — Growth  and  Prosperity — Hotels,  Traders,  etc. 


Chapter  XLIX 806 

Boundaries— Township  Granted— Sylvester-Cauada—Names  of  Proprietors— Descrip- 
tion—Attempts  at  Settlement— Pioneer  and  Other  Settlers— Inhabitants  in  1780—1790— 
1800 — Town  Annals,  etc. 

Chapter  L 815 

County  Roads  and  Taverns— Industries,  Traders,  etc.— Tu'uer  Village— Turner  Centre- 
North  Turner— Keen's  Mills— Chase's  Mills— Bridges— Civi,'  List. 

Contents.  xi 

Chapter  LI 825 

Ecclesiastical — Congregationalism  —  The  Baptists  —  Universalism — Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  —  Meeting-Houses  —  Schools  —  Temperance  —  Physicians  —  Lawyers  —  Centennial  — 
Something  About  Some  of  the  People. 


Chapter  LII. 842 

Situation— Soil — Incorporation — First  Meeting  and  Names  of  Proprietors — Extracts  from 
Proprietors'  Records— Something  Concerning  the  Earliest  Settlers — Early  Boundaries — 
What  Paul  Coffin  Writes  of  the  People — Other  Settlers,  etc. 

Chapter  LIII 856 

Excerpts  from  Town  Records— Early  Mills— Early  Traders  and  Tradesmen — Livermore 
Village— North  Livermore — Livermore  Centre  —  Farmers  —  Revolutionary  Soldiei's — Early 
Militia — War  of  1812 — Civil  War — Ecclesiastical — Physicians  and  Lawyers — Education— The 
Norlands — Washburn  Memorial  Library — Civil  List. 

Appendix — Knights  of  Pythias 873 



Lewiston  City  Hall,  189L Frontispiece. 

Hathorn  Hall, 183 

Cobb  Divinity  School, 191 

Hedge  Laboratory,             200 

Edward  Little,  Esq 310 

Hon.  Josiah  Little,            313 

Hon.  Edward  T.  Little,            315 

Hon.  Nahum  Morrill, 320 

Hon.  W.  W.  Bolster, 322 

Hon.  William  P.  Frye,  LL.D., 327 

Col.  Franklin  M.  Drew, 330 

Hon.  Albert  R.  Savage,            334 

The  First  City  Hall  of  Lewiston 343 

Hon.  Alonzo  Garcelon,  A.M.,  M.D., 420 

Hon.  Nelson  Dingley,  Jr.,  A.M.,  LL.D 422 

Oren  B.  Cheney,  D.D 426 

Hon.  J.  L.  H.  Cobb, 429 

Cyrus  I.  Barker 432 

xii  Contents. 

Hon.  William  D.  Pennell 432  b 

Hon.  Augustus  Sprague, 544 

Gen.  Aaron  S.  Daggett, 546 

Capt.  Jabez  Pratt 548 

Hon.  Leavitt  Lothrop, 576 

Giddings  Lane, 577 

Isaac  Boothby,  Jr., 579 

F.  D.  Millett, 580 

Isaiah  B.  Additon,            582 

Albion  Ricker  Millett,  M.D., 596 

Residence  of  Charles  L.  Cushman, 599 

Court  Street  Factory  of  Ara  Cushman  Co., 634 

Edwanl  Little  High  School, G76 

Ara  Cushman, 684 

Residence  of  Ara  Cushman, 686 

William  W.  Stetson,  Ph.D.,            688 

Albert  M.  Penley 690a 

Hon.  Adna  C.  Denison, 754 

Josiah  A.  Bucknam, 788 



Hon.  James  Lowell, 415 

Col.  John  M.  Frye,            415 

Maj.  William  R.  Frye 415 

Edward  P.  Tobie 416 

Capt.  Daniel  Holland, 416 

John  Read,  Esq., 417 

Hon.  Jacob  B,  Ham, 417 

Prof.  Thomas  H.  Rich,  A.M., 418 

I!enj.  E.  Bates, 428 

Arcliie  Lee  Talbot, 432  c 

Hon.  Jesse  Davis 458 

James  Maxwell 473 

Samuel  Simmons 473 

Rev.  Moses  H.  Harris,  A.M.,  D.D., 5J8 

Rev.  Herbert  Lee  Stetson,  D.D.,            52o 

Contents.  xiii 

Hon.  Elijah  Barrell 524 

Alfred  Pierce,  M.D. 525 

The  Howards, 572 

Rev.  Samuel  Boothby, 575 

Capt.  Ezekiel  Treat 597 

Jacob  H.  Roak 628 

Rev.  James  Drummond, 664 

Rev.  A.  S.  Ladd,      _ 672 

James  Goff, 679 

Daniel  Briggs, 679 

John  Dingley, (iSO 

Nathan  Haskell, 681 

Capt.  Aaron  Bird, 681 

Col.  Nathaniel  L.  Ingersoll, 681 

David  R.  Loring, 682 

Col.  Thomas  Llttlefield,            683 

Andrevr  Robinson  Giddinge, 713 

Capt.  John  Penley 715 

Hon.  Josiah  Dunn,            727 

Daniel  W.  True 730 

The  Rickers, 735 

Dr.  Moses  R.  Pulsifer, 740 

Rev.  Zenas  Thompson 745 

Luther  Perkins, 756 

Capt.  Daniel  Bucknam, 758 

Samuel  Verrill, 762 

Capt.  William  Ladd 763 

Eliab  Washburn 764 

Capt.  Jacob  Dwinal, •        .        .        .        .  781 

Gideon  Bearce, 787 

Jacob  Leavitt, *8t58^ 

Ichabod  Bonney 810 

Benjamin  Conant, 812 

Rev.  Charles  Turner, .825 

Col.  William  Turner 825 

Rev.  John  Strickland 826 

Rev.  William  E.  French,  A.M.,  D.D.,            830 

Rev.  Madison  K.  Mabry, 831 

Ezekiel  Bradford, 835 

Major  General  Alden  Blossom, 836 

xiv  Contents. 

David  Hale, 836 

Hon.  Eugene  Hale, 836 

Hon.  Job  Prince 837 

Hon.  Rufus  Prince, 837 

Solon  Chase 838 

Hon.  Jesse  Drew, .  840 

Deacon  Elijah  Livermore, 845 

Lieut.  Samuel  Benjamin, 845 

Gen.  David  Learned, 847 

The  Monroe  Brothers, 849 

Hastings  Strickland 850 

Nathaniel  Perley 852 

The  Washburns 853 

Dr.  Cyrus  Hamlin 868 

Dr.  Benjamin  Bradford, 868 

Hon.  Timothy  O.  Howe, 869 







Territory — Organization — Towns  Included— Name^Location  and  Area — Agriculture, 
Population,  and  Valuation  —  Manufactures  and  Wealth  —  Census  Statistics  —  Financial  Con- 
dition from  Organization  —  State  Tax,  1890  and  1891. 

THE  territory  of  Androscoggin  county  was  comprised  first  in  York  county. 
Cumberland  and  Lincoln  counties  were  formed  June  19,  1760,  the 
boundary  between  them  being  the  Androscoggin  river  "north  of  where 
it  enters  the  county  as  now  bounded  on  the  south."  Kennebec  county  was 
organized  from  the  northern  part  of  Lincoln,  February  20,  1799,  with  East 
Livermore,  Greene,  Leeds,  and  Wales  in  its  limits.  Oxford  county  was 
created  March  4,  1805,  from  the  northern  part  of  Cumberland  and  York,  and 
Livermore  and  Turner  were  incorporated  with  it.  When  Androscoggin  county 
was  organized,  March  18,  1854,  it  acquired  its  territory  from  Cumberland, 
Kennebec,  Oxford,  and  Lincoln  counties.  Auburn,  Danville,  Durham,  Minot, 
and  Poland  were  taken  from  Cumberland;  East  Livermore,  Greene,  Leeds, 
and  Wales  from  Kennebec;  Lewiston,  Lisbon,  and  Webster  from  Lincoln; 
Livermore  and  Turner  from  Oxford.  Many  of  these  towns  have  had  a  cor- 
porate existence  for  years,  some  of  them  antedating  the  Revolution.  The 
name  of  the  principal  river  of  the  county  was  appropriately  given  to  the  new 
organization. 1 

1  Androscoggin,  acco'-aug  to  one  authority,  comes   from  the   Algonquin  Am-a-ra-skah-gin,  the 

turbi'l  -j^-jaKrAing,  crooked  nake.     This  later  became  Amerascoggin,  Amoscoggin,  and  Androscoggin. 

Captain  John  Smith  in  l(i}.called  the  river  Aumouchawgan.    Another  authority  derives  Amoscoggin 

18  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Androscoggin  county  lies  between  43°  50'  and  44°  30'  north  latitude,  and 
69°  45'  and  70°  30'  longitude  west  of  Greenwich.  It  is  irregular  in  form,  has 
its  greatest  lengtli  from  north  to  south,  and  occupies  an  area  of  about  four 
hundred  square  miles.  The  Androscoggin  river  flows  through  the  county 
in  a  southerly  direction,  dividing  it  into  two  nearly  equal  parts,  and  with 
its  tributaries  affords  magnificent  water-power  for  manufacturing  purposes. 
Originally  the  surface  of  the  county  was  covered  with  a  mighty  growth  of 
pine  and  other  valuable  timber,  and  lumbering  was  the  piincipal  employment. 
As  the  forests  disappeared  agriculture  became  the  business  of  the  people,  and, 
as  the  soil  was  unsurpassed  in  the  southern  half  of  the  state,  prosperity 
attended  their  labors.  The  development  of  the  water-powers  and  the  attrac- 
tion of  capital  to  manufacturing  enterprises  has  caused  an  outlay  of  millions 
of  dollars  in  these  industries  in  the  last  forty  years,  and  many  more  people  and 
much  more  capital  is  employed  in  manufactures  than  in  all  other  branches  of 
business.  In  consequence  of  this  development  the  growth  has  been  rapid. 
In  1860  the  county  had  29,715  inhabitants;  in  1870,  35,826;  in  1880,  44,967 
in  1890,  48,968. 

Population  and  Valuation  hif  Towns.  — 1850.  Auburn,  population,  2,840 
valuation,  $400,605.  Danville,  1,636;  $308,715.  Durham,  1,894;  $376,358 
East  Livermore,  892;  $150,035.  Greene,  1,347;  $220,984.  Leeds,  1,652 
$225,330.  Lewiston,  3,854 ;  $580,420.  Lisbon,  1,494 ;  $263,167.  Livermore 
1,764;  $271,634.  Minot,  1,734  ;  $297,184.  Poland,  2,660  ;  $333,108.  Wales 
612;  $111,632.  Webster,  1,110;  $194,439.  Total  population,  25,746 ;  valua- 
tion, $4,152,503. 

1860.  Auburn,  5,344;  $1,224,070.  Durham,  1,620;  $459,376.  East 
Livermore,  1,029;  $301,702.  Greene,  1,224;  $338,402.  Lewiston,  7,424; 
$2,426,374.  Lisbon,  1,376;  $404,016.  Leeds,  1,390;  $333,035.  Livermore, 
1,597;  $430,779.  Minot,  1,799;  $546,581.  Poland,  2,746  ;  $517,671.  Turner, 
2,682;  $748,218.     Wales,  602;  $188,642.     Webster,  890;  $312,015. 

1870.  Auburn,  6,169;  $2,918,101.  Durham,  1,350;  $482,861.  East 
Livermore,  1,004;  $388,680.  Greene,  1,094;  $439,629.  Lewiston,  13,000; 
$8,813,629.  Lisbon,  2,014;  $741,092.  Leeds,  1,288;  $456,348.  Livermore, 
1,467;  $524,267.  Minot,  1,569;  i!610,511.  Poland,  2,436  ;  $765,960.  Turner, 
2,380;  $815,684.     Wales,  556;  $229,359.     Webster,  939;  $406,434. 

1880.  Auburn,  9,555;  $5,099,446.  Durham,  1,253  ;  $422,724.  East  Liver- 
more, 1,080;  $344,092.  Greene,  999;  $394,260.  Lewiston,  19,083;  $9,521,103. 
Lisbon,  2,641;  $1,115,760.  Leeds,  1,194;  $415,486.  Livermore,  1,262;  $430,- 
709.  Minot,  1,763;  $720,549.  Poland,  2,442;  $920,057.  Turner,  2,285; 
$748,856.     Wales,  505;  $198,578.     Webster,  980;  $445,353. 

from  Jiamura,  fish;  kank-skow-he-fjan,  spearing— fish  spearing.  Others  stil  -^ay  Amoscoggin  means 
"fish  coming  in  the  spring."  The  name  of  the  river,  Androscoggin,  was  "-^  ^Pplied  i^'oneAfl^a- 
gunticook  Indians,  wliose  headquarters  at  tliat  time  was  in  this  valley. 

The  County  of  Androscoggin.  19 

1890.  Auburn,  11,250;  $6,195,750.  Durham,  1,111;  $378,240.  East 
Livermore,  1,506  ;  $498,740.  Greene,  885  ;  $329,583.  Leeds,  999  ;  $331,006. 
Lewiston,  21,701 ;  $12,144,494.  Lisbon,  3,120  ;  $1,^36,411.  Livermore,  1,151 ; 
$458,925.    Minot,  1,355;  $752,146.    Poland,  2,472;  $1,133,890.    Turner,  2,016  ; 

$764,215.     Wales,  488;  $206,570.     Webster,  914 -;  $432,447. 

The  number  of  manufacturing  establishments  in  1880  was  253,  having  a 
capital  of  $12,009,562  and  employing  an  average  of  10,214  hands,  aud  with  an 
annual  product  of  $14,789,963,  while  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  real  estate 
of  the  county  was  but  $17,265,353,  which,  with  $3,511,620  valuation  of  personal 
property,  makes  the  total  valuation  $20,776,973,  not  quite  one  and  one-half 
times  the  annual  output  of  the  manufactories. 

In  1880  Androscoggin  county  had  2,981  farms  with  244,781  acres  of  land, 
of  which  159,937  acres  were  improved,  69,900  acres  in  woodland  and  forest, 
and  14,934  acres  were  unimproved.  The  aggregate  value  of  these  farms  was 
$6,119,332,  including  land,  fences,  and  buildings ;  of  farming  implements  and 
machinery,  $286,974 ;  live  stock,  $703,680 ;  estimated  value  of  farm  products, 
$1,207,634.  Tliese  farms  yielded,  according  to  the  census  of  1880,  9,057 
bushels  of  barley,  2,074  bushels  of  buckwheat,  79,778  bushels  of  Indian  corn, 
99,523  bushels  of  oats,' 1,152  bushels  of  rye,  14,795  bushels  of  wheat,  245,696 
bushels  of  potatoes,  65,297  pounds  of  wool,  4,529  pounds  of  hops,  9,091  bushels 
of  beans,  50,574  tons  of  hay,  354,274  dozens  of  eggs,  3,368  pounds  of  honey, 
519,163  gallons  of  milk,  776,062  pounds  of  butter,  149,069  pounds  of  cheese, 
and  $95,188  in  orchard  products.  The  live  stock  numbered  4,236  horses, 
1,869  working  oxen,  8,733  milch  cows,  5,907  other  cattle,  13,160  sheep,  and 
5,191  swine. 

The  financial  condition  of  the  county,  as  given  by  the  annual  statement  of 
the  county  treasurer,  is  here  presented. 

In  1854  the  receipts  were  $5,782.50  ($2,000  a  loan  from  Cumberland 
Bank).  The  expenses  were  $3,679.25.  In  1855  $8,000  taxes  were  assessed 
on  towns;  licenses  granted,  $120;  fines  and  costs  collected,  $554.60;  jury 
fees,  $126  ;  lawyers'  admission  fees,  $40.  The  bills  allowed  this  year  included 
October  term  (1854),  $187.25;  April  term  (1855),  $873.74;  October  term 
(1855),  $3,348.75.  The  sheriff's  bills  were  $502.25  ;  jury  fees,  $2,443.31  ;  con- 
stables' fees,  $147.  The  county  paid  the  loan  of  $2,000  made  in  1854  and 
borrowed  $3,227.75.  1856. — Taxes  assessed,  $10,000  ;  licenses  granted,  $100  ; 
county  fines  and  costs,  $274;  fines  by  magistrates,  $86.71;  jury  fees,  $91; 
attorneys'  admission,  fees,  $100.  The  county  commissioners  issued  bonds  of 
$80,000,  bearing  six  per  cent,  interest,  to  cover  cost  of  erecting  the  county 
buildings.  1857. — Liabilities:  Temporary  loans,  $7,121.61 ;  allowances  by  the 
several  courts  unpaid,  $2,951.46 ;  balance  due  treasurer  on  settlement,  $457.80; 
bonds    sold,  $87,300.      Resourees:    Unpaid    taxes,  $4,923.31;    unsold  bonds, 

20  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

$2,253.18;  due  from  state,  1815.60.  1SF>S.—Liahimes:  Bonds,  $100,000; 
loans,  $5,075;  allowances  by  court  unpaid,  $1,228.55.  Resources:  Cash, 
11,386.45;  unpaid  taxes,  $4,957.05.  1859.— Liahaifies:  Bonds,  $100,000; 
loans,  $3,000  ;  court  allowances,  $1,729.14.  Resources :  Cash,  $1,645.14 ;  taxes, 
$3,260.89.  18m.— Liabilities:  Bonds,  $100,000;  loans,  $2,600;  court  allow- 
ances, $956.58.     Resources:   Cash,  $1,405.75;    unpaid  taxes,  $2,646.24. 

imi.—LiahlUties:  Bonds,  $100,000;  loans,  $4,125;  court  allowances, 
$935.95.  Resources:  Unpaid  taxes,  $1,983.80  ;  cash,  $937.31.  18Q2.—LiaUli- 
ties:  Bonds,  $99,000  ;  loans,  $5,095  ;  court  allowances,  $1,115.98.  Resources: 
Taxes,  $2,673.30;  cash,  $2,284.  186S.—LiahiUties:  Bonds,  $97,500;  loans, 
$6,475;  court  allowances,  $1,657.69.  Resources:  Taxes,  $3,871.01;  cash, 
$2,085.01.  1864:.—LiaMlities:  Bonds,  $96,100 ;  loans,  $9,810 ;  bills,  $951.93. 
Resources:  Taxes,  $6,856.88;  cash,  $3,721.12.  186b.—LiahiUties:  Bonds 
(county  buildings),  $94,600;  bonds  (for  purchase  of  toll-bridge),  $7,500; 
loans,  $1,327.  Resources:  Taxes,  $1,347.18  ;  cash,  $4,313.22.  186Q.— Liabili- 
ties: Bonds  (county  buildings),  $93,000  ;  toll-bridge,  $6,200  ;  loans,  $1,932.96  ; 
bills,  $2,329.16.  Resources:  Taxes,  $2,957.85;  cash,  $245.93 ;  due  (from  sale 
of  toll-house  and  lot),  $600.  1867. — Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings), 
$91,300;  toll-bridge  bonds,  $4,850;  loans,  $12,039.27;  bills,  $3,783.38.  Re- 
sources: Taxes,  $3,626.30;  cash,  $1,269.90;  due  (from  sale  of  toll-house  and 
lot),  $450;  rent  due,  $60.  1868. — Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings), 
$89,500;  bonds  for  toll-bridge,  $3,750;  loans  and  interest,  $8,704.81 ;  claims 
and  salaries,  $2,981.33.  Resources:  Cash,  $274.39;  due  (from  sale  of  toll- 
house and  lot),  $317.25;  rent,  $60.  18Q9.— Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  build- 
ings), $87,600  ;  toll-bridge,  $2,100;  loans  and  estimated  interest,  $400;  bills 
and  salaries,  $2,459.73.,  Resources:  Cash,  $1,058.68;  due  (on  toll-house), 
$149.25.  1810.— Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  $85,600;  loans  and 
interest,  $21,928.73;  claims  and  salaries,  $895.37.     Resources:   $1,671.55. 

1871. — Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  $83,500;  loans  and  interest, 
$12,596.11;  claims  and  salaries,  $990.02.  Resources:  Taxes,  $54.39;  cash, 
$416.56.  1812.— Liabilities :  Bonds  (county  buildings),  $81,300;  loans  and 
interest,  $2,306.11:  claims  and  salaries,  $893.60.  Resources:  Cash,  $2,623.41. 
1873. — Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  $79,000;  loans  and  interest, 
$3,938.52;  claims  and  salaries,  $1,605.50.  Resources:  Cash,  $126.08;  due 
(from  Auburn  and  Lewiston  Ixailroad),  $54.80.  1874. — Liabilities:  Bonds 
(county  buildings),  $76,600  ;  loans  and  interest,  $10,699.44 ;  fees  and  salaries, 
$1,900.64.  Resources:  Cash,  $176.22;  due  (from  labor  of  prisoners),  $360. 
1875.  —  Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  $74,100;  loans  and  hiterest, 
$32,331;  fees  and  salaries,  $2,898.73.  Resources:  Cash,  $6,027.57;  due  (from 
other  counties),  $367.42;  other  debts,  $170.90;  stock,  shoes,  tools,  and 
machinery  in  workshop,  $7,544.06.  181 Q.— Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  build- 
ings),  $71,500;    loans    and    interest,  $33,052;    fees    and   salaries,    $4,705.66. 

The  County  of  Androscoggin.  21 

Resources:  Cash,  11,986.50;  stock,  shoes,  tools,  and  machinery,  19,598.51; 
due  (from  stock  and  shoes  sold),  -1903.55.  1877. — .LiabiUties:  Bonds  (county 
buildings),  168,800 ;  loans  and  interest,  -134,263.35 ;  fees  and  salaries, 
-f  2,478.48.  Resources:  Cash,  -'$1,761.85;  taxes, -1517.80  ;  stock,  tools,  machinery, 
etc.,  -|>6,300;  due  (for  goods  sold),  -f 279.48.  1818.— LiabiUties:  Bonds  (county 
buildings),  -|>66,000  ;  loans  and  interest,  -f  37,963.54  ;  fees  and  salaries,  -11,184.20. 
Resources:  Cash,  -11,417.46;  taxes,  -1767.72;  stock,  machinery,  etc.,  -15,724.28; 
due  (for  goods  sold),  -1651.83.  1879. — Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings), 
-163,100 ;  five  per  cent,  bonds  (1879),  -140,000 ;  fees  and  salaries,  $1,362.39. 
Resources :  Cash,  -16,994.76  ;  taxes,  -1263.70 ;  stock,  machinery,  etc.,  -f4,352.93  ; 
due  (for  goods  sold),  -t622.97.  1880.— Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings), 
160,100;  bonds  of  1879,  -140,000;  fees  and  salaries,  1824.18.  Resources: 
Cash,  -t7,522.11;  stock,  machinery,  etc.,  $2,424.09;  goods  sold,  -1412.34; 
taxes,  -fl,318.70. 

1881.— Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  157,000;  bonds  of  1879, 
-$40,000;  fees,  salaries,  etc.,  -$934.92.  Resources:  Cash,  $10,643.61;  stock, 
machinery,  etc.,  $2,881.81 ;  goods  sold,  -$405.29 ;  taxes,  $900.  1882.— Liabili- 
ties:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  -$53,800;  bonds  of  1879,  $40,000;  fees, 
salaries,  etc.,  -$1,270.64.  Resources:  Cash, -$12,048.69 ;  stock,  machinery,  etc., 
$2,248.24;  due  (for  goods  sold),  -$37.77;  taxes,  .$5,856.16.  188^.— Liabilities : 
Bonds  (county  buildings),  $50,500;  bonds  of  1879,  -$40,000;  fees,  salaries, 
etc.,  -$1,051.12.  Resources :  Cash,  $20,532.67  ;  stock,  machinery,  etc.,  $2,733.40 ; 
taxes,  -$420.37.  1884:.— Liabilities :  Bonds  (county  buildings),  -$47,100;  bonds 
of  1879,  -$40,000;  fees,  etc.,  -$2,391.56.  Resources:  Cash,  -$20,302;  stock, 
machinery,  etc.,  $2,054.23  ;  taxes,  $753.29  ;  due  (from  other  counties),  $372.48. 
1885.  — Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  -$43,600;  bonds  of  1879, 
-$40,000;  fees  and  coupons,  $1,192.51.  Resources:  Cash,  $22,890.70;  tools, 
machinery,  etc.,  -$500;  taxes,  $1,151.44;  due  (from  other  counties),  $99.32. 
188Q.— Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  -$40,000;  bonds  of  1879, 
-$40,000;  fees  unpaid,  $896.03;  coupons  unpaid,  -$134.50.  Resources:  Cash, 
$25,159.30 ;  machinery,  etc.,  $700 ;  taxes,  -$503.66 ;  due  (from  other  counties 
and  for  rent),  $296.08.  1881  .—Liahilities :  Bonds  (county  buildings),  $36,300; 
bonds  of  1879,  -$40,000;  fees,  etc.,  $1,862.54;  coupons,  -$368.  Resources: 
Cash,  -$18,511.18;  stock,  machinery,  etc.,  $8,355.87;  taxes,  $927.58;  due  (from 
other  counties),  -$164.49.  1888.  —  Liabilities:  Bonds  (county  buildings), 
-$32,400  ;  bonds  of  1879,  -$40,000  ;  coupons,  $226  ;  fees,  -$412.11  ;  bills,  $114.83  ; 
workshop  expenses  due,  $91.40.  Resources:  Cash,  $22,569.44;  machinery, 
stock,  etc.,  $1,889.48 ;  due  (for  goods  sold),  $600.56 ;  due  (from  other  counties), 
$83.40;  rent  of  workshop,  -$40.  1889.— Liabilities :  Bonds  (county  buildings,) 
-$28,500;  bonds  of  1879,  -$40,000;  coupons,  -$111.50;  fees,  bills,  etc.,  -$559.54. 
Resources:  Cash,  $29,863;  machinery,  accounts,  etc.,  $1,347.98;  due  (from 
other  counties),  $337.05 ;  taxes,  $300 ;  forfeited  fees,  $104.76.     189().—Liabili- 

22  HiSTOKY  OF  Androscoggin  County. 

ties:  Bonds  (county  buildings),  124,500;  bonds  of  1879  issue,  140,000;  fees 
and  bills,  •ii?679.94.  RemurceH:  Cash  in  treasury,  -f!30,129.13;  tools  and 
machinery,  *700;  due  from  other  counties,  '1465.45;  forfeited  fees,  168.68. 
The  balance  against  the  county  December  31,  1889,  was  *37,217.56 ;  Decem- 
ber 31,  1890,  ■1:^33,816.68,  showing  a  reduction  of  the  county  debt  in  1890 
amounting  to  't3,400.88. 

The  state   tax  for  the   towns  of   the   county  for  1890   and    1891  is  here 
given  :  — 

^  1890.  1891. 

Auburn, $11,496.9.5  $17,067.34 

Durham,       954.49  1,043.18 

East  Livermore, 776.89  1,370.20 

Greene, 889.88  908.92 

Leeds, 938.24  913.09 

Lewiston, 21,457.00  33,447.36 

Lisbon, 2,517.23  4,.508.59 

Livermore, 973.07  1,265.80 

Minot, 1,625.97  2,072.69 

Poland, 2,077.27  3,123.24 

Turner, 1,695.52  2,107.86 

Wales, 448.15  569.65 

Webster, 1,004.65  1,191.82 

$46,85  L31  $69,589.74 



Rock  Formations  —  Unstratilied  or  Igneous  Rocks -^Stratified  Rocks  —  Formations  in 
Maine — Age  of  Ice  —  Glacial  Drift  — Lower  and  Upper  Till  —  Champlain  Period  —  Modi- 
fled  Drift  —  Surface  Geology  —Drift  Period  —  Beacb  and  Terrace  Periods,  etc.  —  Montalbau 
or  White  Mountain  Formation  —  Tourmalines  and  Associate  Minerals  — Pratt's  Cave  — 
Gneiss  —  Mica  Schist  —  Saccharoid  Azoic  Limestone  — Dunes,  etc. 

Tt  CCORDING  to  geology  the  earth  was  formerly  a  mass  of  molten  matter 
LI  like  lava,  assuming  its  present  shape  while  in  this  plastic  form.  The 
JL  -L  intense  cold  of  the  ethereal  space  through  which  it  revolved  cooled  the 
surface,  and  a  crust  formed,  which,  as  soon  as  it  was  thick  enough  for  water 
to  accumulate  upon  it,  was  worn  away  by  its  action  in  the  higher  portions  and 
the  detritus  deposited  in  the  lowest. 

This  original  mass  and  all  igneous  rocks  are  called  unstratified.     The  rocks 
formed  by  the  deposition  of  the  worn  fragments  of  the  original  surface  are 

Geology.  23 

called  stratified,  because  arranged  in  layers  like  a  pile  of  boards.  Clay,  sand, 
gravel,  and  the  calcareous  deposits  of  mineral  springs  are  the  origin  of  most 
of  the  stratified  rocks.  These  become  consolidated  into  slates,  sandstones, 
conglomerates,  and  limestones,  the  newer  rocks  being  less  compact  and  more 
easily  crumbled  than  the  older  ones. 

Those  formed  under  similar  circumstances  in  the  same  geological  period  are 
called  a  fonnation.  Some  great  force  has  been  working  for  ages  steadily 
pushing  these  originally  horizontal  formations  into  great  curves,  tipping  them 
up  at  various  angles,  some  layers  even  standing  vertically. 

Unstratified  or  Igneous  Rocks.  —  These  are  divided  into  three  groups: 
Granitic,  Trappean,  Volcanic.  The  first  contains  granite,  sienite,  and  proto- 
gine ;  the  second  porphyry,  greenstone,  amygdaloid,  etc. ;  the  third  basalt, 
trachite,  pumice,  tufa,  and  kindred  volcanic  productions. 

Stratified  Rocks.  —  These  have  two  divisions,  Unfossiliferous  and  Fossil- 
iferous.  The  unfossiliferous  are  the  oldest  rocks  and  are  of  great  thickness, 
though  not  so  thick  as  the  miles  of  fossiliferous  rocks  overlying  them.  They 
are  Azoic  (without  life)  and  classed  as  Laurent ian.  The  fossiliferous  rocks 
form  three  great  systems:  Paleozoic,  containing  the  oldest  forms  of  life; 
Mesozoic,  bearing  the  types  of  the  middle  periods  of  life ;  Cainozoic,  with 
recent  forms  or  fossils.  The  Paleozoic  has  six  divisions :  Permian^  Carbon- 
iferous, Devonian  (Old  Red  Sandstone),  Upper  Silurian,  Lower  Silurian, 
Cambrian  (Huronian).  The  Mesozoic  has  Cretaceous  rocks  with  green  sand ; 
Oolites  or  Jurassic,  etc. ;  Triassic  (New  Red  Sandstone).  The  Cainozoic  rocks 
include  all  Alluvium  (with  drift)  and  Tertiary  formations. 

Rock  Formations  in  Maine.  —  They  are  both  metainorpliic  (i.e.,  changed 
from  the  original  sandstones,  shales,  conglomerates,  and  limestones  by  the 
action  of  lieat,  water,  and  chemical  forces  into  other  kinds  of  rock  than  their 
first  character)  a,nd  fossiliferous.  These  metamorphic  stratified  rocks  occur: 
gneiss,  mica  schist,  talcose  schist,  steatite,  and  serpentine,  saccharoid  azoic 
limestone,  clay  slate,  quartz,  and  conglomerates,  jasper,  siliceous  slate,  and 
hornstone.  The  unstratified  rocks  are  mostly  granite,  sienite,  protogine, 
porphyry,  trap  or  greenstone,  and  eurite.  The  fossiliferous  rocks  are  Paleozoic, 
except  some  marine  alluvial  deposits,  and  represent  the  Lower  Silurian,  Upper 
Silurian,  Devonian,  and  Drift  and  Alluvium  groups. 

Professor  C.  H.  Hitchcock  gives,  as  his  present  arrangement  of  the  forma- 
tions in  Maine  :  (1)  Champlain  clays  (tertiary) ;  (2)  Glacial  drift  (till)  ;  (3) 
Lower  Carboniferous  or  Upper  Devonian  ;  (4)  Lower  Devonian  (Oriskany 
group) ;  (5)  Upper  Silurian  ;  (6)  Silurian  and  Cambrian  clay  slates ;  (7) 
Cambrian  and  Huronian  with  Taconic ;  (8)  Montalban  ;  (9)  Laurentian  ; 
(10)  Granite ;  (11)  Trap  and  altered  slates. 

The  Age  of  Ice. — It  is,  perhaps,  desirable  to  devote  some  space  in  this 
volume  to  the  Age  of  Ice,  as  in  this  period  and  those  immediately  following 

24  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

when  the  colossal  ice-sheet,  which  was  so  thick  that  the  tops  of  Mounts 
Washington  and  Katahclin  were  deeply  covered,  was  removed,  the  surface, 
soil,  and  water-courses  of  the  county  were  formed,  the  lakes  established  in 
their  boundaries,  and  the  conditions  necessary  to  civilized  occupancy  were 
arranged  and  prepared. 

The  indications  of  a  glacial  period  are  probably  as  well  shown  in  this 
section  of  New  England  as  anywhere  in  the  world.  Underlying  the  modified 
drift  are  often  found  masses  of  earth  and  rocks  mingled  confusedly  together, 
having  neither  stratification  nor  any  appearance  of  having  been  deposited  in 
water.  These  are  the  filarial  drift,  or  till.  This  drift  frequently  covers  the 
slopes,  and  even  the  summits,  of  the  highest  mountains,  as  well  as  the  lesser 
elevations.  It  contains  bowlders  of  all  sizes,  up  to  thirty  feet  in  diameter, 
which  have  nearly  all  been  carried  southward  from  their  native  ledges,  and 
can  be  traced,  in  some  instances,  for  a  hundred  miles,  southward  or  south- 
eastward. Wherever  till  occurs,  the  ledges  have  mostly  been  worn  to  a 
rounded  form,  and,  if  the  rock  be  hard,  it  is  covered  with  long  scratches,  or 
Htrice,  in  the  direction  of  the  course  taken  by  the  bowlders.  Geology  now 
refers  these  to  a  moving  ice-sheet  which  spread  over  this  continent  from  the 
north,  and,  as  before  stated,  was  of  sufficient  thickness  to  cover  even  Mount 
Washington.  This  ice-sheet  was  so  much  thicker  at  the  north  than  in  this 
latitude  that  its  great  weight  pressed  the  ice  steadily  onward  and  outward  to 
the  south-southeast.  The  termination  of  this  ice-sheet  in  the  Atlantic,  south- 
east of  New  England,  was  probably  like  the  great  ice-wall  of  the  Antarctic 
continent,  along  which  Sir  J.  C.  Ross  sailed  450  miles,  finding  only  one  point 
low  enough  to  allow  the  smooth  white  plain  of  the  upper  surface  to  be  seen 
from  the  mast-head.  This  extended,  apparently  boundless,  and  was  of  dazzling 

There  was  a  long,  continuous  period  of  glacial  action,  with  times  of  retreat 
and  advance,  but  never  a  complete  departure  and  return  of  a  continental 
ice-sheet.  The  motion  of  this  ice,  being  caused  by  its  own  weight,  must  have 
been  slow  indeed.  Over  the  highlands  between  the  St  Lawrence  river  and 
Hudson  bay  the  ice^sheet  was  three  or  four  miles  in  thickness ;  over  Greenland 
much  thicker,  and  over  Maine  it  reached  nearly  or  quite  to  the  line  of  per- 
petual snow.  The  till,  or  coarse  glacial  drift,  was  made  by  the  long-continued 
wearing  and  grinding  of  the  ice-sheet.  As  this  slowly  advanced,  fragments 
were  torn  from  the  ledges,  held  in  the  bottom  of  the  ice,  and  worn  by  friction 
upon  the  surface  over  wliich  it  moved.  This  material,  crushed  beneath  the  ice 
into  minute  fragments  or  fine  powder,  is  called  the  Lower  Till.  While  the 
lower  till  was  being  made  under  the  ice,  large  quantities  of  coarse  and  fine 
matter  were  swept  away  from  hill-slopes  and  mountain-sides,  and  carried 
forward  in  tlie  ice.  As  this  melted,  much  of  this  matter  fell  loosely  on  the 
surface,  forming  an  unstratified  deposit  of  gravel,  earth,  and  bowlders.     This 

Geology.  25 

deposit  geologists  call  the  Upper  Till.  Usually  this  is  found  above  the  lower 
till,  the  line  of  separation  being  at  a  distance  of  from  two  to  twenty  feet. 
The  departure  of  the  ice-sheet  was  attended  by  a  rapid  deposition  of  the 
abundant  materials  therein  contained.  The  retreat  of  the  ice-sheet  was  toward 
the  northwest  and  north,  and  it  is  probable  that  its  final  melting  took  place 
mostly  on  the  surface,  so  that,  at  the  last,  great  amounts  of  its  deposits  were 
exposed  to  the  washing  of  many  streams.  The  finer  particles  were  generally 
carried  away,  and  the  strong  current  of  the  glacial  rivers  transported  coarse 
gravel  and  bowlders  of  considerable  size. 

When  these  streams  entered  the  valley  from  which  the  ice  had  retreated, 
or  their  currents  were  slackened  by  less  rapid  descent,  a  deposition  took  place, 
where  the  channel  was  still  walled  by  ice,  in  succession  of  coarse  gravel,  fine 
gravel,  sand,  and  fine  silt  or  clay.  These  deposits  filled  the  valleys,  and 
increased  in  depth  in  the  same  way  that  additions  are  now  made  to  the  bottom- 
lands or  intervals  of  our  large  rivers  by  the  floods  of  spring.  They  are  called 
Modified  Drift  and  geology  gives  this  name  to  the  period  from  the  departure 
of  the  ice-sheet  to  the  present.  This  modified  drift  comprises  the  intervals 
which  are  annually  overflowed,  and  the  successive  terraces  which  rise  in  steps 
upon  the  sides  of  the  valleys,  the  highest  often  forming  extensive  plains.  Dr 
Dana  has  given  the  name  of  Champlain  Period  to  the  time  of  the  deposition  of 
the  modified  drift  during  the  melting  of  the  ice-sheet.  During  the  Champlain 
period,  the  ice  became  molded  upon  the  surface,  by  the  process  of  destruction, 
into  great  basins  or  valleys ;  at  the  last,  the  passages  through  which  the 
melting  waters  passed  off  came  gradually  to  coincide  with  the  depressions  of 
the  present  surface. 

These  lowest  and  warmest  portions  of  the  land  were  first  freed  from  the 
ice ;  and,  as  the  melted  area  slowly  extended  into  the  continental  glacier,  its 
vast  floods  found  their  outlet  at  the  head  of  the  existing  valley.  In  these 
channels  were  deposited  materials  gathered  by  the  streams  from  the  melting 
glacier.  By  the  low  water  of  winter,  layers  of  sand  were  formed,  and  by  the 
strong  currents  of  summer,  layers  of  gravel,  often  very  coarse.  These  layers 
are  irregularly  bedded,  here  sand,  and  there  gravel,  accumulating,  and 
interstratified  without  much  order  with  each  other. 

These,  the  oldest  of  our  deposits  of  modified  drift,  are  long  ridges,  or 
intermixed  short  ridges  and  mounds,  composed  of  very  coarse  water-worn 
gravel,  or  of  alternate  gravel  and  sand  irregularly  bedded.  Wherever  the 
ordinary  fine  alluvium  occurs,  it  overlies  or  partly  covers  these  deposits.  The 
geological  name  for  these  is  Karnes. 

The  extensive  level  plains  and  high  terraces  bordering  the  riverg  were 
also  deposited  in  the  Champlain  period,  as  the  open  valleys  became  gradually 
filled  with  great  depths  of  gravel,  sand,  and  clay  (alluvium),  which  were 
brought  down  by  the  glacier  rivers  from  the  melting  ice-sheet,  or  washed  from 

2G  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

the  till  after  the  ice  had  retreated,  and  which  were  deposited  in  the  same  way 
as  those  made  by  high  floods  at  the  present  day.  Daring  the  recent  or  terrace 
period,  the  rivers  have  cut  deep  and  wide  channels  in  this  alluvium,  and  the 
terraces  mark  heights  at  which,  in  their  work  of  erosion,  they  have  left  portions 
of  their  successive  flood-plains. 

Modified  drift  in  Maine  occurs  in  the  form  of  moraine  terraces,  horsebacks, 
sea-beaches,  sea-bottoms,  marine  clays,  and  terraces.  Moraine  terraces  are 
generally  accumulations  of  gravel,  bowlders,  and  sand,  often  arranged  in 
heaps  and  hollows,  or  conical  and  irregular  elevations  with  corresponding 
depressions.  They  somewhat  resemble  the  moraines  of  glaciers,  but  differ 
from  them  in  their  stratification  and  existence  in  localities  where  glaciers 
could  not  have  formed  them.  They  derive  their  name  from  their  aflinity 
with  both  moraines  and  terraces.  Moraine  terraces  are  not  numerous  in  this 
state,  tlieir  place  in  most  cases  being  taken  b}^  the  horsebacks,  a  curious  class 
of  alluvial  ridges,  here  found  in  numbers,  while  they  scarcely  occur  out  of  the 
state.  They  are  narrow  ridges  of  coarse  gravel  and  sand,  from  thirty  to  forty 
feet  high,  with  sometimes  an  undulating  summit  and  with  the  ends  of  nearly 
the  same  elevation.  They  exist  in  a  level  country  almost  invariably,  although 
the  road  from  Poland  Springs  to  Mechanic  Falls  appears  to  [)ass  along  the  top 
of  one  for  some  distance. 

Surface  Geology. — Professor  C.  H.  Hitchcock  says  that  probably  since 
the  tertiary  period  the  whole  of  Maine,  and  with  it  all  the  northern  part  of 
North  America,  has  been  depressed  under  the  ocean  at  least  as  high  as  the 
top  of  Mount  Katahdin,  or  five  thousand  feet  lower  than  it  is  now.  Subse- 
quently the  continent  rose  gradually  to  its  present  altitude,  and  while  the 
country  was  being  drained  deposits  were  produced.  Drift  was  principally 
formed  by  icebergs  and  glaciers  conjoined  when  the  continent  was  sinking 
and  rising  again.  The  forms  of  modified  drift  were  produced  largely  by  the 
aid  of  rivers  and  currents. 

The  Drift  Period.  —  When  the  continent  was  submerged,  northerly  currents 
brought  icebergs  over  its  northern  portions,  wliich  greatly  lowered  the  temper- 
ature, and  glaciers  would  form  on  mountains  comparatively  low,  reaching  to 
the  ocean,  as  now  in  the  Arctic  Zone.  The  enormous  icebergs,  moving 
southerly,  would  grate  powerfully  upon  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  smoothing, 
scratching,  and  breaking  off  fragments  from  the  prominent  hills  and  ledges 
beneath,  and  leave  a  stoss  and  lee  side  upon  them.  When  the  continent  was 
at  its  lowest  dfepth,  only  one  or  two  small  islands  would  remain.  During  this 
submergence  only  icebergs  could  act  upon  the  rocks;  when  the  mountains 
appeared  again  glaciers  would  renew  their  wearing  action,  the  water,  also, 
would  begin  to  wear  off  fragments  from  rough  ledges  and  partially  sort  the 
materials  collected.  It  is  conceivable  that  when  the  continent  was  partly 
under  water  an  unusual  direction  might  be  given  to  certain  icebergs  crowded 

Geology.  27 

into  narrow  valleys,  and  thus  produce  unusual  courses  of  striae.  During  this 
process,  every  part  of  the  surface  must  have  had  a  thorough  washing,  and  few 
animals  could  have  lived  in  this  cold  period. 

The  Beach  Period. — We  suppose  this  period  to  commence  with  the  formation 
of  the  highest  beaches,  or  when  the  continent  was  2,600  feet  higher  than  now. 
The  beaches  would  be  formed  as  now  upon  the  coast,  at  different  levels,  as  the 
waters  receded.  This  was  the  period  when  the  moraine  terraces  and  horsebacks 
were  produced ;  the  former  may  have  been  formed  by  the  accumulation  of 
matter  around  masses  of  stranded  ice ;  when  the  ice  melted,  large  hollows 
would  occupy  its  place,  and  it  would  be  a  considerable  time  before  it  melted, 
as  the  sand  and  gravel  often  acts  as  a  natural  refrigerator.  We  even  suppose 
that  some  of  the  ice  of  the  drift  period  yet  remains  in  certain  deposits,  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  frozen  wells  that  are  considered  such  curiosities.  In  Lewiston 
the  evidence  of  a  sea-beach  exists  two  hundred  feet  above  present  tide-water. 

Tlie  Terrace  Period.  —  This  commenced  with  the  existence  of  rivers  or 
currents  of  water  in  long  estuaries.  These  currents  accumulate  materials 
principally  along  the  sides  of  the  valleys  or  fill  them  up  entirely.  Tides  and 
currents  would  assist  the  rivers,  and  at  length  the  top  of  the  deposits  would  be 
at  the  surface,  and  no  more  matter  could  be  added.  The  same  agency  must 
then  deposit  the  detritus  below  the  first  accumulations,  which  will  soon  appear 
as  lateral  terraces.  The  country  continuing  to  rise,  a  second  and  third  terrace 
will  appear,  and  so  on  as  long  as  the  same  agencies  act.  The  delta  terraces 
being  at  the  mouths  of  rivers,  are  composed  of  the  materials  brouglit  down  by 
the  current ;  when  the  mass  has  risen  above  the  water,  the  river  continuing  to 
run  must  cut  through  it,  and  leave  a  terrace  upon  each  side  of  its  course.  The 
principal  phenomena  of  terraces  is  explained  by  the  simple  drainage  of  a 
country  as  it  rises  out  of  the  water.  We  have  often  thought  that  a  large  part 
of  Maine  had  not  completed  its  terrace  period,  since  the  terraces  are  scarce  and 
the  lakes  numerous.  As  soon  as  the  lakes  are  drained,  terraces  appear ;  some- 
times this  is  done  suddenly  by  the  bursting  of  a  barrier — a  dam  for  instance. 
During  the  terrace  period,  life,  both  terrestrial  and  marine,  was  abundant  on 
the  continent.  To  this  period  we  refer  the  marine  clays  of  the  coast,  and  the 
fossil  elephants  and  horses  of  the  interior;  though  both  classes  lived  in  the 
historic  period  and  are  not  entirely  extinct.  The  historic  period  is  the  time 
when  the  country  had  attained  essentially  its  present  altitude.  All  the  agencies 
that  produced  drift  are  still  in  operation,  and  both  modified  and  unmodified 
deposits  of  drift  are  now  being  effected ;  the  agencies  forming  these  two  classes 
of  deposits  have  run  parallel  to  each  other  from  the  first.  Man  has  existed  on 
the  earth  a  comparatively  short  time  of  the  alluvial  period.  Researches  in 
Europe  show  that  the  extinct  mammals  of  the  alluvium  were  contemporary 
with  the  earliest  generations  of  man. 

Fossils  in  the  Marine  Clays.  —  Foraminifera  are  almost  at  the  lowest  end 
of  the  animal  kingdom.     The  portion  preserved  are  the  shells,  often  divided 

28  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

into  delicate  chambers.  A  deposit  of  the  shells  of  these  animals  was  found 
in  the  Atlantic  ocean,  on  the  bottom,  several  thousand  feet  from  the  surface. 
The  beds  containing  these  shells  in  the  clay  lie  at  the  bottom  of  the  marine 
deposits.  A  fossil  star-fish  and  various  shells  have  been  found  at  Lewiston. 
They  were  taken  from  a  sandy  layer  one  hundred  feet  above  Androscoggin 
river  and  two  hundred  feet  above  the  ocean.  They  came  from  ten  feet  below 
the  surface ;    of  these  ten  feet,  eight  were  of  clay,  the  rest  being  sandy. 

Alluvial  terraces  are  those  banks  of  loose  materials,  generally  unconsolidated, 
which  skirt  the  sides  of  the  valleys  about  rivers,  ponds,  and  lakes,  and  rise 
above  one  another  like  the  seats  of  an  amphitheater.  Lateral  terraces  are  the 
most  common  and  are  parallel  to  the  valley,  and  often  continue  for  miles  along 
its  sides.  Delta  terraces  are  the  accumulations  which  have  been  formed  at  the 
mouths  of  streams,  whether  the  junction  of  a  tributary  with  the  main  stream 
or  the  meeting  of  the  river  and  lake  or  ocean.  They  are  seen  only  where 
the  land  has  risen  since  their  deposition.  Terraces  are  not  abundant  in  Maine, 
but  all  the  large  rivers  have  more  or  less,  and  they  are  often  used  for  the  sites 
of  villages  and  fine  residences.  They  are  well  developed  in  Auburn,  Berwick, 
Brunswick,  Waterville,  and  Lewiston. 

On  Professor  Hitchcock's  "Geological  Map  of  Maine"  the  territory  of 
Androscoggin  county  is  practically  all  represented  in  the  Montalban  formation, 
with  a  little  section  of  granite  delineated  on  the  northern  border.  Professor 
Hitchcock  says:^  "Beneath  the  Huronian  are  large  areas  of  gneiss,  whose  age 
has  been  warmly  discussed  by  American  geologists,  and  are  now  referred  to 
three  Laureutian  divisions,  lower,  middle,  upper.  I  have  offered  the  theory 
that  these  oval  patches  of  coarse  porphyritic,  granitic  gneiss  represent  the  very 
beginnings  of  the  continent;  that  these  islands  projected  slightly  out  of  the 
original  primal  universal  ocean,  and  were  of  eruptive  origin,  the  first  ejections 
of  melted  matter  upon  a  newly  formed  crust.  Over  twenty  of  these  islands 
have  been  recognized  in  New  Hampshire,  and  many  will  be  discovered  in 
Maine  as  soon  as  her  crystallines  are  carefully  examined.  These  gneissic 
masses  possess  a  concentric  structure  just  like  modern  volcanic  piles,  but  the 
superior  elevation  of  the  original  cone  may  be  lost  through  denudation  and 
the  subsequent  accumulation  of  detritus  upon  their  flanks.  To  the  middle 
division  are  properly  referred  much  of  the  gneiss  area  in  the  western  part  of 
the  state,  and  the  schists,  south  of  the  Huronian,  between  Portland  and  the 
Penobscot  river."  Enumerating  seven  other  areas  he  goes  on:  "In  these 
areas  occur  the  following  minerals:  red  and  green  tourmaline,  lepidolite, 
cassiterite  or  tin  ore,  amblygonite,  cancrinite,  sodalite,  beryl,  mispickel, 
corundum,  immense  sheets  of  muscovite  mica,  and  many  others  not  so 
characteristic.  I  proposed  the  name  '  White  Mountain  series,'  in  1869,  for  all 
tliese  ancient  crystallines  of  the  Atlantic  district.     Latterly  it  seems  convenient 

J  Colby's  Atlas  of  the  State  of  Maine.    Colby  &  Stuart.    Houlton,  Me. 

Geology.  29 

to  restrict  the  use  of  this  term,  or  its  equivalent,  Montalban,  to  the  uppermost 
group  of  schists,  whose  best  known  development  is  in  the  Presidential  range 
of  the  White  Mountains.  The  group  is  characterized  by  a  deficiency  in  the 
amount  of  feldspar,  and  often  the  mineral  fibrolite  or  andalusite  is  disseminated 
through  the  rock." 

Tourmalines  and  Associated  Grems. — In  1820  the  first  of  those  rare  gems  — 
tourmalines  —  discovered  in  Maine  (and  which  have  made  this  portion  of  the 
state  so  noted)  was  found,  a  transparent  green  crystal,  among  the  dull  feldspar 
and  quartz,  on  the  surface  of  an  unpretending  hill  in  Paris,  called  Mount 
Mica,  by  two  students,  who  in  their  first  search  found  thirty  or  more  splendid 
specimens  of  pink  and  green  crystals.  And  more  :  all  over  the  top  of  the 
rocks  and  down  the  hill-side  lay  riches  untold  of  the  associate  minerals.  The 
people  of  the  town  hastened  to  the  spot,  and  immediately  some  very  valuable 
specimens  were  obtained.  No  one  knew  up  to  that  time  what  to  call  their 
prize,  so  the  young  men  enclosed  a  few  of  their  best  crystals  in  a  letter  to 
.  Professor  Silliman,  awaiting  his  reply  with  impatience.  He  hastened  to  tell 
them  that  they  had  made  a  most  important  discovery  in  finding  a  rare  gem. 
And  these  were  the  first  tourmalines  of  Mount  Mica.  This  place,  in  its  ages 
of  silence,  had  been  waiting,  perfecting  itself,  that  the  hand  of  man  should 
finally  unlock  its  treasures  and  give  them  to  the  light  of  day.  In  1825  Pro- 
fessor Shepard  visited  the  place  and  found  several  very  fine  crystals ;  and 
later  Professor  Webster  opened  a  "  pocket,"  which  revealeda  fine  grass-green 
specimen,  also  a  most  remarkable  red  one.  In  1865  the  deposit  was  believed 
to  be  exhausted,  though  the  work  had  been  extremely  superficial,  the  excava- 
tions being  only  fifteen  feet  square  andsix  feet  deep.  Fresh  encouragement 
came  later,  as  investigations  were  made  by  true  votaries  of  science,  and  new 
pockets  were  constantly  opened,  with  the  tourmalines  lying  loose  in  the  decay- 
ing feldspar,  or  imbedded  in  the  floor  of  tlie  cavit3^  About  this  time  Dr 
A.  C.  Hamlin,  collecting  the  facts  here  outlined,  made  most  important  explora- 
tions, and  added  greatly  to  the  knowledge  of  the  capacity  of  the  ledge. 
His  excavations,  made  from  time  to  time,  yielded  to  him  one  of  the  most 
valuable  collections  in  the  world. 

About  three  miles  northwest  of  the  court-house  in  Auburn  is  a  hill  of  the 
same  geologic  formation  as  Mount  Mica.  It  is  called  Hatch's  Ledge  from  the 
owner  and  Mount  Apatite  from  the  amount  of  that  mineral  existing  there. 
This  ledge  covers  from  eight  to  ten  acres,  and  is  close  to  the  line  of  Minot. 
In  1862  a  boy  named  Lane  found  a  small  piece  of  crystal  that  he  thought  to 
be  green  glass.  After  carrying  it  some  time  he  put  it  on  the  window-sill  in 
the  sitting-room  of  his  home.  Here  it  was  seen  by  Dr  Luther  Hill,  who 
pronounced  it  a  tourmaline,  and  on  submitting  it  to  experts  in  mineralogy 
his  opinion  was  justified,  and  soon  after  this  new  locality  of  transparent 
tourmalines  was  made  known  to  the  world.     Dr  Hamlin,  who  had  the  ledge 

30  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

examined,  says:  "The  tourmalines  appeared  on  the  brow  of  a  ledge  which 
projected  from  a  gentle  slope  of  a  hill,  and  far  below  its  summit.  The 
surface  of  the  rock  and  adjoining  earth  was  strewn  with  numerous  folitB  of 
mica  containing  crystals  of  transparent  tourmalines,  and  large  masses  of  pink 
lepidolite,  amounting  in  all  to  quite  a  ton  in  weight.  The  abundance  of 
lepidolite  and  mica  gave  hope  of  an  extensive  deposit  of  the  coveted  crystals ; 
the  first  specimens  picked  up,  exhibiting  rich  emerald-green  hues,  gave  promise 
of  superior  gems,  the  first  one  yielding  a  perfect  gem  of  two  carats."  Thou- 
sands of  dollars'  worth  of  valuable  gems  have  since  been  taken  from  the  ledge  ; 
white,  pink,  green,  blue,  and  red  tourmalines,  and  associate  minerals  in  rich 
and  rare  variety.  Nearly  forty  different  varieties  have  been  found  here. 
Mica,  in  sheets  from  ten  to  twelve  inches  square  ;  aqua  marines  ;  white,  green, 
and  smoky  quartz ;  (quartz  crystals ;  beryl ;  apatite  in  varied  colors,  both 
crystallized  and  opaque  ;  arsenical  iron ;  iron  garnets,  a  large  one  weighing 
sixteen  pounds  ;  cassiterite  (almost  the  only  ore  of  tin)  ;  albite  ;  cleavelandite; 
columbite  ;  amblygonite  ;  lepidolite  ;  montmorillonite  ;  uranite  ;  cookeite,  etc. 

The  tourmalines  found  here  are  in  utmost  perfection  of  color  and  crystal- 
lization, and  unsurpassed  by  any  gems  of  the  kind  in  the  world.  The 
gradations  of  color  are  a  most  important  feature.  On  this  point  the  mineral- 
ogist revels  in  ecstasy ;  and  well  he  may.  Here  a  crystal  red  within,  passing 
to  green  outside  ;  there  an  exquisite  red  shaded  to  white,  then  blending  into 
green  again  ;  or  they  may  be  simply  red  and  green  or  white  and  green. 
They  are  marvelous  in  beauty. 

The  tourmaline  in  its  physical  character  is  in  crystallization,  rhorabohedral, 
in  prisms  of  three,  six,  nine,  and  twelve  sides,  terminating  in  a  low  three- 
sided  pyramid.  It  occurs  also  massive,  and  coarse  columnar,  somewhat 
resinous  when  fractured,  and  by  friction  acquires  ])Ositive  electricity  ;  becom- 
ing electrically  polar  when  heated.  In  hardness  it  is  about  7.5,  a  little  harder 
than  quartz.  It  is  brittle  and,  as  in  tlie  case  of  the  beryl,  well-terminated 
crystals  are  most  ditficult  to  obtain.  In  constitution  it  is  complicated,  con- 
taining silica,  alumina,  magnesia,  and  a  variety  of  other  elements  in  small 
proportions.  The  presence  of  boron  trioxide  gives  an  interesting  feature  in 
the  analysis  of  the  mineral,  while  its  electric  and  optical  properties  are.  an 
increasing  delight  to  the  student.  The  sides  of  the  prisms  are  often  rounded 
or  striated.  This  is  due  to  oscillatory  combination,  which  is  a  tendency  in 
the  forming  crystal  to  make  two  different  planes  at  the  same  time. 

Praffs  Cave.  —  In  the  north  part  of  Turner,  about  two  miles  from  North 
Turner  Bridge,  there  is  a  remarkable  cavern  or  succession  of  caverns  (really 
cavities  between  immense  blocks  of  granite  piled  upon  each  other).  This  was 
visited  in  1838  by  Dr  Stevenson,  of  the  State  Geological  Survey,  who  gave 
this  description : 

Geology.  31 

The  entrauce  is  from  the  side  of  the  mountain  situated  on  the  laud  of  Mr  E.  Pratt,  on 
the  western  side  of  the  river.  From  some  cause  the  huge  bloclis  of  granite  which  form  the 
walls  of  these  subterranean  apartments  have  been  so  arranged  as  to  form  spacious  halls 
and  present  a  striking  appearance  of  regularity.  Provided  with  lamps  by  our  guide,  we 
entered  the  first  cavern,  which  was  about  twenty  feet  long  and  from  ten  to  twelve  feet 
wide,  with  high  overhanging  walls ;  the  rocks  presented  the  appearance  of  having  been 
thrown  apart  by  some  wonderful  convulsion  of  nature,  and  the  damp  and  chilling  atmos- 
phere was  similar  to  that  found  in  the  sepulchres  of  the  dead.  We  continued  our  course 
by  slow  and  cautious  steps  down  a  pathless  descent  till  we  had  visited  six  subterranean 
halls,  situated  one  above  another,  all  corresponding  in  general  appearance,  but  dimin- 
ishing in  size  as  we  descended;  the  last  would  not  admit  a  person  in  an  erect  attitude, 
and  we  were  obliged  to  crawl  upon  our  hands  and  knees,  taking  great  care  not  to 
lose  our  lamp,  for  had  we  suftered  that  misfortune  we  might  have  been  compelled  to  grope 
about  in  darkness,  without  even  a  hope  of  happy  deliverance  from  our  uncomfortable 

Guf'iss.  —  There  is  gneiss  along  the  track  of  the  railroad  between  Danville 
Junction  and  Greene ;  perhaps  this  belt  of  rock  is  connected  with  the  gneiss 
in  the  west  part  of  Winthrop. 

3Ii('a  Schist.  —  An  immense  deposit  of  mica  schist  is  found  in  Androscoggin, 
Kennebec,  and  Waldo  counties.  Large  patches  of  granite  are  frequently 
found  in  it,  whicli  were  protruded  subsequently  to  the  deposition  of  the  schist. 
From  Danville  to  Belgrade  the  mica  schist  has  been  seen  to  occur.  It  appears 
also  in  Poland,  Turner,  Livermore,  Leeds,  and  other  towns.  The  rock  is  mica 
schist  in  Leeds  and  Livermore ;  at  Livermore  Falls  it  resembles  talcose  schist. 

SacelKtmid  Azok  Limestone  appears  in  Turner,  Poland,  Livermore,  and 
Lewiston.  Li  Turner  there  are  two  beds  of  limestone,  one,  grayish-white, 
granular,  contains  73.6  per  cent,  of  carbonate  of  lime ;  that  on  Oak  Hill  is 
greenish  gray,  granular,  and  contains  40  per  cent,  of  carbonate  of  lime.  \n 
Poland  there  is  limestone  of  a  greenish-white  color,  granular,  containing  43.6 
per  cent,  of  carbonate  of  lime.  The  purest  limestone  can  afford  but  little 
more  than  50  per  cent,  of  lime.     That  in  Turner  gave  42.9  per  cent. 

Dunes.  —  There  are  numerous  sandy  hills  in  Wayne  and  Leeds  far  above  all 
existing  streams.  It  seems  as  if  there  must  be  some  ancient  beaches  among 
them.  In  Leeds  one  of  these  sandy  accumulations  has  been  torn  asunder  by 
the  wind,  and  the  sand  blown  southeasterly,  much  to  the  detriment  of  the 
adjacent  cultivated  fields.  A  potato  patch  was  covered  up  in  this  way  to  the 
depth  of  thirty  feet.     These  hills  of  moving  sands  are  called  dunes  or  downs. 

A  belt  of  mineral  appears  to  run  through  the  rocks  in  nearly  a  straight 
line  from  Woodstock,  through  Oxford,  Minot,  Greene,  Wales,  Litchfield, 
Plttston,  Camden,  Sedgwick,  Bluehill,  Sullivan,  and  Northport.  At  different 
times  specimens,  taken  from  various  places  along  this  belt,  have  been  analyzed, 
showing  quite  a  percentage  of  silver.  About  twelve  years  ago  quite  an 
excitement  was  caused  by  developments  in  the  vicinity  of  Oak  Hill  in  Wales. 

32  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Thomas  Barr's  farm,  at  Ray's  Corners,  had  rock  in  1878  bearing  $25  of  pure 
silver  to  the  ton.  Plumbago  had  earlier  been  mined  near  there,  and  sulphuret 
of  silver  was  said  to  exist  in  the  same  mine  and  in  its  vicinity. 



Williamson's  Description  —  Physical   and    Geological   Features— Drainage   District- 
Altitudes  —  Principal  Tributaries  in  this  County —  Water-Powers. 

IN  "  Williamson's  History  of  Maine  "  is  a  quaint  description  of  the  Andros- 
coggin which  our  readers  will  enjoy.  "  The  Androscoggin  river,  formerly 
Aumoughcawgen,  rises  in  the  northwest  section  of  the  state,  only  about 
an  hundred  miles  from  the  Chops,  in  direct  course,  though  it  actually  runs, 
in  its  flexuous  meanders,  more  than  one  hundred  and  sixty  miles.  The  rise 
of  its  eastern  and  principal  branch  is  in  the  vicinity  of  Sunday  Mountain, 
about  ten  miles  east  of  the  dividing  line  between  Maine  and  New  Hampshire, 
and  on  the  soutli  margin  of  the  highlands,  which  form  the  boundary  between 
this  state  and  ('anada.  This  source  of  the  Androscoggin  lias  for  its  immediate 
ni'iglibours  a  headpond  of  Dead  river,  which  empties  into  the  Kennebec,  and  the 
southernmost  spring  of  a  stream,  which  runs  northerly  and  contributes  its 
waters  to  the  Chaudiere.  This  branch  of  the  Androscoggin  runs  about  twenty- 
five  miles  south  and  discharges  its  waters  into  Lake  Mooseetocmaguntick,  a 
most  singular  body  of  water  connected  with  Umbagog  lake  by  a  strait;  and  it 
empties  all  its  waters  into  the  latter,  which  lies  on  both  sides  of  the  western 
boundary  line  of  Maine.  On  the  western  side  of  it,  in  New  Hampshire,  issues 
the  Androscoggin,  forty  miles  south  of  the  upper  end  of  the  line  which  divides 
that  state  from  Maine.  Three  miles  westward  of  the  outlet  the  main  river 
receives  the  Magalloway,  which  is  twelve  rods  in  width  at  its  mouth.  This 
river's  head  is  about  as  far  north  as  that  of  the  Androscoggin,  runs  a  southerly 
course  in  Maine,  more  than  thirty  miles,  and  is  distant  from  three  to  five  miles 
from  the  line,  which  it  crosses  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles  north  of  the 
Piscataqua  mouth. 

"The  Androscoggin,  shortly  after  it  receives  the  waters  of  Magalloway 
river,  and  another  river  from  the  northwest,  runs  southerly  in  New  Hampshire 
twenty-five  miles,  almost  parallel  with  the  line,  and  five  or  six  miles  from  it ; 

The  Androscoggin  River. 

and  then  turning,  crosses  it,  and  runs  tlie  remainder  of  its  course  in  Maine. 
In  re-entering  the  state  it  runs  through  the  town  of  Gilead,  and  forms  a  fine 
intervale  on  both  sides,  overlooked  by  rugged  lands  on  the  north,  and  is  fed  in 
that  town  by  Wild  river.  The  main  river  runs  fourteen  miles  in  the  next 
town,  Bethel,  forming  an  elbow  in  its  western  quarter,  and  flowing  northerly 
in  a  gentle  glide  towards  Newry,  then  eastwardly,  over  a  smooth  bottom  of 
rounded  pebbles,  embosoming  in  the  town  a  number  of  fertile  and  delightful 
islands  of  various  extent,  the  largest  of  which  contains  one  hundred  acres. 
The  alluvion  skirting  the  banks  of  the  Androscoggin,  from  ten  to  one  hundred 
rods  in  width,  is  highly  productive  and  beautiful  land,  rising  in  many  places 
by  regular  banks,  one  above  another,  and  forming  two  or  more  bottoms.  Of 
these  the  highest  is  about  twenty-five  feet  perpendicular  above  low  water,  and 
they  are  all  evidently  formed  by  the  efflux  of  the  river,  changing  its  bed  and 
banks  so  that  people  feel  safe  in  building  on  these  more  elevated  bottoms, 
some  of  which  were  not  covered  in  the  time  of  the  great  freshet,  October  22, 
1785,  when  the  water  rose  twenty-five  feet.  Along  northward  of  the  river, 
three  or  four  miles  distant  from  it,  and  nearly  parallel  with  its  banks  in  many 
places,  are  the  'nucleus  of  the  mountains'  which,  rising  in  ridges,  stretch  along 
from  the  west  line  of  the  state  toward  the  falls,  just  above  the  northernmost 
bend  of  the  river  in  the  east  line  of  Rumford,  and  shelter,  in  some  measure, 
these  extensive  intervales  from  the  northwest  winds. 

"  After  the  river  receives  several  small  streams,  and  a  considerable  one 
through  the  mountains  from  East  Andover,  it  rushes  down  the  Great  falls  at 
Rumford,  fifty  feet  perpendicular  and  three  hundred  feet  within  a  mile.  From 
these  falls  the  river  runs  in  a  southerly  direction  through  Dixfield  into  Jay, 
where  it  forms  various  windings;  leaving  the  town  in  a  southern  course  it 
passes  through  Livermore,  between  Turner  on  the  west,  and  Leeds  and  Greene 
on  the  east,  and  descends  Lewiston  falls,  sixty  miles  below  the  Great  falls.  In 
Turner  it  receives  Twenty-Mile  river,  which  rises  principally  in  Sumner  and 
Hartford,  and  runs  through  Buckfield  and  Turner,  forming  almost  every 
accommodation  for  mills  and  machinery. 

"  At  Lewiston,  the  cataract  is  called  the  Upper  falls  of  Pejepscot.  Here  the 
water  tumbles  over  massy  rocks,  and  rushes  through  narrow  passes,  about  one 
hundred  feet  perpendicular,  from  the  surface  to  the  bed  below.  These  falls 
are  not  abrupt  as  over  a  mill-dam,  but  descend  on  an  inclined  plane,  broken 
with  ledges.  Here  are  mills  and  one  is  supplied  with  water  through  a  channel 
sunk  in  solid  rock.  The  river  below  the  falls  is  fifty  to  sixty  rods  wide,  and 
seldom  so  shoal  as  to  be  fordable  by  a  man  and  horse,  even  in  summer. 

"  As  you  stand  on  an  elevation,  one  mile  below  these  falls,  you  see  the 
rapid  river,  called  the  Little  Androscoggin,  flow  in  from  the  westward,  shooting 
its  current  across  the  bed  of  the  main  Androscoggin,  forming  a  channel  on  the 
eastern  shore,  and  adding  a  fourth  to  the  main  river.     It  rises  in  Woodstock 

34  History  op^  Androscoggin  County. 

and  Norway,  and  receives  waters  from  Moose  and  Gleason  ponds  in  Paris,  as 
it  passes  between  the  swells  of  that  town,  and  also  those  of  Thompson  on  the 
southerly  side,  turning  many  mills,  especially  in  Minot  and  some  in  Poland, 
which  two  towns  it  separates.  It  has  generally  high  banks,  though  lined  with 
intervales  or  strong  land. 

"  On  the  east  side  of  the  great  Androscoggin  is  the  Thirty-Mile  or  Dead 
river,  the  natural  and  only  outlet  of  great  Androscoggin  pond,  three  and  one- 
half  miles  long,  and  three  broad,  between  Leeds  and  Wayne.  Dead  river, 
from  the  outlet  in  Leeds  to  Androscoggin  river,  is  six  miles  in  length,  eight  or 
ten  rods  in  width  and  deep,  and  its  bed  is  so  level  and  exactly  horizontal  that 
the  rise  of  the  great  river  eighteen  inches  will  invert  the  current  of  Dead  river 
its  whole  length.  Li  great  freshets  much  water  is  forced  into  the  pond,  which 
becomes  a  reservoir,  greatly  soaking,  however,  and  hurting  the  lands  on  its 

Dr  Ezekiel  Holmes  treats  of  the  physical  and  geological  features  of  the 
Androscoggin  in  this  manner:  The  Androscoggin  river  takes  its  rise  not  far 
from  the  Canada  line  and  the  headlands  that  divide  the  waters  of  the 
Chaudiere,  Kennebec  tributaries,  and  the  Androscoggin.  It  passes  south- 
westerly, expanding  in  its  course  into  the  lakes  Moosilamaguntic,  Argwason, 
Molechunkamunk,  Wallakenabagog,  and  Umbagog.  From  this  last  lake  it 
passes  out  on  its  northwest  quarter,  at  first  westerly  and  then  southerly,  in  a 
sluggish,  quiet  manner  until  it  comes  to  Errol  in  New  Hampshire.  Here  it 
meets  with  obstructions  and  forms  a  fall  wliicli  has  been  taken  up  for  mill 
sites.  It  continues  to  flow  in  a  southerly  direction  until  it  reaches  Shelburne, 
when  it  sweeps  round  the  base  of  the  mountains  easterly  to  the  easterly  line  of 
Livermore,  when  it  again  curves  southeasterly,  which  general  course  it  holds 
until  it  unites  with  the  Kennebec  river  at  Merrymeeting  bay. 

The  Androscoggin,  from  the  time  it  meets  with  its  first  obstruction  at 
Errol,  has  a  difficult  and  troubled  pathway  and  has  more  rapids,  falls,  and 
cataracts  than  any  other  river  of  its  size  in  Maine.  It  has  along  its  banks  at 
certain  sections  of  its  course  some  splendid  intervals  as  well  as  swells  of 
upland  of  the  first  quality.  Evidences  are  abundant  to  prove  that  it  was  once, 
in  the  space  at  least  from  Shelburne  to  East  Livermore,  what  a  part  of  it  is 
now  at  Umbagog  and  above,  a  connected  chain  of  lakes,  separated  at  certain 
places  by  obstructions  which  formed  natural  dams  and  held  its  waters  at 
higher  level,  until  they  gave  way  and  furnished  them  a  more  free  passage,  as 
they  are  now  found.  It  was  while  in  tliis  lake  state  that  the  splendid  intervals 
were  formed. 

Reasons  for  this  Belief:— i^//-.s^.  These  interval  or  bottom  lands  are 
alluvial  deposits.  The  material  of  which  they  are  composed  was  deposited 
while  the  water  was  in  a  quiescent  state,  and  therefore  formed  the  bottom  of 
lakes  and  ponds.     Second.     These  interval  or  bottom  lands  are  not  continuous. 

The  Androscoggin  River.  35 

but  located  in  sections  of  more  or  less  magnitude  and  at  different  distances 
from  each  other,  and  these  separations  are  formed  by  the  liighlands  coming 
down  nearer  to  the  river  than  they  do  in  the  region  of  the  intervals.  In 
passing  up  the  river  from  Livermore  Falls  to  Shelburne,  N.  H.,  where  the 
highlands  close  in  toward  the  river,  you  will  erelong  come  to  a  tract  of 
interval  land.  This  is  also  the  case  in  going  from  Livermore  Falls  to  Jay. 
After  passing  through  the  highlands  which  come  more  or  less  near  to  the 
banks  on  the  Livermore  and  Jay  side,  you  reach  the  splendid  intervals  of  Jay 
point.  The  cause  of  their  formation  at  this  locality  was,  in  the  first  place,  a 
valley  or  larger  opening  between  the  mountains,  giving  space  for  a  lake,  and 
in  the  next  place,  the  obstruction,  for  a  long  time,  of  the  river  by  the  high- 
lands below,  thereby  forming  a  lake  at  the  place  referred  to.  Here,  when  the 
current  was  at  rest,  the  fine  particles  of  earthy  matter  gathered,  and,  suspended 
in  the  water  in  their  course,  were  deposited  at  the  bottom,  and  by  their 
accumulations  formed  what  are  now  beautiful  farms.  On  a  reverse  principle 
it  is  accounted  for,  there  being  comparatively  less  amount  of  alluvial  and 
more  diluvial  land  or  drift  in  that  portion  of  the  river  below  Livermore  Falls 
than  above.  The  Androscoggin,  at  Jay,  had  worked  itself  to  the  southerly 
side  of  the  mountain  chain  through  which  it  had  passed  from  the  upper  part 
of  Gilead  in  an  easterly  direction,  and  thereby  nearly  out  of  them.  Finding 
less  obstruction  here  at  the  southerly  margin  of  the  hills  than  farther  east,  it 
was  turned  almost  square  about  in  a  southerly  direction,  and  spread  itself  over 
a  large  extent,  depositing,  while  in  motion,  as  it  passed  along,  the  sands  and 
heavier  gravels,  and  probably,  while  the  ice  prevailed,  heavy  bowlders,  thus 
forming  sand  bars  and  islands,  etc.,  which  now  constitute  the  swells  and  ridges 
and  irregular  curves  that  form  the  surface  of  that  part  of  the  country.  The 
channel  of  this  river  is  so  full  of  obstructions  that  but  a  small  part  of  it  can  be 
said  to  be  navigable. 

The  Drainage  District  of  the  Androscoggin  occupies  the  country  lying 
between  the  sea  on  the  southeast  and  the  northerly  outposts  of  the  White 
Mountains.  Its  southern  part  is  separated  from  the  Saco  basin  by  the 
hydrographic  area  of  the  Presumpscot  and  Royal,  but  is  conterminous  with  it 
in  the  northern  part.  Its  greatest  length  is  110  miles,  from  the  ocean  to  its 
remotest  sources;  greatest  breadth  is  70  miles,  from  Randolph,  N.  H.,  to 
Fayette.  The  area  in  Maine  is  about  2,750  square  miles ;  in  New  Hampshire 
about  850  square  miles;  of  this  nearly  the  whole  is  located  above  the  lowest 
mill  privilege  and  contributes  to  the  water-power  of  the  main  river.  Its 
elevation  is  considerably  greater  than  tliat  of  any  other  hydrographic  district 
in  the  state.  We  give  the  height  above  tide-water  of  some  points  situated 
upon  the  river  or  railroads:  Danville  Junction,  180  ft;  Auburn  (station), 
210  ft;  Lewiston,  212  ft;  Leeds,  260  ft;  Mechanic  Falls  (station),  270  ft; 
Oxford    (station),  310    ft;     East    Livermore    (station),  360  ft;     South   Paris 

36  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

(station),  370  ft;  Locke's  Mills  (station),  710  ft;  head  of  Rumford,  about 
600  ft;  Bethel  (station),  640  ft;  Androscoggin  river  at  Bethel,  620  ft; 
White's  Corner,  659  ft;  mouth  Pleasant  river,  about  632  ft;  Gilead,  700  ft; 
State  Line  (Grand  Trunk  Railway  crossing),  690  ft;  Gorham,  N.  H.  (station), 
802  ft;  head  of  Berlin  Falls,  N.  H.,  2,000  ft;  northeast  head  of  Magalloway 
river,  2,640  ft;  northwest  head  of  Magalloway  river,  2,917  ft.  The  high 
general  elevation  of  this  district,  combined  with  its  irregularity  of  surface, 
secures  a  large  amount  of  power  upon  the  streams  in  proportion  to  its  extent 
and  its  volume  of  annual  discharge.  The  yearly  precipitation  of  moisture 
upon  this  basin,  including  the  Maine  and  New  Hampshire  portions,  is  estimated 
as  nearly  338,000,000,000  cubic  feet ;  these  figures  are  based  upon  an  assumed 
average  downfall  of  42  inches. 

The  principal  tributaries  on  the  right  side  are  the  Little  Androscoggin 
received  at  Auburn ;  basin,  30  miles  in  length ;  15  miles  in  breadth ;  area, 
280  square  miles;  length  of  stream,  40  miles;  estimated  discharge,  10,120,- 
000,000  cubic  feet ;  Twenty-Mile  river  at  Turner ;  basin  length,  19  miles ; 
breadth,  13  miles;  area,  150  square  miles;  length  of  stream,  25  miles;  discharge, 
5,850,000,000  cubic  feet.  On  the  left  side  are  Sabattus,  at  Lisbon ;  length  of 
basin,  16  miles;  breadth,  7  miles;  area,  75  miles;  discharge,  2,925,000,000 
cubic  feet;  Dead  river,  at  Leeds;  length  of  basin,  22  miles;  breadth,  5  miles; 
area,  85  square  miles;  length  of  stream,  28  miles;  discharge,  33,000,000,000 
cubic  feet;  Webb's  river,  at  Dixfield ;  length  of  basin,  17  miles;  breadth, 
11  miles;  area,  135  square  miles;  length  of  stream,  23  miles;  discliarge, 
5,265,000,000  cubic  feet;  Swift  river,  at  Mexico;  basin,  22  miles  in  length; 
8  miles  in  breadth;  area,  133  square  miles;  length  of  stream,  24  miles;  dis- 
charge, 5,187,000,000  cubic  feet;  and  Ellis  river,  at  Rumford;  basin  length, 
18  miles;  breadth,  13  miles;  area,  150  square  miles;  length  of  stream,  25 
miles ;  discharge  5,850,000,000  cubic  feet.  Its  most  valuable  water-power  sec- 
tion, from  Rumford  Falls  to  the  tide,  is  75  miles  long;  but  in  reality  it  is  a 
water-power  river  in  its  whole  length  from  the  lakes  to  Brunswick,  150  miles. 
The  estimated  discliarge  from  the  basin  for  the  year  amounts  to  135,000,000,000 
cubic  feet.  Of  this  nearly  the  whole  is  tributary  to  the  working  power  of  the 
river.  The  natural  inconstancy  of  the  river  is  already  overcome  to  a  great 
extent,  and  can  be  to  a  far  higher  degree  by  the  use  of  its  great  reservoirs 
for  storage  purposes,  and  this  at  little  expense.  The  range  from  lowest  to 
highest  water,  at  Lewiston,  is  eight  feet;  Lisbon,  seven  feet;  Livermore,  eight 
feet.  From  the  origin  of  the  Androscoggin  to  the  tide  at  Brunswick  is  150 
miles,  with  a  fall  of  1,256  feet.  The  mean  slope  is  8.33  feet  to  the  mile,  corre- 
sponding to  an  angular  depression  of  5'.5  circular  measurement  per  mile.  The 
principal  reservoirs  of  the  Androscoggin  and  its  tributaries  number  83  principal 
lakes  and  ponds,  with  156.25  square  miles  of  surface,  but  the  aggregate  of 
lake  surface  in  the  Androscoggin  basin  is  213  square  miles,  or  one  square  mile 

The  Androscoggin  River.  37 

to  17  square  miles  of  basin.  At  the  low  stage  of  the  river,  water  from 
Umbagog  lake  reaches  Lewiston  in  from  36  to  48  hours.  If  the  mean  volume 
of  water  that  can,  in  the  present  state  of  the  reservoirs,  be  commanded  on 
the  river,  in  the  low  run  of  summer,  from  Rumford  falls  to  the  tide,  be  assumed 
to  be  75,000  cubic  feet  per  minute  for  11  hours  per  day,  the  total  power  of 
this  section  of  the  river  is  85,200  horse-power,  gross  measurement,  for  the 
hours  specified,  or  3,747,600  spindles. 

Water  Powers. —  That  valuable  compilation,  "  Wells's  Water  Power  of 
Maine,"  published  in  1869,  gave,  from  authentic  and  official  information, 
closely  accurate  statistics  concerning  all  privileges  of  water-power  in  this 
county.  We  extract  this  portion  as  it  gives  a  full  description  of  the  powers 
that  have  brought  so  much  wealth  and  prosperity  to  this  section,  and  a  state- 
ment of  the  manufacturing  condition  at  that  day.  The  development  since 
belongs  to  the  history  of  the  towns. 

Auburn.  —  Auburn  falls  is  on  the  Little  Androscoggin  river,  immediately 
east  of  the  Grand  Trunk  railway.  The  foot  of  the  falls  is  about  one-fourth 
of  a  mile  from  the  Androscoggin  river.  The  total  height  is  70  feet,  obtained 
in  a  running  distance  of  150  rods.  The  bottom  of  the  stream  is  a  solid  ledge, 
and  affords  unsurpassed  sites  for  the  firm  establishment  of  dams.  The  banks 
are  steep  and  ledgy,  and  offer  good  sites  for  mills.  The  volume  of  water 
employed  at  Mechanic  Falls  is,  as  reported,  nearly  20,000  cubic  feet  per 
minute  for  the  ordinary  manufacturing  hours  at  the  low  stage  of  water. 
It  is  probably  reasonable  to  infer  the  low  run  at  Auburn  to  be  22,000  feet 
per  minute  for  the  same  hours,  as  the  contributions  of  several  ponds  improved 
for  reservoirs  as  well  as  of  various  streams  are  received  below  Mechanic  Falls. 
This  would  give  a  gross  poAver  of  2,780  horse  on  the  whole  fall  or  114,800 
spindles.  This  result,  so  remarkable  for  a  stream  which  drains  only  280 
square  miles,  is  obtained  by  the  improvement  of  its  numerous  and  capacious 
reservoirs  whose  capacity  is  not  yet  fully  developed.  There  are  a  saw-mill, 
box-mill,  and  batting-mill  on  the  privilege  ;  these  operate  all  the  year. 

The  power  on  Taylor  brook,  the  outlet  of  Taylor  pond,  which  covers  about 
two  square  miles,  has  four  feet  of  storage  ;  about  fifty  rods  from  the  Maine 
Central  railroad  track,  twelve  feet  fall ;  is  capable  of  carrying  three  runs  of 
flour-stones  under  a  nine-foot  head  in  the  summer  months. 

Ryerson's  Privilege  on  the  Little  Androscoggin  river  is  eight  miles  below 
Mechanic  Falls,  and  three  miles  from  Lewiston.  Twenty  feet  head  can  be 
had.  There  is  no  improvement.  There  were  formerly  a  saw-mill,  grist-mill,  a 
shingle  and  clapboard  machine  owned  by  Nicholas  Ryerson.  This  privilege 
is  in  receipt  of  all  the  water  commanded  at  Mechanic  Falls,  and  the  available 
power  is  inferred  to  be  about  840  horse-power  or  33,000  spindles. 

Near  the  outlet  of  the  Little  Wilson  pond  is  a  saw-mill.  The  pond  is  used 
for  a  reservoir.     There  is  also   a  saw-mill  below,  near  Wilson  Pond  (Lake 

38  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Auburn).  At  the  outlet  of  this  body  of  water  there  is  a  fall  of  seven  feet, 
which  can  be  increased  to  twelve  ;  here  are  peg,  saw,  grist,  and  box  mills,  and 
a  furniture  factory.  The  pond  covers  1,968  acres,  upon  which  a  head  of  eight 
feet  is  commanded. 

Lpwisfon.— Five  powers.  First ;  Lewiston  Falls,  on  the  Androscoggin  river 
twenty  miles  above  its  junction  with  the  Kennebec  and  forty  miles  by  the 
river  from  the  ocean.  They  are  formed  by  gneiss  and  mica  schist,  crossing  the 
river  diagonally,  and  so  extended  as  to  form  the  bottom  and  sides  of  the  stream 
above  and  below  the  falls  and  projecting  above  the  water  in  several  small  rocky 
islets  that  serve  as  abutments  to  the  dams.  The  natural  fall  is  thirty-eight  feet, 
which,  with  dams  of  an  average  height  of  about  twelve  feet,  produces  an 
available  power  of  fully  fifty  feet  head.  This  descent  is  attained  in  a  hori- 
zontal distance  of  600  feet.  The  volume  of  water  at  its  lowest  stage  is  94,000 
cubic  feet  per  minute,  eleven  hours  a  day.  The  water  is  under  such  perfect 
control  that  the  total  run  of  the  river  in  drouth  is  economized,  none  going  to 
waste  by  night  or  on  Sundays.  The  enormous  increase  in  the  volume  of  water 
now  used  is  58,000  cubic  feet  per  minute.  At  lowest  run,  8,900  horse-power, 
gross  measurement,  or  356,000  spindles.  Of  this  5,450  horse-power  is  now  in 
use.  The  available  power  can  be  doubled  or  trebled,  as  required.  It  is 
perfectly  secure  against  all  possible  contingencies  of  ice  or  flood.  Total  range 
from  lowest  to  highest  water  on  the  dams  is  about  eight  feet.  The  land  also  is 
exceedingly  favorable  for  the  location  of  manufacturing  establishments,  there 
being  two  natural  levels  on  the  margin  of  the  river,  the  lower  allowing  twenty- 
two  feet  fall,  the  upper  twenty-eight  feet,  and  there  being  also  abundant  room 
for  factories  employing  the  whole  power.  Brick  and  stone  are  easily  pro- 
curable. There  are  four  dams'  860  feet  in  aggregate  length,  guard  locks  with 
seven  sluiceways  nine  by  twelve  feet ;  main  canal  sixty-four  feet  in  average 
breadth  in  the  clear,  and  designed  for  twelve  feet  depth  of  water ;  cross  canal 
forty  feet  broad  in  the  clear,  ten  feet  of  water.  The  dams  and  guard  locks  are 
constructed  of  split  granite  in  the  most  solid  manner.  The  power  is  owned  by 
the  Franklin  Company. 

The  various  manufacturing  companies  now  in  occupation  of  the  power  are: 

Bates  Manufacturimi  Company,  incorporated  in  1850;  commenced  operations  in  1852: 
capital  stock,  $1,000,000;  two  cotton  mills;  one  woolen;  40,000  spindles;  eight  sets  of 
machinery;  850  femalos  and  350  males  employed;  800  horse-power;  six  turbine  water- 
wheels;  l)uildin(:;s,  brick;  annual  cotton  production,  5,707,372  yards  cloth  (1,417,949 
l)ounds) ;  woolen,  22(),155  yards  cloth  (146,912  pounds). 

11  ill  Mamtfacturinff  Company,  incorporated,  in  1850;  conunenced  operations  in  1854; 
capital  stock,  $700,000;  two  mills;  51,200  spindles;  800  females  and  200  males  employed; 
800  horse-power;  four  turbine  water-wheels;  brick  buildings;  annual  production,  7,037,353 
yards  of  cotton  cloth  (1,753,770  pounds). 

Androscofjffin  Mills,  incorporated  and  commenced  operations  in  1860;  capital  stock, 
$1,000,000;  two  mills  of  brick;  50,000  spindles ;  788  females  and  312  males  employed;  800 

The  Androscoggin  River.  39 

horse-power ;  five  turbine  water-wheels ;  6,500,000  yards  cotton  cloth  manufactured  a  year, 
equal  to  1,750,000  pounds,  and  1,800,000  grain  bags  weighing  as  many  pounds. 

Continental  Mills,  incovpovBited  in  1865;  commenced  operations  in  1866;  capital  stock, 
$900,000;  one  mill  of  brick;  27,000  spindles;  395  females  and  175  males  employed;  440 
horse-power;  three  turbine  water-wheels;  5,600,000  yards  of  cotton  cloth  manufactured 
per  year,  weight  1 ,400,000  pounds. 

Franklin  Company,  incorporated  in  1854;  commenced  operations  in  1857.  This  com- 
pany owns  the  water-power,  canals,  and  land  around  the  falls  on  both  sides  of  the  river, 
and  several  hundred  acres  of  land  around  the  more  thickly  settled  portion  of  the  city. 
It  owns  the  Lincoln  Mill,  of  20,000  spindles;  285  females  and  143  males  employed;  two 
turbine  water-wheels;  cotton  goods  are  maiuifactured ;  2,800,000  yards  per  year  (750,000 
pounds) ;  the  grist-mill  building,  occupied  by  Bradley  &  Co.,  flour  and  meal  manufacturers; 
D.  Cowan  &  Co.,  manufacturers  of  woolen  and  cotton  yarns,  employing  27  females  and 
25  males;  H.  H.  Dickey,  manufacturer  of  belting  and  covering  rollers,  employing  10  men; 
three  turbine  water-wheels;  a  saw-mill  occupied  by  S.  R.  Bearce  &  Co.,  manufacturers  of 
lumber;  five  water-wheels;  Lewiston  Bleachery  and  Dye  Works,  occupied  by  N.  W.  Farwell; 
capacity  for  bleaching  and  dyeing  eight  tons  per  day  ;  14  females  and  204  males  employed; 
one  turbine  water-wheel;  several  machine  shops;  two  turbines. 

Leiviston  Mills,  incorporated  and  commenced  operations  in  1853;  capital  stock,  .$500,000  ; 
two  mills  of  brick;  17,880  spindles;  460  females  and  211  males  employed;  450  horse-power ; 
three  turbine  water-wheels;  cotton  and  jute  manufactured;  764,619  yards  cloth  (1,241,776 
pounds)  per  year;  jute  used,  1,679,281  pounds;  cotton  and  jute  bags,  1,233,423  per  year. 

Lewiston  Falls  Mafinfactiiring  Company,  incorporated  and  commenced  operations  in 
1834;  John  M.  Frye,  agent;  capital  stock,  $60,000;  two  mills,  brick  and  wood;  six  sets  of 
machinery;  45  females  and  40  males  employed;  two  water-wheels;  225,000  yards  of  woolen 
cloth  manufactured  per  year. 

Leiviston  Lower  Poteer  of  1,500  horse,  two  miles  below  Lewiston  Falls  on 
the  Androscoggin  river,  has  not  been  improved.  Two  miles  up  the  river  at 
Deer  Rips  there  is  unimproved  power  of  at  least  2,500  horse  ;  the  two 
together  are  sufficient  to  drive  cotton  mills  containing  250,000  spindles. 
Barker's  Mills  on  Barker's  Mill  stream,  fall  twenty  feet  in  twenty  rods,  has 
a  saw-mill  and  a  grist-mill ;  both  operate  three  months,  and  the  grist-mill  nearly 
the  whole  year.  Stream  fed  by  Berry  pond.  Owned  by  J.  B.  Ham  &  Co.  The 
privilege  at  the  outlet  of  Nonanac  pond  falls  twelve  feet  in  twelve  rods  and 
has  power  sufficient  to  drive  one  run  of  stones  the  whole  year.  The  pond  is 
flowed  a  little  and  can  be  flowed  so  as  to  cover  300  acres. 

Lisbon. —  Eight  powers.  One  at  Lisbon  Falls  on  the  Androscoggin  river 
in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  town.  There  were  originally  two  falls  about 
900  feet  apart,  giving  together  a  natural  fall  of  thirty -one  feet  in  the  1,800 
feet,  which  is  increased  by  the  elevation  of  the  dam  to  thirty-three  feet.  The 
upper  fall,  just  below  which  the  dam  was  located,  is  formed  by  a  ledge  of 
granite  making  directly  across  an  island  about  300  feet  distant  to  the  opposite 
shore  650  feet  farther.  This  ledge  extends  for  more  than  half  a  mile  down 
the  river  on  both  sides,  giving  the  best  possible  foundation  for  manufacturing 
establishments.     The  dam  is  in  two  sections  each  resting  on  the  island.     It 

40  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

is  built  on  the  ledge  about  eight  feet  lower  than  the  brow  of  the  natural  fall, 
and  having  an  average  height  of  ten  feet,  raises  the  water  but  two  feet  above 
its  natural  level.  It  is  constructed  of  hewn  timber  in  crib-work,  the  lower 
tier  fitted  to  the  irregularities  in  the  ledge,  and  firmly  secured  with  bolts. 
Tlie  cribs  are  filled  with  rock-ballast  and  covered  with  hard-wood  plank.  The 
whole  work  and  materials  were  designed  to  make  it  equal  or  superior  to  any 
dam  in  the  country  not  built  of  stone,  and  it  is  believed  to  be  strong  enough 
to  withstand  any  force  to  which  it  may  be  subjected.  The  volume  of  water  in 
the  dry  season,  estimated  from  that  at  Lewiston  with  allowance  for  the  addi- 
tions of  the  Little  Androscoggin  and  Sabattus  rivers,  is  122,000  cubic  feet  of 
water  per  minute,  during  working  time  of  eleven  hours  per  day,  six  days  in 
the  week. 

The  improvement  of  the  lakes  by  which  the  run  of  water  at  Lewiston 
would  be  increased,  would  operate  to  the  same  extent  in  favor  of  the  power 
at  this  point.  Without  any  increase  in  the  dry  season  the  power  is  equal  to 
7,623  horse-power  gross  or  305,000  spindles.  But  a  trifling  amount  of  this, 
large  power  is  yet  in  use.  The  expense  of  making  the  balance  available  has 
been  pronounced  by  competent  engineers  very  small  compared  with  other 
points  with  the  same  extent  of  power.  The  lay  of  the  land  is  favorable  for 
manufacturing  establishments,  with  sufficient  room  for  utilizing  the  whole 
power.     The  power  is  owned  by  the  Androscoggin  Water  Power  Company. 

The  only  company  in  occupation  of  the  power  is  the  Worumbo  Mannfact- 
urinii  Company^  incorporated  in  1861  with  a  capital  stock  of  $250,000.  There 
are  two  mills  with  ten  sets  of  cards ;  all-wool  beavers  are  manufactured.  One 
hundred  males  and  seventy -five  females  are  employed ;  pay-roll,  $6,500  ;  150 
horse-power  is  used,  and  two  turbine  water-wheels ;  annual  production,  120,000 
yards  six-fourths  wide  (225,000  pounds)  of  finished  cloth.  Building  materials, 
both  stone  and  wood,  are  readily  obtained.  The  Water  Power  Company  owns 
two  saw-mills  supplied  with  abundance  of  pine  and  hemlock  from  the  sur- 
rounding country,  A  slight  elevation  in  the  reservoir  above  the  dam  would 
make  the  power  nearly  double  that  used  at  Lewiston. 

There  are  two  privileges  at  Factory  village  on  Sabattus  river  owned 
by  N.  W.  Farwell.  The  upper  one  has  a  fall  of  ten  feet;  is  under  im- 
provement ;  a  double  turbine  wheel  is  used ;  power,  175  horse.  The  lower 
fall  has  an  old  grist-and-saw-mill ;  fall,  twenty  feet ;  power,  325  horse.  The 
stream  is  connected  with  great  Sabattus  pond  with  supply  of  water  constant 
and  freshets  not  destructive.  At  Lisbon  Plains  on  the  same  river  about 
one-third  of  a  mile  from  the  Androscoggin  river  is  an  unimproved  power  of 
twenty  feet  fall,  owned  by  B.  Farnsworth  and  others.  About  one-fourth  of 
a  mile  above  is  a  fall  of  twelve  feet,  the  property  of  the  Paper  Company.  The 
mill  built  in  1866  manufactures  one  and  a  half  tons  newspaper  per  day; 
machinery   best   quality.      Next   above   is  the    property  of    the    Farnsworth 

The  Androscoggin  River.  41 

Manufacturing  Company ;  fall,  thirteen  feet ;  a  woolen  mill  built  in  1865  has 
first-class  machinery  and  manufactures  30,000  yards  per  month  of  "  three- 
fourths  "  goods ;  spare  power  except  in  drouth.  The  seventh  and  eighth 
powers  are  on  Little  river,  near  its  junction  with  the  Androscoggin. 

Durham  has  three  water-powers.  One  on  the  outlet  of  a  small  pond  in  the 
western  part  of  the  town  has  a  grist-mill,  and  a  saw-mill  which  cuts  40,000  feet 
3^early ;  one  in  the  northeast  part  on  a  small  stream  has  a  grist  and  shingle 
mill.  One  near  Southwest  Bend  has  grist,  saw,  shingle  and  clapboard  mills 
which  cut  40,000  feet  of  boards  annually.  The  mills  work  about  eight  months 
in  the  year. 

Wehister.  —  There  are  four  powers  on  Sabattus  pond.  First  fall,  twelve 
feet ;  second,  fourteen  feet ;  third,  twelve  feet ;  fourth,  eighteen  feet.  Dams 
and  mills  upon  each  fall ;  the  mills  operate  all  of  the  year  ;  a  large  amount  of 
unused  power;  privileges  all  owned  in  town.  Sabattus  pond  covers  four 
square  miles  and  is  dammed.  Its  reservoir  capacity  could  be  much  increased. 
Stream  safe  and  constant  with  abundant  water  throughout  the  year.  The 
power  may  be  inferred,  as  below  at  Factory  Fall  in  Lisbon,  175-horse  is  secured 
on  a  ten-foot  fall  with  a  turbine  wheel.  There  is  building  stone  on  the  fourth 
fall  only,  abundant  and  good.  Land  upon  each  of  the  falls  level  and 
convenient  for  the  location  of  mills.     One-third  of  the  basin  covered  by  woods. 

Cfreene.  —  There  are  four  water-powers.  One  on  Sabattus  stream  with 
fifteen  feet  fall  from  top  of  dam  to  vent  of  wheels ;  two-thirds  of  the  fall  is 
secured  by  the  dam.  Another  is  on  Meadow  brook  where  a  saw  and  shingle 
mill  is  operated  fall  and  spring.  There  are  two  powers  on  the  outlet  stream  of 
Allen's  pond  which  are  more  valuable  than  the  others ;  formerly  there  were 
grist,  shingle,  and  carding  mills  upon  them.  The  fall  is  twenty  and  twenty- 
five  feet.  The  water  holds  out  the  year  round  with  an  excellent  chance  for 
dams.  A  saw-mill  operates  four  months  in  the  year,  and  a  grist-mill  all  the 
year.     No  damage  from  freshets;  annual  production,  $7,000. 

Leeds  has  eight  water-powers.  On  Cushman's  mill  stream  are  grist-mills,  in 
former  years  used  only  for  saw-mills.  Fifty  rods  below  are  shingle  machines, 
etc.  One  on  Coffin's  mill  stream ;  here  are  saw  and  shingle  mills.  That  on 
Bridgliam  stream  is  unimproved,  but  had  formerly  a  grist  and  a  carding  mill. 
There  was  formerly  a  grist-mill  on  Mason  brook  ;  power  not  used.  There  is  a 
shingle  mill  on  a  small  stream  in  the  north  part  of  the  town.  Two  powers  are 
unused ;  one  in  the  northwest  part  operates  a  shingle-mill,  and  a  small  but 
good  power  in  southwest  part  where  was  formerly  a  saw-mill.  These  powers, 
though  not  large,  are  susceptible  of  more  use.  Androscoggin  pond  on  the 
confines  of  Leeds  is  connected  with  the  Androscoggin  river  by  Dead  stream, 
and  as  the  pond  lies  on  the  same  level  as  the  river  the  waters  flow  in  and  out 
according  to  the  stage  of  the  river.  Could  be  stored  at  high  water  and  held 
for  reserve. 

42  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

East  Livermore.—A  privilege  with  small  power  on  Johnny  brook  works  about 
half  the  time.  There  is  a  similar  one  on  Norris's  brook.  Livermore  Falls  on 
the  Androscoggin  has  a  natural  fall  twenty-two  feet  in  thirty  rods,  upper  fall 
fourteen  feet,  then  eight  feet  fall  in  thirty  rods.  The  dam  located  on  the 
crest  of  the  upper  fall  is  seven  feet  high,  making  the  total  head  and  fall 
twenty-nine  feet.  It  can  be  raised  seven  feet.  The  power  due  to  the  total 
available  fall  (thirty-six  feet),  the  volume  of  water  being  assumed  fifteen  per 
cent,  less  tlian  at  Lewiston,  or  79,900  cubic  feet  per  minute  at  the  lowest  run, 
is  5,436  horse-power  gross,  or  217,400  spindles.  In  1867  the  proprietors 
built  a  very  excellent  dam  of  crib  work  filled  in  with  stone  in  its  whole  extent 
(as  strong  a  construction  as  can  be  made  except  of  split  granite)  with  a  view 
to  future  enlargement,  and  it  can  be  raised  seven  feet  without  damage  to 
flowing.  The  land  on  both  sides  of  the  river  is  peculiarly  well  adapted  to  the 
location  of  manufacturing  establishments.  The  rock  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
of  the  falls  is  lit  for  foundation  and  other  rough  work.  Excellent  granite  is 
abundant  within  two  miles.  Building  bricks  of  excellent  quality  were 
delivered  at  the  Falls  in  1868  for  six  dollars  per  thousand.  Of  the  5,436 
horse-power  probably  not  over  one  hundred  is  in  use  which  operates  a  saw- 
mill, grist-mill,  and  some  small  establishments.  The  Rocomeka  Company  is 
the  chief  proprietor  of  the  power.  It  owns  the  saw-mill,  and  a  building  eighty 
by  thirty  feet,  three  stories  high,  and  a  fifty-horse  steam-boiler  attached  for 
heating  purposes.  This  privilege  is  regarded  as  next  to  Lewiston  in  sum  of 
power,  but  not  in  availability  and  facilities  for  improvement. 

Liiwnnore.  —  Twelve  powers.  Five  on  a  stream  from  Long  pond.  A 
saw-mill  near  the  outlet,  with  a  fall  of  nine  feet;  600  square  inches  of  water- 
in  use;  a  giist-mill  below,  with  a  fall  of  twelve  feet;  300  square  inches  of 
water;  pill-box  factory  has  a  fall  of  ten  feet;  a  rake  factory,  fall  twelve 
feet;  a  saw-mill,  fifteen  feet  fall.  On  a  stream  from  Turner  pond  at  the  outlet 
is  an  unimproved  power;  fall,  eight  feet;  capacity,  1,200  square  inches.  A 
short  distance  below  is  a  grist-mill ;  fall,  fifteen  feet ;  capacity,  1,200  square 
inches  of  water ;  center-vent  wheels.  On  the  same  stream,  opposite  the 
mill,  is  an  unimproved  privilege,  with  equal  capacity  to  that  of  the  grist-mill. 
These  three  privileges  are  owned  by  Hollis  Turner,  Esq.  Just  below  the 
grist-mill  is  a  building  with  various  saws;  the  fall  is  nine  feet;  capacity, 
2,500  square  inches.  This  mill  does  a  good  business  at  flood  of  water,  spring 
and  fall.  Ownership,  Lewiston  Company.  About  half  a  mile  below,  on  the 
same  stream,  this  conq^any  owns  another  water-power,  not  improved,  equal  to 
or  better  in  many  respects,  than  the  improved  one.  There  are  two  smaller 
powers  on  separate  streams  with  a  shingle-mill  on  each. 

Turner. — Turiier  Centre  falls  on  the  Androscoggin  ten  miles  above  Lew- 
iston has  twelve  feet  fall ;  excellent  opportunity  for  canals  and  dam  ;  hard 
bottom  and  banks ;    abundant  stone.     If  the  volume  of  water  at  low  run  be 

The  Androscoggin  River.  43 

assumed  to  be  five  per  cent,  less  than  at  Lewiston,  or  89,300  cubic  feet  per 
minute  for  eleven  hours  per  day,  the  gross  power  of  the  fall  is  about  2,030 
horse,  or  81,200  spindles.     The  power  can  be  vastly  increased  by  reservoirs. 

North  Turner  falls  at  North  Turner  bridge,  sixteen  miles  above  Lewiston, 
fall  thirteen  feet.  The  natural  force  of  the  water  is  so  great  that  a  saw- 
mill has  been  run  here  by  its  means.  The  sites  for  mills  are  excellent,  and 
canal  facilities  of  the  best.  An  island  in  the  river  diminishes  the  required 
length  of  dam.  If  the  volume  of  water  at  low  run  be  assumed  as  ten  per 
cent,  less  than  at  Lewiston,  or  84,600  cubic  feet  per  minute  for  eleven  hours 
a  day,  the  gross  power  of  the  fall  at  thirteen  feet  is  2,080  horse-power,  or 
83,200  spindles.  There  are  six  powers  at  Turner,  viz. :  one  on  Martin  stream 
at  outlet  of  Bear  pond  ;  saw-mill  can  cut  600,000  feet  annually ;  fall  ten 
feet;  one  at  North  Turner  village  three-fourths  of  a  mile  below,  lumber, 
grist,  and  carding  mills,  and  carriage  factory,  could  cut  a  million  feet  annually; 
fall  ten  feet.  At  Chase's  Mills  there  is  a  saw-and-shingle-mill,  and  hub  and 
bowl  factory.  On  Twenty-Mile  river  at  Turner  village  there  is  a  woolen 
factory,  grist-mill,  lumber-mill,  and  carriage  factory  doing  a  large  amount  of 
business ;  fall  about  twelve  feet.  At  Bradford  village  on  the  same  river  there 
is  a  fall  of  twelve  feet.  This  power  is  capable  of  a  large  amount  of  business 
if  properly  improved.  At  the  mouth  of  Twenty-Mile  river  is  a  fall  of  eleven 
feet,  with  saw  and  grist  mill  ;  power  enough  for  more  business. 

Minot  and  Poland. — There  are  four  powers  on  the  Little  Androscoggin 
river.  First,  Mechanic  Falls ;  fall,  thirty-seven  feet  in  950  feet  distance ; 
velocity  of  current  ninety-six  feet  per  minute.  Area  of  cross  section  270 
square  feet.  Power  not  half  improved ;  partially  improved  in  paper  making. 
There  is  a  first-class  stone  dam  at  the  head  of  the  fall ;  a  wooden  dam  midway 
and  space  for  another  dam  below.  Power  is  owned  by  A.  C.  Denison  &  Co. 
The  mills  operate  all  the  year.  On  the  upper  dam,  fourteen  feet  head,  eleven 
turbine  wheels  now  operate  of  405  horse-power ;  hence  the  volume  of  water 
for  the  working  hours  of  the  day  must  be  equal  to  20,000  cubic  feet  per 
minute,  and  the  power  of  the  whole  fall  for  the  same  hours,  1,053  horse. 
Second,  Page's  Mills  has  a  fall  of  fourteen  feet  in  1,500  feet  distance.  Volume 
of  water  same  as  at  Mechanic  Falls  less  Waterhouse  brook,  which  is  3,000 
cubic  feet  per  minute.  Power  partially  improved  in  sawing  lumber,  in  the 
manufacture  of  sash  and  doors,  and  grist-mill;  mills  operate  all  the  year; 
power  owned  by  Moses  Page  and  A.  A.  Bucknam.  Third,  Hackett's  Mills 
has  a  fall  thirteen  feet  in  250.  Volume  of  water  same  as  at  Mechanic  Falls 
plus  Bog  brook,  1,500  cubic  feet  per  minute.  Improved  in  part  in  saw-mills ; 
power  owned  by  J.  T.  Waterman  and  Willard  Buck;  mills  operate  all  the 
year.  Fourth,  Minot  Corner ;  fall,  eleven  and  one-half  feet  in  500  run. 
Volume  of  water  same  as  at  Hackett's  Mills,  with  the  addition  of  a  small 
tributary.     Improved  in  part   by  saw  and  grist  mills,  which  operate  all   the 

44  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

year.  Owned  by  A.  S.  Freeman,  Willard  Buck,  and  others.  Sites  for 
building  upon  the  privileges  excellent.  Freshets  harmless,  the  reservoirs 
holding  back  the  great  body  of  water. 

Mlnot. —  The  other  three  powers  here  are  Faunce's  Mill,  on  Bog  brook; 
fall,  twelve  and  one-half  feet  in  fifty  feet ;  operates  part  of  the  year.  West 
Minot  falls,  on  Bog  stream;  fall,  twenty- two  and  one -half  feet  in  five 
hundred  feet.  Hilburn  falls,  on  Bog  stream;  power  not  used.  The  first  and 
second  are  partially  improved  in  saw-mills  and  a  planing-mill.  The  stream 
will  run  the  planing-mill  all  the  year.  One-third  of  the  basin  covered  with 

PoJaiuJ.  —  Three  powers.  PoLand  Corner  privilege  on  Waterhouse  brook; 
fall,  eighteen  feet  in  350  feet ;  velocity  of  current,  100  feet  per  minute ;  area 
of  cross  section,  thirty  square  feet ;  improved  in  part  by  a  grist-mill  and 
saw-mill ;  a  good  stone  dam  across  the  head  of  the  falls  ;  mills  operate  all 
the  year.  Shaker  mill ;  fall,  forty-two  feet  in  250  feet  distance  ;  a  thirty-foot 
overshot  wheel  runs  a  large  amount  of  machinery  all  the  year  for  grinding, 
sawing,  planing,  machine  shops,  carding,  etc.  West  Poland  Mill  Company, 
on  Saunders's  brook ;  an  eighteen-foot  overshot  wheel,  saw-mill,  operating 
half  the  year.     Power  could  be  increased  to  some  extent  by  fiowing  meadows. 



By  J.  G.  Elder. 

THE  early  voyagers  on  the  coast  of  Maine,  Gosnold,  Pring,  and  Weymouth, 
were  strongly  impressed  with  the  peculiar  character,  manners,  and 
customs  of  the  aboriginal  inhabitants.  They  were,  in  some  respects, 
unlike  any  people  seen  by  the  natives  of  Europe,  although  they  were  regarded 
by  them  as  closely  allied  to  the  people  of  the  East.  Their  descriptions  of  this 
new-found  race  are  brief  but  quite  exact,  and  one  of  them  — Weymouth kid- 
napped several  of  the  natives  and  carried  them  to  England,  in  order  that  those 
who  were  interested  in  colonization  might  learn  something  of  the  country  and 
its  strange  inhabitants.  The  celebrated  Captain  John  Smith,  who  visited  our 
coast  in  1614,  and  who  had  been  familiar  with  the  savages  of  Virginia,  refers 

Aboriginal,  Tribes  and  History.  45 

to  these  as  being  essentially  like  those  of  the  South.  Richard  Vines,  who  was 
here  in  1(317-18,  mingled  much  witli  the  Indians,  visited  their  wigwams,  was  a 
witness  of  the  great  mortality  which  so  decimated  the  settlements  on  the  New 
England  coast  that  much  of  it  was  abandoned,  speaks  of  tlieir  simple  habits, 
their  fortitude,  and  the  apparent  indifference  with  which  they  met  their  fate. 

At  this  time  there  were  five  distinct  tribes  that  occupied  what  is  now  the 
state  of  Maine.  The  Sokokis  inhabited  the  valley  of  the  Saco  river,  but  were 
most  numerous  near  its  head  waters,  their  villages  being  located  on  the 
alluvial  lands  of  Fryeburg  and  Conway,  New  Hampshire.  The  Pegwakets  and 
the  Ossipees,  if  not  a  part  of  the  tribe,  were  branches  of  it.  In  1725  they 
were  attacked  by  Captain  Lovewell  and  in  a  sanguinary  and  disastrous  battle 
their  power  was  completely  broken,  and  the  most  of  the  tribe,  disheartened  by 
their  misfortunes,  retired  to  Canada. 

The  Anasagunticooks  were  a  numerous  and  powerful  tribe,  and  their 
hunting-grounds  covered  the  entire  valley  of  the  Androscoggin.  The  Canabas 
tribe  were  located  on  both  sides  of  the  Kennebec  river,  where  they  had  several 
important  villages.  The  Wawenocks  occupied  the  coast  between  the  Sheep- 
scot  and  St  Georges  rivers.  They  were  very  accurately  described  by  Captain 
John  Smith,  whose  intercourse  with  them  was  frequent  and  undisturbed. 
It  was  from  this  tribe  that  Captain  George  Weymouth  secured  those  he  carried 
to  England,  and  from  this  same  tribe  the  perfidious  Hunt  —  the  companion  of 
Captain  John  Smith  in  1G14  —  kidnapped  some  twenty-seven  and  carried  them 
to  Spain  and  sold  them  as  slaves.  The  Penobscots  were  unquestionably  the 
most  numerous  and  powerful.  They  inhabited  the  country  on  both  sides  of 
tlie  Penobscot  bay  and  river.  In  the  summer  they  occupied  the  land  near  the 
sea,  but  in  the  winter  tliey  retired  to  the  interior.  They  were  most  numerous 
near  the  falls  —  Oldtown  —  where  they  now  reside.  It  is  not  a  little  remark- 
able that  this  tribe,  now  numbering  about  five  hundred  persons,  still  occupies 
their  ancient  abode,  and  although  surrounded  by  American  people  and  insti- 
tutions and  also  under  the  care  of  the  state,  yet  they  retain  their  language 
and  religion,  and  most  of  the  habits  and  customs  which  have  come  down 
through  the  centuries,  and  in  all  probability  will  retain  them  for  centuries  to 
come,  or  until  the  tribe  becomes  extinct.  The  Passamaquoddies  were  found 
in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state,  their  tribal  home  being  near  the  lower  Schoodic 
lakes.  Their  present  number  is  about  five  hundred.  They  adhere  with  great 
tenacity  to  the  religious  forms  taught  them  by  the  Jesuits.  The  estimated 
population  of  these  tribes  in  1615  was  31,600.  It  was  supposed  these  tribes 
could  muster  8,800  warriors,  distributed  as  follows :  Sokokis,  900  warriors ; 
Anasagunticooks,  1,500  warriors;  Canabas,  1,500  warriors;  Wawenocks,  1,100 
warriors  ;  Penobscots,  2,400  warriors  ;  Passamaquoddies,  1,400  warriors. 

We  are  in  possession  of  very  little  information  in  relation  to  the  Anasagun- 
ticooks—  or  Androscoggin  Indians,  as  they  were  subsequently  called — before 

46  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

King  Philip's  war,  in  1675-6.  At  Brunswick  falls  they  had  an  encampment  or 
place  of  resort  and  a  fort.  Here  was  the  great  pass  between  the  eastern  and 
western  tribes,  and  during  the  Indian  wars  they  frequently  met  at  this 
camping-ground  and  planned  their  cruel  and  barbarous  attacks  upon  the 
defenceless  settlers.  At  Lewiston  falls  they  frequently  rendezvoued,  and  at 
an  early  day  had  a  fort  of  considerable  magnitude.  There  was  a  large  encamp- 
ment at  Canton,  covering  the  fine  interval  of  that  region.  Owing  to  their 
location  they  were  less  disturbed  in  their  hunting  and  fishing  and  suffered  less 
by  the. encroachments  upon  their  territory  than  any  other  tribe;  but  notwith- 
standing this  freedom  from  interruption,  none  were  more  hostile  or  vindictive 
towards  the  colonists.  The  Androscoggins  were  the  first  to  "dig  up"  the 
tomahawk  and  the  last  to  "bury"  it. 

Hardly  had  the  first  alarm  of  King  Philip's  war  reached  the  scattered  and 
defenceless  settlers  before  a  party  of  this  ferocious  tribe  came  to  the  plantation 
of  Thomas  Purchase,  in  Brunswick,  but  they  did  only  a  little  "  Mischief  save 
plundering  it  of  strong  Liquor  and  Ammunition,  also  killing  a  Calf  or  two 
with  a  few  Sheep,  but  no  more  than  what  they  eat,  and  spoiling  a  Feather-bed, 
by  ripping  it  open  to  turn  out  the  Feathers,  contenting  themselves  with  the 
Case,  which  they  might  more  easily  carry  away."  ....  "but  as  they  went 
away,  told  those  of  the  House,  that  there  were  others  coming  after,  that  would 
deal  far  worse  with  them,  which  within  a  short  Time  after  came  to  pass." 
Mr  Purchase  and  his  "sons  were  absent,  but  one  of  his  sons  who  returned 
wliile  the  savages  were  plundering  the  house,  wus  obliged  to  flee  for  his  life." 
Shortly  after  —  September  5,  1675,  —  they  destroyed  his  buildings  and  cattle, 
and  the  family  fled  to  Massachusetts,  but  never  returned  to  occupy  their 

The  Anasagunticooks  were  very  active  during  the  war  and  quite  a  number 
of  their  warriors  joined  Philip's  forces  in  Massachusetts,  and  "Sundry  of 
them,"  says  Hubbard,  "  came  short  of  Home."  It  was  their  purpose  to  unite 
all  of  the  tribes  in  a  crusade  against  the  whites,  and  to  accomplish  this  design, 
sent  representatives  to  the  Sokokis  in  order  to  induce  them  to  enter  heartily 
into  the  war,  making  it  one  of  extermination.  Philip  was  killed  August  12, 
1675,  and  in  the  following  winter  an  armistice  was  made  with  the  Indians  in 
the  western  part  of  Maine ;  but  this  did  not  include  the  Anasagunticooks  or 
the  Canabas.  During  the  early  part  of  1676  some  of  the  sagamores  visited 
Abraham  Shurte  at  Pemaquid  and  complained  of  the  treatment  received  from 
the  colonists.  Shurte  assured  them  that  justice  should  be  done,  and  then 
referred  to  the  happy  peace  which  had  been  made  with  the  Sokokis  and  other 
Indians,  which  might  become  general  if  the  Anasagunticooks  and  Canabas 
would  assent  to  it.  The  sagamores  seemed  pleased  with  the  interview  and 
soon  after  sent  a  "runner"  inviting  him  to  meet  them  in  council  at  "  Tecon- 
net."    Captain  Sylvanus  Davis  was  associated  with  Shurte,  and  they  proceeded 

Aboriginal  Tribes  and  History.  47 

at  once  to  Teconnet.  "We  come  now,"  said  the  agents,  "to  confirm  the 
peace,  especially  to  treat  with  the  Anasagunticooks.  We  wish  to  see  Squando, 
and  hear  Tarumkin  speak."  He  then  said:  "I  have  been  westward  where  I 
found  three  sagamores  wisliing  for  peace ;  many  Indians  unwilling.  I  love  the 
clear  streams  of  friendship,  that  meet  and  unite.  Certain,  I  myself,  clioose 
the  shades  of  peace.  My  heart  is  true,  and  I  give  you  my  hand  in  pledge  of 
the  truth."  The  professions  of  Tarumkin  and  the  other  chiefs  did  not  secure 
peace,  and  the  war  was  more  terrible  and  sanguinary,  if  possible,  than  before. 
Peace  did  not  come  to  the  disheartened  and  enfeebled  colonists  until  the 
winter  of  1678.  At  that  time  Massachusetts  appointed  commissioners  to  treat 
with  Squando  and  the  Anasagunticooks.  They  met  at  Casco  and  on  April  13, 
1678,  signed  articles  of  peace. 

The  close  of  the  war  was  the  occasion  of  universal  joy,  though  the  memo- 
ries of  the  struggle  caused  extreme  sorrow.  Almost  every  family  bore  the 
marks  of  grief,  as  there  were  few  who  had  not  lost  friends  or  property,  and 
many  had  been  bereft  of  both.  The  terms  of  peace  were  generally  considered 
disgraceful  to  the  Engiisli.  The  losses  sustained  in  life  were  extremely  pain- 
ful. About  two  hundred  and  sixty  were  known  to  have  been  killed  or  carried 
into  captivity  from  which  they  never  returned,  and  nearly  one  hundred  and 
fifty  were  made  captives  and  subsequently  released. 

There  had  been  only  ten  years  of  peace  when  King  William's  war  broke 
out  with  all  the  horrors  so  well  known,  and  dreaded,  in  savage  warfare. 
The  sagamore  of  the  Anasagunticooks,  Tarumkin,  had  been  succeeded  by 
Worombee,  who,  in  1684,  had  granted  large  tracts  of  land  on  the  Andros- 
coggin to  Richard  Wharton  of  Boston,  but  now  he  was  loud  in  his  protesta- 
tions against  the  encroachments  of  the  whites.  As  in  Philip's  war,  so  now 
this  tribe  was  ready  to  renew  the  conflict  with  the  colonists,  and  made  their 
first  attack  at  North  Yarmouth,  August  13,  1688.  The  war  was  prosecuted  by 
the  Indians  with  remarkable  vigor  and  cunning,  accompanied  by  all  the 
cruelties  peculiar  to  the  savages.  The  natives  of  the  Androscoggin  had 
exhibited  so  much  ferociousness  and  inhumanity,  that  the  Government  at 
Boston  determined  to  send  an  expedition,  under  the  command  of  the  celebrated 
Major  Church,  to  destroy  Worombee's  fort  at  the  upper  falls  of  the  Andros- 
coggin. He  arrived  here  September  14,  1690.  We  give  an  extract  from 
Church's  account  of  the  attack  and  capture  of  the  fort,  as  follows: 

"The  same  day  [September  13]  we  advanced  up  the  river  towards 
Amascogg,  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  river,  altho  the  way  was  extream 
difficult;  yett  it  was  a  more  obscure  way;  the  enemie  useing  to  march  on  the 
N.  E.  side.  We  marched  that  day  above  the  middle  falls  [Lisbon  falls] 
about  20  miles;  there  it  began  to  raine  hard;  where  we  encamped  and  built 
fifty  tents,  and  lay  there  that  night;  and  at  break  of  day  put  out  our  fires  and 
marched  as  soon  as  twas  light:     It  being  the  14th  instant  and  the  sabbath  day, 

48  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

the  soiildiers  marched  briskley  and  came  within  sight  of  the  fort  about  2  of  the 
cluck  in  the  afternoon ;  then  we  turned  into  the  woods,  and  fetched  a  circum- 
ference, and  waded  over  a  little  river  not  much  above  the  knees ;  and  in  short 
time  came  to  the  westerly  branch  [Little  Androscoggin]  of  the  Great  Rfver, 
and  there  left  our  baggage  and  those  men  that  were  tired,  and  made  them  up 
40  men  to  guard  the  Doctor;  and  looking  over  the  brow  of  a  hill  by  the  river, 
espied  two  English  captives  and  an  Indian,  moving  towards  the  fort;  ran  after 
them,  and  soon  took  the  English  but  the  Indian  got  clear.  Then  I  feared  he 
would  informe  the  fort:  gave  order,  that  all  with  one  consent  should  run 
throw  the  river  and  not  mind  any  otlier  forme ;  but  he  that  could  gett  first  to 
the  fort,  if  they  had  opportunity,  to  offer  them  peace.  If  they  would  not 
accept  to  fall  on,  and  by  that  time  they  were  well  entered  the  rest  would  be 
come  up ;  also  I  gave  order  for  2  companies  to  spread  between  the  woods  and 
the  fort  to  prevent  the  escape  of  the  enemie  that  way  —  all  which  was  attended 
to.  We  were  very  wett  running  throw  the  river,  but  got  up  undiscovered  to 
the  fort  till  within  shott ;  few  Indians  we  found  there,  but  two  men  and  a  lad 
of  about  18 ;  with  some  women  and  children ;  5  ran  into  the  river,  3  or  4  of 
which  were  killed.  The  lad  of  18  made  his  escape  up  the  river  to  another 
place  where  there  was  corn  [  Canton  Point  ]  about  40  or  50  miles  up,  after- 
wards we  were  well  informed.  We  killed  6  or  7  and  took  eleven.  Lodged  in 
the  fort  that  night.  Only  one  of  our  men  was  wounded  in  that  little  scirmish. 
We  made  use  of  noe  other  firewood  but  the  fort  all  the  time  we  were  there. 
Munday  being  the  15th  instant,  we  having  examined  the  Indians  and  the 
English  captives,  made  search  for  come  and  other  plunder.  We  found  a  prety 
deal  of  corn  in  barnes  under  ground,  and  destroyed  it ;  also  we  found  guns 
and  amunition  a  prety  deal,  with  beaver  and  we  took  5  English  captives,  viz.: 
Leiut.  Robert  Hookins  his  widow  of  Oyster  River ;  Benjamin  Barnards  wife 
of  Salmon  Falls;  Ann  Heard  of  Cochecho ;  one  Willises  daughter  of  Oyester 
River,  and  a  boy  of  Exeter."  ..."  We  left  two  old  squaws  that  were 
not  able  to  march;  gave  them  victuals  enough  for  one  week  of  their  own  boiled 
corn,  and  a  little  of  our  provisions,  buried  their  dead,  and  left  them  clothes 
enough  to  keep  them  warme,  and  left  the  wigwams  for  them  to  lye  in, — gave 
them  orders  to  tell  theire  friends  how  kind  we  were  to  them,  —  bidding  them 
doe  the  like  to  ours;  also,  if  they  were  for  peace  to  come  to  goodman  Smalls 
att  liarwick  within  14  days,  who  would  attend  to  discourse  them.  Then  we 
came  away  with  our  own  5  captives  and  9  of  theirs,  and  waded  throw  the 
river,  and  returned  in  that  day  and  one  more  to  our  vessells  at  Macquait." 

The  war  lasted  for  ten  years.  The  commissioners,  who  negotiated  the 
treaty,  desired  that  the  resident  missionary  among  the  Anasagunticooks  should 
be  removed  "  lest  the  treaty,  if  made,  would  be  violated  as  heretofore  through 
their  instigation."  The  treaty  was  the  same  as  that  of  1693,  with  additional 
articles,  and  was  ratified  January  7,  1699. 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  49 

The  Anasagunticooks,  during  the  period  of  Queen  Anne's  War,  were  not 
so  prominent  as  they  had  hitherto  been.  It  was  not  far  from  this  time  that 
the  French  induced  many  of  them  to  retire  to  Canada,  and  with  a  few 
Wawenocks  and  Sokokis  Indians,  formed  the  St  Francis  tribe.  Gradually 
they  became  reduced  in  numbers  by  removals  to  the  settlement  on  the  St 
Francis,  and  in  a  few  years  only  a  small  number  of  the  once  powerful  tribe 
that  occupied  the  valley  of  the  Androscoggin,  remained.  They  undoubtedly 
engaged  in  subsequent  wars,  and  were  generally  included  in  the  treaties,  but 
were  rarely  present  when  the  treaties  were  ratified.  Many  years  have  passed 
since  the  last  wandering  Anasagunticook  occupied  the  valley  where  they  were 
once  so  numerous,  and  the  name  is  known  only  in  history. 



The  Cabots— Mary  of  Guilford  — English  Claims  — Norumbega  — Bartholomew  Gosnold 
and  Other  Discoverers— Acadia —  French  Claims  and  Occupancy  — Captaiu  Weymouth  — 
Grants  by  James  I  — North  Virginia  — Plymouth  Company  — Captain  John  Smith  — New 
England  — Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges  and  Captain  John  Mason- Province  of  Maine— Laconia— 
First  English  Settlements— Kennebec  and  Other  Patents  — Plymouth  Council  — The  Twelve 
Grand  Divisions- Resignation  of  Plymouth  Patent— William  Gorges  — New  Patent  of 
Maine  — Gorgeana  — Settlement  under  Gorges —Massachusetts  Claims  and  Proprietorship. 

THE  English  claim  to  North  America  was  based  on  its  discovery  by  the 
Cabots  in  1497  and  1498,  yet  the  first  Englishmen  to  set  foot  on  its 
shores  were  part  of  the  crew  of  the  Mary  of  Guilford,  a  vessel  com- 
manded by  John  Rut,  which,  with  the  Samson,  sailed  from  Plymouth,  England, 
June  10,  1527,  in  search  of  the  northwest  passage.  They  sailed  toward 
Newfoundland  where  a  great  storm  left  only  the  Mary  of  Guilford  to  continue 
the  search.  From  Newfoundland  she  sailed  southward,  returning  "by  the 
coasts  of  Newfoundland,  Cape  Breton,  and  Norumbega,"  i  often  entering  the 
ports,  landing  men  and  examining  the  country,  and  reaching  England  in 

1  At  this  time  Norumbega,  or  Arambec,  was  the  name  given  sometimes  to  Maine,  and  sometimes 
to  the  whole  tract  along  the  ocean  from  Nova  Scotia  to  the  river  later  called  the  Hudson.  When 
and  by  whom  first  applied  is  now  unknown.  It  appears  on  a  French  map  of  1534  as  Anorobagra,  as 
Nurumbega  on  one  of  1550,  and  may  be  shown  perhaps  on  earlier  ones.    M.  Andre  Thevet,  a  French 

50  History  of  ANDROSCOGGm  County. 

In  1602  Bartholomew  Gosnold  sailed  along  the  shores  of  Maine  and  gave 
so  good  a  report  of  its  resources,  that  in  1603  wealthy  Englishmen  fitted  out 
the  Speedwell  (fifty  tons),  commanded  by  Martin  Pring,  and  the  Discoverer 
(twenty-six  tons),  for  a  trading  expedition  to  America.  Leaving  Milford 
Haven,  April  10,  a  few  days  after  the  death  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  a  prosperous 
voyage  brought  them,  June  7,  to  what  we  know  as  Penobscot  bay.  They 
coasted  westward  until  they  came  to  the  Piscataqua,  but  finding  no  Indians  to 
trade  with  they  went  south,  secured  valuable  cargoes  and  sailed  home  in 
August.  Pring  made  a  second  voyage  in  1606,  and  in  these  voyages,  accord- 
ing to  Gorges,  he  made  a  perfect  discovery  of  all  these  eastern  rivers  and 
harbors,  and  took  to  England  the  most  accurate  account  of  the  coast  which 
had  come  to  that  country. 

Henry  IV  of  France  granted  to  Pierre  de  Gast,  Sieure  de  Monts,  a  royal 
patent,  November  8,  1603,  of  all  American  territory  between  the  fortieth  and 
forty-sixth  degrees  of  north  latitude,  under  the  name  of  Acadia.  In  1604, 
under  the  pilotage  of  Samuel  Champlain,  who  had  explored  the  St  Lawrence 
river  the  year  before,  he  visited  Nova  Scotia,  and  by  him  St  Croix  was  named, 
and  a  residence  made  for  the  winter  on  the  island.  The  next  May  (1605)  they 
sailed  westerly,  erected  a  cross  at  Kennebec,  taking  possession  in  the  name  of 
the  king,  passed  along  the  coast  to  Cape  Cod,  returned  to  St  Croix,  and 
constructed  a  fort  and  established  a  settlement  at  Port  Royal  (Annapolis). 
This  was  the  basis  of  the  French  claim  so  tenaciously  held  to  this  territory. 

The  same  year  (1605)  the  English  reached  out  for  occupation  of  this  coast. 
A  vessel  connnanded  by  George  Weymouth  was  despatched  (nominally  by 
some  enterprising  English  gentlemen)  to  discover  a  northwest  passage,  but 
doubtless  the  English  government  looked  for  his  occupancy  of  territory  "  for 
the  crown."  Leaving  the  Downs  March  31,  on  May  11  he  reached  America 
near  Cape  Cod,  sailed  north,  and  shortly  thereafter  was  on  the  coast  of  Maine. 
Possession  was  taken  of  the  country,  and  a  valuable  commerce  was  begun  with 
the  Indians,  "  for  instance,  one  gave  forty  skins  of  beaver,  sable,  and  otter, 
for  articles  of  five  shillings'  value."  An  altercation  arising.  Captain  Weymouth 
seized  and  carried  to  England  five  of  the  Indians — four  of  them  persons  of 

cosmographer,  says  that  in  ir)56  he  sailed  along  the  entire  coast  of  Florida  and  visited  the  coast  of 
Norumbega.  He  describes  a  river  "  which  we  call  Norumbegue  and  the  aborigines  Agoncy,  and 
marked  on  some  charts  as  the  Grand  River  [this  is  generally  considered  to  be  Penobscot  bay],  and 
upon  its  banks  the  French  formerly  erected  a  little  fort  about  ten  or  twelve  leagues  from  its  mouth, 
which  was  surrounded  by  fresh  water,  and  this  place  was  named  the  fort  of  Norumbegue."  He  further 
states  that  some  pilots  would  make  him  believe  that  this  was  the  proper  country  of  Canada,  but  he  told 
them  this  was  in  4r>°  N.  and  Canada  was  in  50  or  52''.  Richard  Hakluyt  in  his  "  Discourse  of  Western 
Planting,"  written  in  1584,  considers  Norumbega  to  extend  along  the  coast  without  definite  limits,  in  a 
southwestern  direction  from  Cape  Breton.  Milton  immortalized  its  name  in  "  Paradise  Lost,"  and 
many  fabulous  descriptions  of  its  capital,  The  Lost  City  of  New  England,  are  given  in  the  January 
(1877)  number  of  the  Mar/azlue  of  American  History.  Eben  Norton  Horsford,  in  his  book,  "The  Dis- 
covery of  the  Ancient  City  of  Norumbega,"  claims  to  have  discovered  its  actual  site  on  Charles  river, 
above  Boston. 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  51 

rank.  The  voyage  was  financially  successful,  awoke  an  interest  in  the  settle- 
ment of  the  New  World  that  never  abated,  and  was  the  means  of  establishing 
the  English  colonies  to  which  the  United  States  is  the  successor.  But  from 
this  unprovoked  and  ill-advised  seizure  of  the  natives  sprung  much  of  the 
hatred  of  the  English  among  the  aborigines,  and  the  later  long  and  bloody 
wars  with  them  arose  from  the  distrust  and  revengeful  feelings  into  which  this 
arbitrary  and  cruel  act  changed  the  unsuspicious  friendship  and  hospitality 
with  which  Weymouth's  men  were  greeted. 

In  1606  a  belt  of  twelve  degrees  on  the  American  coast,  embracing  nearly 
all  the  soil  from  Cape  Fear  to  Halifax,  was  set  apart  by  James  I  for  two 
companies  under  one  "General  Council  of  Government."  One,  North 
Virginia,  included  the  land  from  the  forty-first  degree  of  north  latitude  to  the 
forty-fifth ;  the  other  extended  from  the  thirty-fourth  to  the  thirty-eighth 
degree.  ^ 

The  northern  portion  was  granted  to  the  Plymouth  Company,  formed  in 
the  west  of  England.  The  king  retained  the  power  of  appointment  of  all 
officers,  exacted  homage  and  rent,  and  demanded  one-fifth  of  all  the  gold  and 
silver  found,  and  one-fifteenth  of  all  the  copper  for  the  royal  treasury.  "  Not 
an  element  of  popular  liberty  was  introduced  into  these  charters;  the  colonists 
were  not  recognized  as  a  source  of  political  power ;  they  were  at  the  mercy  of 
a  double-headed  tyranny  composed  of  the  king  and  his  advisers,  the  Council 
and  its  agents." 

A  new  charter  was  given  to  the  Council  of  Plymouth,  November  3,  1620, 
granting  the  lands  between  the  fortieth  and  forty-eighth  degrees  of  north 
latitude,  from  sea  to  sea,  as  "  New  England  in  America."  All  powers  of 
legislation,  unlimited  jurisdiction,  and  absolute  property  in  this  tract  were 
given  by  this  charter.  This  charter  is  the  foundation  of  the  numerous 
subsequent  patents  by  which  New  England  was  divided,  and  its  settlements  and 
colonies  located  and  limited.  The  name  originated  with  the  celebrated  Captain 
John  Smith,  who,  during  the  years  from  1605  to  1616,  was  the  greatest  American 
explorer.  He  made  a  map  of  the  American  coast  from  Cape  Cod  to  Penobscot 
in  1614,  called  it  "  New  England,"  and  wrote  a  brief  history  of  the  land.  The 
name  came  into  favor  with  the  sovereign,  and  has  been  indelibly  stamped  upon 
this  section  of  America. 

1  The  English  settlement  of  Maine  antedates  by  more  than  thirteen  years  that  of  Massachusetts. 
May  31,  1G07,  eighteen  days  after  the  sailing  of  the  Jamestown  colony,  two  ships,  commanded  by 
George  Popham  and  Raleigh  Gilbert,  sailed  from  Plymouth  with  one  hundred  and  twenty  persons  to 
found  a  colony.  This  they  did  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec,  where  the  name  has  been  commemorated 
by  Fort  Popham.  Their  Episcopal  minister,  Richard  Seymour,  by  prayer  and  sermon  dedicated  the 
spot  and  inaugurated  their  government.  They  fortified  the  ground,  erected  a  fort  of  twelve  guns, 
built  a  village  of  fifty  houses,  a  church,  and  a  thirty-ton  vessel,  the  Virginia  of  Sagadahoc,  the  first 
ship  built  in  America  by  Europeans.  By  various  disheartenments  the  colonists  became  discouraged; 
they  dispersed,  and  the  colony  ceased  to  exist. 

52  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges  and  Captain  John  Mason  were  prominent  members 
of  the  Council  of  Plymouth.  A  man  of  intellect  and  courage,  a  most  brilliant 
naval  officer,  and  a  leading  spirit  in  many  prominent  historical  events  in 
England,  Gorges  had  always  a  desire  to  create  a  new  nation  in  the  barbaric 
lands  of  America.  He  had  been  associated  with  Raleigh  in  founding  the 
settlements  in  Virginia,  was  president  of  the  first  Council,  and  it  was  through 
him  that  the  exploration  and  map  of  New  England  were  made  by  John  Smith. 
Fitting  out  several  expeditions  which  came  to  naught,  he  at  last  became 
associated  with  Captain  John  Mason,  a  kindred  spirit,  who  had  been  governor 
of  Newfoundland.'  The  meeting  of  such  men  struck  coruscant  and  rapid 
sparks  of  enthusiasm.  In  quick  succession  they  secured  various  charters, 
which  were  intended  to,  and  really  did,  cover  most  of  the  territory  now  in 
New  Hampshire  and  Maine. 

A  patent  was  given  by  King  James  to  Gorges  and  Mason  of  "  the  country 
between  the  Merrimac  and  Kennebec  to  the  farthest  head  of  said  rivers,  and 
sixty  miles  inland,"  and  all  islands,  etc.,  within  five  leagues  of  the  shore,  which 
the  indenture  says  "  they  intend  to  call  the  Province  of  Maine."  This  has 
been  erroneously  stated  to  be  the  grant  of  Laconia^  but,  as  General  Chamber- 
lain says,  "  The  true  Laconia  grant  was  in  1629,  and  embraces  the  river  and 
lake  of  the  Iroquois  (Champlain),  and  the  lands  bordering  on  these  waters 
ten  miles  on  the  south  and  east,  and  still  further  west  and  north  towards 

An  association  or  mercantile  organization  formed  by  Gorges,  Mason,  and 
leading  merchants  of  jjrominent  English  cities,  sent  many  ships  and  some 
emigrants  in  1622  and  1623,  and  established  trading  stations  at  Piscataqua, 
Monhegan,  and,  particularly  in  1623,  at  Saco,  where  for  fourteen  years  Gorges 
had  attempted  to  establish  a  settlement.  But  the  exclusive  privileges  granted 
to  the  Plymouth  Council  caused  great  complaint,  especially  in  the  jurisdiction 
over  fisheries,  and  Gorges  was  summoned  before  the  bar  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  and  called  upon  to  deliver  his  patent.  He  made  an  able  defence, 
and  the  king,  although  requested  by  the  House,  would  not  recall  the  Charter 
of  the  Plymouth  Council.  Public  sentiment  was  so  strong  that  it  checked  for 
some  time  the  spirit  of  colonization,  and  the  Council  suspended  active 

In  1624  Gorges  procured  a  patent  of  24,000  acres  at  Agamenticus,  now 
York,  and  individually  began  its  settlement.  In  1626  the  New  Plymouth 
colonists  erected  a  trading-house  at  Penobscot,  and  the  next  year  (1627) 
obtained  from  the  Plymouth  Council  "  the  first  Kennebec  patent."  March 
19,  1627,  the  Council  granted  a  patent  to  six  associates,  who  joined  twenty 

1  The  first  grant  of  territory  by  the  Plymouth  Council  was  to  him.  It  embraced  "  the  lands  between 
Merrimack  and  Naumkeag,  from  their  sources  to  the  sea,  including  all  islands  within  three  miles  of 
the  coast."    The  territory  was  named  Mariana,  and  the  grant  was  dated  March  2,  1621. 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  53 

others  with  them,  and  March  4,  1628,  obtained  a  royal  charter  by  which  it 
became  the  colony  of  Massachusetts  Bay.  Its  patent  covered  the  lands 
between  the  lines  a  league  southerly  of  the  river  Charles,  and  northerly  of  the 
Merrimack.  January  13,  1629,  the  Kemieheck  or  Plymouth  patent  was  granted. 
Mason  and  Gorges  agreed  this  year  to  make  the  Piscataqua  river  their  line  of 
division,  and  the  Plymouth  Council,  November  7,  1629,  granted  Mason  the 
territory  west  of  the  Piscataqua  in  the  Laconia  grant  as  New  Hainpskire. 

In  1630  was  granted  the  Lyijonln  patent,  forty  miles  square,  which  extended 
t(j  the  Kennebunk  river  west,  and  Harpswell  on  the  east.  This  was  signed  for 
the  Council  by  its  president,  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  and  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges.' 
March  2,  1630,  the  3Iii><co)u/us  patent,  extending  "from  the  sea  between  the 
rivers  Penobscot  and  Muscongus  to  an  unsurveyed  line  running  east  and  west 
so  far  north  as  would  without  interfering  with  the  Kennebeck  or  other  patent 
embrace  a  territory  equal  to  thirty  miles  square."  This  later  was  the  "Waldo 
patent,"  so  called  from  the  then  principal  proprietors.  In  1631  "the  Pejypscot 
patent"  of  1,500  acres  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  was  granted  to  Richard 
Bradshaw,  to  include  "lands  not  formerly  granted  to  any  other."  The  last 
grants  of  lands  by  the  Plymouth  Council  in  the  territory  now  the  State  of 
Maine  were  made  in  1632.  They  were :  First,  the  Pemaquid  patent.  This 
extended  "  from  the  sea  between  Muscongus  and  Damariscotta  rivers  (includ- 
ing the  Damariscove  islands  and  all  others  within  nine  leagues  of  the  shore) 
so  far  northward  as  to  include  12,000  acres  and  one  hundred  acres  for  each 
person  brought  by  the  proprietors  within  seven  years  and  who  reside  here 
three  years."  Second,  the  Way  and  Purchase  patent,  including  a  tract  on  the 
river  Bishoppscotte  (Pejepscot),  the  Androscoggin  and  all  that  bounds  and 
limits  the  mainland  to  the  extent  of  two  miles. ^ 

By  this  time  emigration  was  large  to  these  new  settlements,  but  many  of 
the  projectors  and  merchant  adventurers,  who  had  furnished  the  means  for 
ships  and  stores,  outfits  of  cattle  and  building  materials,  with  necessary  supplies 
for  the  colonists,  began  to  despair  of  adequate  or  any  return  from  the  vast 
sums  they  had  expended,  and  in  1634  Gorges  and  Mason  became  possessed  of 
all  the  interest  of  their  associates,  and,  dividing  their  joint  property,  confined 
their  individual  labors,  the  one  to  the  northerly  and  the  other  to  the  southerly 
side  of  the  Piscataqua.  The  Plymouth  Council  was  now  doomed.  Gorges 
was  again  summoned  before  the  House  of  Commons  to  show  cause  why  the 
charter  should  not  be  revoked.  With  unanswerable  arguments  presented 
with  brilliant  eloquence  he  defended  the  Council  and  its  measures.  In  his 
argument  he  said:  "Yes,  I  have  spent  X20,000  of  my  estate,  and  thirty  years, 

1  On  account  of  the  attempt  to  found  a  purely  agricultural  colony,  and  from  the  name  of  the  first 
vessel  bringing  emigrants,  this  was  later  known  as  the  Plough  patent. 

-  This  reached,  it  is  supposed,  to  Casco  bay  on  the  south,  and  was  the  cause  of  long  and  bitter  con- 
troversy with  the  Pejepscot  proprietors,  not  settled  until  1814. 

54  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

the  flower  of  my  whole  life,  in  new  discoveries  and  settlements  upon  a  remote 
continent,  in  the  enlargement  of  my  country's  commerce  and  dominions,  and 
in  carrying  civilization  and  Christianity  into  regions  of  savages."  All  in  vain. 
Williamson  says: 

Never  probably  bad  the  discouragements  of  Gorges  and  Mason  bordered  more  nearly 
on  despair.  The  charges  of  establishing  a  plantation  in  a  wilderness  they  found  to  be 
three-fold  its  worth.  The  planters,  being  hired  servants  or  tenants,  were  often  indolent 
and  wasteful ;  and  the  fruits  of  their  whole  labor  would  not  yield  them  a  tolerable  support. 
No  superintendent  could  control  their  erratic  dispositions,  or  prevent  their  changes  of 
abode  from  place  to  place.  The  proprietors  had  never  visited  the  country,  nor  established 
a  regular  efficient  government  for  the  punishment  of  offenders  or  the  preservation  of  order. 
The  French  were  making  encroachments  and  committing  mischief;  the  Itidians  were  rest- 
less, if  not  unfriendly;  and  to  crown  all,  a  violent,  unnatural  warfare  had  commenced 
between  king  and  people  at  home. 

Before  it  relinquished  its  charter  the  Plymouth  Council  drew  lots,  February* 
3,  1635,  "in  presence  of  his  Majesty,"  for  the  ownership  of  the  twelve  Grand 
Divisions  into  which  they  divided  their  patent.  The  first  division  was  called 
the  "County  of  Canada,"  included  the  Muscongus  grant  and  the  eastern 
portion  of  the  Pemaquid  and  Kennebec  patents;  the  second  was  a  small 
division — from  Pemaquid  to  Sagadahoc;  the  third  stretched  from  the  Kennebec 
to  the  Androscoggin,  taking  in  the  west  half  of  the  Kennebec  patent,  a  part  of 
old  Laconia,  and  a  part  of  Gorges  and  Mason's  first  grant;  the  fourth  division 
extended  from  Sagadahoc  to  Piscataqua,  embracing  Lygonia,  Saco,  and  Agamen- 
ticus  (the  third  and  fourth  divisions  were  assigned  to  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges 
and  became  New  Somersetshire);  the  fifth  extended  from  the  Piscataqua  to 
Naumkeag  river,  and  from  the  sea  to  a  line  sixty  miles  north  of  the  mouths 
of  those  rivers,  a  part  of  the  Isle  of  Shoals,  and  Masonia,  which  took  10,000 
acres  on  the  eastern  side  of  Sagadahoc  at  its  mouth  (this  was  assigned  to  John 
Mason);  the  sixth  extended  from  Naumkeag  river  around  the  seacoast  by 
Cape  Cod  to  Narragansett;  the  seventh  "was  the  territory  eastward  of  a 
monumental  boundary  to  be  set  up  at  a  place  equi-distant  from  Narragansett 
and  Connecticut  river  extending  fifty  miles  into  the  country";  the  eighth 
reached  from  this  to-be-erected  monument  to  the  Connecticut,  and  also  extended 
fifty  miles  back ;  the  ninth  reached  from  the  Connecticut  to  the  Hudson, 
running  thirty  miles  back;  the  tenth  was  a  parallelogram  forty  miles  deep 
between  these  last  mentioned  rivers  immediately  above  the  ninth  division; 
the  eleventh  was  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Hudson  from  the  fortieth  parallel 
of  latitude,  extending  thirty  miles  into  the  country,  and  the  twelfth,  thirty 
miles  on  the  river  by  forty  miles  in  depth,  lay  directly  above  the  eleventh 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  55 

The  Plymouth  Council  resigned  its  patent  to  the  king  April  25,  1635, 
"  reserving  all  grants  by  us  made,  and  all  vested  rights."  Sir  Ferdinando 
Gorges  was  later  commissioned  royal  governor-general  of  New  England,  but 
never  came  here. 

Believing  himself  possessed  of  the  same  authority  in  government  that  the 
Plymouth  Council  had  exercised,  so  far  as  New  Somersetshire  was  concerned, 
Gorges  sent  his  nephew,  William  Gorges,  a  man  of  manifest  ability,  as  governor 
of  the  province.  He  established  at  Saco,  March  28,  1636,  the  first  organized 
court  within  the  limits  of  Maine.  William  Gorges  did  not  stay  but  about 
two  years,  and  the  settlers  of  New  Somersetshire,  as  well  as  those  of  New 
Hampshire,  looked  yearningly  on  the  protection  to  individual  rights  afforded 
by  the  strong,  wise,  and  systematic  government  of  Massachusetts. 

April  3,  1639,  a  new  charter  was  granted,  conveying  uncommon  powers, 
and  covering  the  territory  "beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Piscataqua,  and 
going  up  that  river  through  Newichawannock  and  Salmon  Falls  river  north- 
westward one  hundred  and  twenty  miles;  from  Piscataqua  harbor  northeast- 
wards along  the  seacoast  to  Sagadahock;  thence  through  that  river  and  the 
Kennebeck  northwestward  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles;  thence  over  land  to 
the  utmost  northerly  end  of  the  line  first  mentioned;  including  the  north  half 
of  the  Isle  of  Shoals,  and  the  islands  Capawock  and  Nautican  near  Cape  Cod; 
also  all  the  islands  and  inlets  within  five  leagues  of  the  main,  along  the  coasts 
between  the  said  rivers  Piscataqua  and  Sagadahock."  This  territory  was 
granted  to  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges,  and  incorporated  as  the  Province,  or  County 
of  Maine.  A  vigorous  government  with  courts  was  at  once  established,  the 
city  of  Georgeana  (Gorgeana)  erected  out  of  the  borough  of  Agamenticus, 
which  city  for  more  than  ten  years  exercised  civic  authority  in  a  very  useful 
manner.  The  settlements  and  governments  of  Gorges  were  conducted  with 
Episcopalianism  as  the  established  religious  faith,  and  under  royal  favor,  while 
the  rapidly  growing  province  of  Massachusetts  was  under  dissenting  faith 
and  more  in  favor  of  free  institutions  and  the  rights  of  the  people. 

In  1651  Massachusetts  laid  claim  to  a  portion  of  Maine,  and  as  Gorges's 
government  had  failed  to  satisfy  many  of  the  inhabitants  of  Maine,  they  sought 
to  submit  themselves  to  Massachusetts.  Before  this  (1639)  Purchase  had 
assigned  the  Pejepscot  grant  to  the  Massachusetts  government,  to  secure  its  aid 
and  protection.  By  degrees  the  jurisdiction  over  Maine,  commencing  with  a 
limited  territory  in  the  southwest  part,  extended  eastward,  until  by  1660  it 
embraced  the  whole  coast  district  to  Passamaquoddy.  In  1662  the  king 
confirmed  the  charter  of  Massachusetts,  but  in  1664  he  issued  an  order  to  the 
governor  and  council  of  Massachusetts  requiring  them  to  restore  the  Province 
of  Maine  to  Ferdinando  Gorges,  the  grandson  of  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges.  Royal 
commissioners  were  sent  to  re-instate  the  government  of  Gorges,  but  the  old 
order  of  things  returned  in  a  few  years,  and  Massachusetts  was  the  onl}^  stable 

56  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

power  to  which  the  people  could  look  for  protection  amid  the  dangers  of  the 
French  and  Indian  war  then  in  progress.  So  Massachusetts  was  encouraged  to 
maintain  her  hold,  and  May  6, 1677,  through  its  agent,  John  Usher,  it  purchased 
all  the  rights  of  Gorges  for  £1,250.  A  grave  doubt  arose  concerning  the  powers 
acquired  by  Massachusetts  by  this  purchase,  and  assuming  ownership  only  to 
be  conferred,  the  District  of  Maine  was  created  and  a  governor  appointed. 
From  this  time  until  the  separation  — 1820— Maine  was  under  the  proprietor- 
ship of  Massachusetts. 


By  J.  G.  Elder. 

Thomas  Purchase  —  Purchase  and  Way's  Patent  —  Assignment  to  Governor  Winthrop  — 
Richard  Wharton  —  The  Six  Indian  Sagamores's  Deed — Pejepscot  Proprietors  — Definition 
of  Territory. 

PEJEPSCOT  CLAIM.— Thomas  Purchase  settled  on  the  Pejepscot,  ^  now 
the  Androscoggin  river,  about  1628.  The  precise  time  as  well  as  the 
exact  location  are  not  known.  It  was  undoubtedly  within  the  present 
limits  of  the  town  of  Brunswick.  Subsequently,  it  has  been  asserted,  he  lived 
at  Lisbon  Falls.  Purchase  was  a  farmer  and  trader,  and  carried  on  an  exten- 
sive fur  and  peltr}'^  trade  with  the  Indians.  He  has  been  charged  with  taking- 
advantage  of  the  natives  in  various  ways,  but  chiefly  in  the  sale  of  intoxicating 
drinks.  One  old  warrior  of  the  Amonoscoggin  tribe  "  once  complained  that 
he  had  given  an  hundred  Pounds  for  Water  drawn  out  of  Mr  Purchase  his 
Well."  In  1632  the  Council  for  New  England  granted  to  Thomas  Purchase 
and  George  Way  of  Dorchester,  England,  certain  lands  on  "  Bishoppscotte " 
river,  which  unquestionably  included  the  territory  occupied  by  Purchase. 
Way  probably  never  occupied  any  of  the  land  covered  by  the  grant,  and  it 
is  very  doubtful  if  he  ever  visited  this  country,  though  his  widow  and  sons 
afterwards  resided  in  Hartford,  Conn.  Purchase  conveyed  to  Governor 
Winthrop,  in  1639,  his  land  at  Pejepscot,  reserving  the  portion  occupied  and 
improved  by  himself. 

1  Pejepscot,  according  to  Dr  True,  comes  from  requomsque,  in  the  Algonquin  language  meaning 
"  it  is  crooked." 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  57 

Within  the  limits  of  this  patent  Purchase  lived  and  continued  actively  in 
business  until  the  first  Indian  war,  known  as  King  Philip's  War,  1675-6, 
when  his  buildings  were  destroyed  and  his  family  driven  away.  This  was 
probably  in  September,  1675.  Purchase's  loss  was  estimated  at  one  thousand 
pounds.  It  is  said  he  was  at  Boston  at  the  time,  and  had  engaged  passage  in 
Captain  Walley's  ship  for  London.  There  is  no  evidence  that  he  returned  to 
his  home  on  the  Androscoggin.  He  died  in  Lynn,  Mass.,  May  1,  1678.  His 
will  was  dated  May  2,  1677,  and  probated  June  4,  1678.  One-third  of  his 
estate  was  left  to  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  and  the  other  two-thirds  to  his  five 
children,  Thomas,  Jane,  Elizabeth,  Abraham,  and  Sarah.  His  widow  married 
John  Blany  of  Lynn,  November,  1679. 

Richard  Wharton,  a  Boston  merchant,  an  Englishman  by  birth  and  educa- 
tion, conceived  the  plan  of  establishing  a  "  manor  "  after  the  style  of  English 
gentlemen,  and  for  that  purpose  bought,  July  4,  1683,  of  the  heirs  of  Purchase 
and  Way  the  land  covered  by  their  patent  of  1632,  as  well  as  lands  bought 
by  Purchase  of  the  Indian  sagamores.  In  this  purchase  of  Wharton  was 
included  the  claim  of  John  Shapleigh.  The  price  paid  the  Purchase  heirs 
was  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds,  thirty  of  which  was  paid  down  and  the 
remainder  was  to  be  paid  when  the  heirs  furnished  a  copy  of  the  patent 
given  to  Purchase  and  Way.  There  can  be  no  doubt  but  the  copy  of  the 
patent  was  produced,  for  we  find  him,  in  1687,  making  payments  on  account 
of  his  purchase,  satisfied  with  the  "  conformation  he  had  obtained  in  right 
of  said  Purchase  and  Way  for  said  patent."  Wharton's  claim  included  the 
whole  of  Harpswell,  except  a  few  islands,  the  greater  part  of  Brunswick, 
and  a  part  of  Topsham.  But  this  tract  of  land,  extensive  as  it  was,  did  not 
satisfy  the  Englishman's  manorial  ideas,  for  he  sought  and  obtained  from 
Worombee  and  five  other  sagamores  of  the  Androscoggin  tribe,  a  large  tract 
of  land  on  both  sides  of  the  Androscoggin  river  and  extending  to  the 
"uppermost  falls  in  said  Androscoggin  river." 

The  Six  Indian  Sagamores's  Deed  to  Richard  Wharton.  —  To  all  People  to  whom 
these  Presents  shall  come ;  Know  yee  that  whereas  near  threescore  years  since  M""  Thomas 
Purchase  dec'd  came  into  this  Country  as  we  have  been  well  informed  and  did  as  well 
by  Power  or  Patteut  derived  from  the  King  of  England  as  by  Consent,  Contract  and 
Agreement  with  Sagamores  and  Proprietors  of  all  the  Lands  lying  on  the  Easterly  side  of 
Casco-bay,  and  on  the  both  sides  of  Androscoggin  River  and  Keunebeck  River  enter  upon 
and  take  Possession  of  all  the  Lands  lying  four  Miles  westward  from  the  uppermost  Falls 
on  said  Androscoggin  River  to  Maquoit  in  Casco-bay,  and  on  the  Lands  on  the  other  side 
Androscoggin  River  from  above  said  Falls  down  to  Pejepscott  and  Merrymeeting  Bay  to 
be  bounded  by  a  Southwest  and  Northeast  Line  to  run  from  the  upper  part  of  said  Falls  to 
Kennebeck  River,  and  all  the  Land  from  Maquoit  to  Pejepscott  and  to  hold  the  same 
Breadth  where  the  Land  will  bear  it  down  to  a  Place  callet  Atkins's  Bay  near  to  Sagadehoc 
on  the  Westerly  side  of  Kennebeck  River:     And  all  the  Islands  in  the  said  Kennebeck 

58  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

River  and  Land  between  the  said  Atliins's  Bay,  and  Small  Point  Harbour  the  Lands  & 
Rivers,  and  Ponds  interjacent  containing  therein  Breadth  about  three  English  Miles  more 
or  less.  And  Whereas  we  are  well  assured  that  Major  Nicholas  Shapleigh  in  his  life  time 
was  both  by  Purchase  from  the  Indians  Sagamores,  our  Ancestors  and  Consent  of  Mr 
Gorge's  Commissioners  possessed  and  dyed  seized  of  the  remainder  of  the  Lands  lying  and 
Adjoyning  upon  the  Main  and  all  the  Islands  between  the  said  Small  Point  harbour  and 
Maquoit  aforesaid;  and  particularly  of  a  Neck  of  Land  called  Merrycoueeg,  and  an  Island 
called  Sebasco:degin.  And  whereas  the  Relict  and  Heirs  of  said  Mr  Purchase,  and  Major 
Nicholas  Shapleigh  have  reserved  Accommodations  for  their  several  Families,  sold  all  the 
remainder  of  the  aforesaid  Lands  and  Islands  to  Richard  Wharton  of  Boston  Merchant, 
and  forasmuch  as  the  said  Mr  'Purchase  did  personally  possess  improve  and  inhabit  at 
Pejepscott  aforesaid  near  the  Centre  or  middle  of  all  the  Lands  aforesaid  for  near  Fifty 
years  before  the  late  unhappy  war;  and  whereas  the  said  Richard  Wharton  hath  desired 
an  Enlargement  upon  and  between  the  said  Androscoggin  &  Kennebeck  River ;  and  to 
encourage  the  said  Richard  Wharton  to  settle  an  English  Town  and  promote  the  Salmon 
and  Sturgeon  Fishery  by  which  we  promise  ourselves  great  supplies,  and  Relief.  Therefore 
and  for  other  good  Causes  and  Considerations  and  especially  for  and  in  consideration  of  a 
Valuable  Sum  received  from  the  said  Wharton  iu  Merchandize:  We  Warumbee  Derumkine 
Wehikermell  Wedou-Domhegon,  Neonongassett,  and  Wimbanewett  chief  Sagamores  of  all 
the  aforesaid,  and  other  Rivers  &  Lands  adjacent  have  iu  confirmation  of  the  said  Richard 
Wharton's  Title  and  Property  fully  freely  and  absolutely  Given  Granted  Ratifyed  and 
Confirmed  to  him  the  said  Richard  Wharton  all  the  aforesaid  Lands  from  the  uppermost 
part  of  Androscoggin  Falls  four  miles  Westward  and  so  down  to  Maquoit  and  by  said  River 
of  Pejepscott;  and  from  the  other  side  oY  Androscoggin  Falls,  all  the  Lands  from  the  Falls 
to  Pejepscot  and  Merrymeeting  Bay  to  Kennebeck  and  towards  the  Wilderness  to  be 
bounded  by  a  Southwest  and  Northeast  Line  to  extend  from  the  upper  part  of  the  said 
Androscoggin  uppermost  Falls  to  the  said  River  of  Kennebeck;  and  all  the  Lands  from 
Maquoit  to  Pejepscott,  and  so  to  run  and  hold  the  same  Breadth  where  the  Land  will  bear 
it  unto  Atkins's  Bay  in  Kennebeck  River  and  Small  Point  Harbour  in  Casco-bay;  and  all 
Islands  in  Kennebeck  &  Pejepscott  Rivers  and  Merrymeeting  Bay  and  within  the  aforesaid 
Bounds  especially  the  aforesaid  Neck  of  Land  called  Merryconeeg,  and  Island  called 
Sebasco-degin  together  with  all  Rivers,  Rivoletts,  Brooks,  Ponds  Pools  Waters  Water- 
courses; all  Woods  Trees  of  Timber,  or  other  Trees,  and  all  Mines,  Minerals,  Quarries, 
and  especially  the  Sole  and  absolute  use  and  benefitt  of  Salmon  and  Sturgeon  fishing  in  all 
the  Rivers  Rivuletts  or  Bays  aforesaid ;  and  in  all  Rivers  Brooks  Creeks  or  Ponds  within 
any  of  the  Bounds  aforesaid :  And  also  We  the  said  Sagamore's  have  upon  the  consideration 
aforesaid  Given  Granted  liargained  and  sold  Enfeoffed  and  Confirmed,  and  Do  by  these 
presents  Give  Grant  Bargain  &  Sell  Aliene  Enfeoflfe  and  Confirm  unto  him  the  said  Richard 
Wharton  all  the  Lands  lying  five  mihis  above  the  Uppermost  of  the  said  Androscoggin  falls 
in  Breadth  and  Length  holding  the  same  Breadth  from  Androscoggin  falls  to  Kennebeck 
River,  and  to  be  bounded  by  the  aforesaid  Southwest  and  Northeast  Line  and  a  parcell  of 
Land  at  Five  Miles  distance  to  run  from  Androscoggin  to  Kennebeck  River  as  aforesaid. 
Together  with  all  Profitts,  Priviledges  Commodities  Benefitts  and  Advantages,  and 
particularly  to  the  Sole  propriety  lienefitt  and  Advantage  of  the  Salmon  and  Sturgeon 
fishing  within  the  Bounds  and  Limitts  aforesaid.  To  Have  and  to  Hold,  to  him  the  said 
Richard  Wharton  his  heirs  and  Assigns  for  ever  all  the  aforenamed  Lands  Priviledges  and 
Premisses  withal  Benefitts  Rights  Apurteuances,  or  Advantages  that  now  or  hereafter  shall 
or  may  belong  unto  any  part  or  parcell  of  the  Premisses  fully  freely  and  absolutely  acquitted 
and   discharged  from    all  former  &  other  Gifts  Grants  Bargains   Sales  Mortgages  and 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc. 


incumbrances  whatsoever.  And  we  the  said  Warumbee,  Darumkin,  Wehikermett,  Wedou 
Domhegou,  Neonougassett,  and  Nimbanewett  Do  covenant  and  grant  to  and  with  the  said 
Rich*!  Wharton  that  we  have  in  ourselves  good  Right  &  full  power  thus  to  confirm  and 
convey  the  Premisses:  and  that  we  our  heirs  and  successors  shall  and  will  Warrant  and 
Defend  the  Richard  Wharton  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever  in  the  Peaceable  Enjoyment  of  the 
Premisses  and  every  part  thereof  against  all  &  every  Person  or  Persons  that  may  legally 
claim  any  Rights,  Title  Interest  or  Property  in  the  Premisses  by  from  or  under  us  the 
abovenamed  Sagamores,  or  any  of  our  Ancestors.  Provided  nevertheless  that  Nothing  in 
this  Deed  be  construed  to  Deprive  us  the  said  Sagamores  Successors  or  People  from 
improving  our  Antient  Planting  Grounds:  nor  from  hunting  in  any  of  said  Lands  being 
not  enclosed;  Nor  from  Fishing  for  our  own  Provision  so  long  as  no  damage  shall  be  to  the 
English  fishery.  Provided  also  that  nothing  herein  contained  shall  prejudice  any  of  the 
English  Inhabitants  or  Planters  being  at  present  actually  possessed  of  any  part  of  the 
Premisses  and  legally  deriving  Right  from  said  Mr  Purchase  and  or  Ancestors.  In 
Witness  whereof  we  the  aforenamed  Sagamores  well  understanding  the  Purport  hereof 
do  set  to  our  hands  &  Seals  at  Pejepscott  the  Seventh  day  of  July  in  the  Thirty  fifth 
Year  of  the  Reign  of  our  Sovereign  Lord  King  Charles  the  Second  One  thousand  six 
hundred  Eighty  four. 

In  presence  of  us 
John  Blaney 
James  Andrews 
Henry  Waters 
John  Parker 
George  Felt 

The  Mark  of  Warumbee 

The  Mark  of  Darumkin 

The  Mark  of  Wehikermett 

The  Mark  of  Wedon  Domhegon 

The  Mark  of  Neonougassett 
The  Mark  of  Nimbanewett 


and  a  seal 


and  a  seal 


and  a  seal 


and  a  seal 


and  a  seal 


and  a  seal 

Memorandum  ry.^^^  ^^p^^^  ^^^  ^.^^  ^^  ^^^^  jy^^^  withiu  written  Deed  the  several  Sagamores 
whose  Names  are  Subscribed  thereto  and  inserted  therein  did  at  the  Fort  of  Pejepscott 
deliver  quiet  and  Peaceable  Possession  of  the  Premisses  with  Livery  &  Seizin  to 
Mr  John  Blaney  and  his  Wife.  Mr  John  Blaney  &  his  Wife  in  their  own  Right  as  she  is 
administratrix  to  the  Estate  of  M^"  Thomas  Purchase  deceased;  and  in  Right  of  his 
Children  also  the  said  Mi"  Blaney  as  attorney  to  M^  Eleazer  Way  did  the  same  day  deliver 
quiet  and  peaceable  possession  with  Livery  &  Seizin  of  the  Premisses  to  M^'  Richard  Wharton 
the  Quantity  of  Seven  hundred  Acres  of  Land  being  excepted  according  to  a  former 

Taken  upon  Oath  this  19th 
Henry  Waters  day  of  July  1684  this  was  sworn 

John  Parker  to  by  John  Parker 

Before  me  Edward  Tyng  Justice  o' peace 

James  Andrews  aged  about  forty  nine  Years  testifyeth  upon  Oath  that  he  saw  this 
Deed  or  Instrument  Sealed  and  delivered  by  the  six  Sagamores  within  named  to  Mr  Richard 
Wharton  and  saw  John  Parker  and  George  Felt  the  other  Witnesses  subscribe  as  Witnesses 
as  now  they  are  on  the  Indorsement  above. 

Sworn  before  me  this  21  July  1684  Edward  Tyng  Justice  0' Peace 

60  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Falmouth  in  Casco-bay  July  21.  1684 

Waruinbee  the  Sagamore  within  named  this  day  appeared  before  me  and  in  behalf  of 
himself  and  other  Sa,t?araores  that  Sealed  &  Delivered  the  within  written  Instrument 
acknowledged  the  same  to  be  his  and  their  free  and  Voluntary  Act  &  Deed 

Edward  Tyng  Justice  0' Peace. 

John  Parker  of  Kennebeck  aged  about  Fifty  years  deposeth  that  he  saw  this  Deed 
Signed  Sealed  &  delivered  by  the  Several  Sagamores  within  named  And  he  saw  possession 
together  with  Livery  and  Seizin  of  the  Premisses  as  is  expressed  in  the  other  indorsement 
on  this  Deed  and  in  presence  of  the  several  Witnesses  thereto  Subscribing:  And  further 
the  Deponent  saith  that  upon  the  Eleventh  of  this  instant  month  he  with  Mr  Henry  Waters 
were  present  and  Saw  Warumbee  deliver  Possession  and  Livery  and  Seizin  by  a  Turf  & 
Twig  and  Bottle  of  Water  taken  by  himself  of  the  Land  and  out  of  the  main  Elver  above 
Androscoggin  Falls  to  Richard  Wharton  in  full  Complyance  with  a  Conveyance  of  the 
premisses  within  granted  and  Confirmd. 

Taken  upon  Oath  the  9th  of  July  1684. 

Before  me  Edward  Tyng  Justice  0 '  Peace. 

Shortly  after  this  transfer  Wharton  sailed  for  England  for  the  purpose  of 
securing  from  the  crown  a  recognition  of  his  claim  and  the  authority  to 
establish  a  manor  in  the  then  "  Province  of  Majaie."  But  this  magnificent 
enterprise  failed,  Wharton  having  died  (May,  1689,)  before  the  proper 
authority  could  be  obtained. 

Pejepscot  Company. — Four  years  after  the  death  of  Wharton,  administra- 
tion de  bonis  non  on  his  estate  was  granted  December  30,  1693,  to  Ephraira 
Savage  of  Boston,  and  four  years  later  the  Superior  Court  at  Boston  authorized 
and  empowered  Savage  to  sell  the  estate  in  order  to  liquidate  the  debts. 
Acting  in  accordance  with  the  authority  given  him  by  the  Court,  Savage  sold, 
on  November  5,  1714,  the  whole  of  Wharton's  claim  on  the  Pejepscot  to 
Thomas  Hutchins,  Adam  Winthrop,  John  Watts,  David  Jefferies,  Stephen 
Minot,  Oliver  Noyes,  John  Buck,  and  John  Wenthworth,  for  one  hundred  and 
forty  pounds.  These  persons  constituted  the  original  Pejepscot  Company, 
taking  the  name  of  the  river  below  the  "  Twenty-Mile  Falls."  In  the  early 
part  of  the  next  year  the  proprietors  submitted  to  the  General  Court  of 
Massachusetts  Bay  a  series  of  propositions  relating  to  their  claim  and  its 
settlement,  and  on  the  tenth  of  June,  1715,  the  General  Court  passed  resolu- 
tions in  accordance  therewitli,  giving  validity  to  their  title  and  accepting  the 
propositions  submitted.  By  this  act  the  Company  became  the  undoubted 
legal  owners  of  the  land  they  had  purchased. 

Notwithstanding  this  recognition  of  their  title  by  the  General  Court, 
controversies  soon  arose  in  regard  to  the  limits  of  their  claim.  This  question 
was  forced  upon  them  by  the  Plymouth  Company  who  had  a  patent  for  lands 
on  the  Kennebec  river.  The  question  of  boundaries  is  most  important.  The 
descriptions  of   the    old    patents    are    very    obscure    and     often    indefinite. 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  61 

Frequently  they  overlap  each  other,  and  occasionally  the  latter  completely 
covers  the  former  one.  The  bounds  given  to  Purchase  and  Way  are  explicit 
in  one  direction,  and  Purchase,  in  his  conveyance  to  Massachusetts,  gives  the 
limits  in  another ;  and  there  could  be  no  doubt  about  Nicholas  Shapleigh's 
claim,  as  it  was  bounded  by  Purchase's  claim  and  the  "sea."  But  that  which 
occasioned  the  greatest  controversy  was  the  description  of  the  Warumbee 
deed  which  included  the  above  grants,  but  much  more.  The  contest  became 
intense,  and  the  rival  corporations  pushed  their  claims  with  tireless  energy. 
If  the  Pejepscot  Company  could  not  extend  their  bounds  on  the  south  and 
east  beyond  the  limits  of  the  grants  made  to  Purchase  and  Shapleigh,  they 
were  undoubtedly  entitled  to  more  on  the  north  and  west.  The  deed  covered 
"all  the  aforesaid  lands  from  the  uppermost  part  of  Androscoggin  Falls,"  four 
miles  westward,  and  so  down  to  Maquoit,  and  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river  from  the  same  falls  to  the  Kennebec,  on  a  line  running  southwest  and 

The  Pejepscot  proprietors,  as  early  as  February,  1758,  appointed  a 
committee  to  carry  into  execution  the  "divisional  line,"  who  reported  four 
years  later  "  that  they  had  exchanged  proposals  with  the  Plymouth  Company  " 
for  the  purpose  of  establishing  the  line  between  these  conflicting  claims ;  but 
the  committee  could  not  agree  "where  to  fix  the  mouth  of  said  Cathance 
river."  In  1766  a  settlement  was  made  which  recognized  the  southern  line  of 
Bowdoinham  and  the  Kennebec  river  as  the  "divisional  line"  between  the  rival 
companies.  The  northern  line  was,  however,  unsettled.  The  Massachusetts 
Legislature,  March  8,  1787,  passed  a  resolution  which  declared:  "That  the 
Twenty  Miles  Falls,  so  called,  in  Androscor/f/in  river,  being  about  twenty  miles 
from  Brvnsu'ick  Great  Falls,  should  be  called  the  U[>permost  Great  Falls  in 
Androscoi/f/hi  river,  referred  to  in  the  deed  from  Warumbee  and  five  other 
Indian  Sagamores,  confirming  the  right  of  Richard  Wharton  and  Thomas 
Purchase,  executed  July  seventh,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1684,  in  the 
thirty -fifth  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Charles  the  second." 

"  And  it  is  further  Resolved,  as  the  boundries  of  the  Pejepscut  Company 
so  called,  have  not  been  ascertained,  that  the  committee  on  the  subject  of 
unappropriated  lands  in  the  counties  of  Lincoln  and  Cumberland,  be,  and 
they  are  hereby  directed  not  to  locate  or  dispose  of  any  lands  lying  upon 
Androscoggin  river,  and  between  said  river  and  lands  claimed  by  the 
Plymouth  Company  to  the  southward  of  the  south  line  of  Bakerstown  [now 
Poland]  bounded  at  the  said  Great  Fall  in  Androscoggin  river  aforesaid,  on 
the  west  and  south  line  of  Port  Royal  [now  Livermore]  on  the  east  of  said 
Andro seo<j<i in  river." 

These  boundaries  were  not  satisfactory  to  the  proprietors  and  they  refused 
to  recognize  them.  In  order  to  settle  these  disputes  the  General  Court,  March 
21,  1793,  passed  the  following  resolve : 

62  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Whereas  There  is  reason  to  beheve  that  certain  persons  under  the  denomination  of  the 
Pejepscot  Proprietors  have  unlawfully  entered  on  the  lands  of  this  commonwealth  lying 
on  both  sides  of  Androscoggin  river,  in  the  counties  of  Cumberland  and  Lincoln,  claiming 
the  same  under  the  pretence  of  title,  which  has  rendered  it  expedient  to  have  the  limits  of 
their  claim  settled  by  judicial  proceedings:  Therefore,  Resolved,  That  the  attorney 
general  be,  and  he  is  hereby  directed  to  commence  and  prosecute  action  or  actions,  process 
or  processes,  according  to  the  laws  of  this  commonwealth,  in  order  to  remove  intruders, 
and  to  cause  the  commonwealth  to  be  quieted  in  the  possession  of  the  lands  thereof,  on 
both  sides  of  the  said  Androscoggin  river,  above  and  northerly  of  a  southwest  line  drawn  on 
the  westerly  side  of  the  said  river,  from  the  uppermost  part  of  the  upper  falls  in  the  town 
of  Brunswick;  and  on  the  east  side  of  the  said  river,  northwardly  of  a  northeast  line  drawn 
from  the  said  river,  five  miles  above  the  said  uppermost  falls  in  the  town  of  Brunswick, 
extending  up  the  said  river  to  the  limits  of  this  commonwealth  and  holding  the  breadth  of 
four  miles  on  the  west  side  of  said  river,  and  extending  to  the  lands  belonging  to  the 
Plymouth  company,  and  Kennebec  river,  on  the  east  side  of  said  river;  provided  that  no 
suit  or  process  shall  be  brought  against  any  person  within  the  limits  of  the  tract  before 
described,  holding  under  a  grant  from  this  government,  or  by  a  title  confirmed  by  this 
government.  And  it  is  further  resolved,  that  the  attorney  general  be  and  he  is  hereby 
empowered,  at  the  expense  of  the  commonwealth,  to  obtain  such  assistance  in  the 
prosecution  of  such  suits  as  he  may  judge  necessary. 

This  action  of  the  General  Court  was  unquestionably  for  the  purpose  of 
compelling  the  Pejejjscot  proprietors  to  agree  upon  some  terms  in  relation  to 
the  limits  of  their  claim.  The  settlers  were  importuning  the  General  Court 
for  relief  from  the  exactions  of  tlie  proprietors.  The  settlers  were  of  the 
opinion  that  the  lands  they  occupied  were  government  property,  and  the 
Pejepscot  proprietors  were  equally  sure  of  their  right  to  the  premises.  Many 
of  these  settlers  had  bought  their  farms  of  former  occupants  and  supposed 
their  titles  were  valid,  but  in  numerous  cases  they  were  obliged  to  pay  the 
Pejepscot  proprietors,  or  surrender  their  lands.  But  the  determined  purpose 
on  the  })art  of  the  proprietors  not  to  accede  to  the  decision  of  the  General 
Court  only  exasperated  the  settlers,  and  they  gave  expression  to  their 
indignation,  in  many  cases,  by  acts  -of  violence.  Disguised  as  Indians,  they 
often  made  personal  attacks  on  the  proprietors,  and  frequently  destroyed  their 
property.  These  manifestations  of  violence  culminated  in  a  riot  in  Lewiston 
in  the  autumn  of  1800,  and  on  other  occasions  Colonel  Josiah  Little,  who 
succeeded  the  Pejepscot  i)roprietors  in  the  ownership  of  the  land  in  Lewiston 
and  adjoining  towns,  came  near  losing  his  life. 

In  1798  Colonel  Josiah  Little,  one  of  the  company,  who  had  been  elected 
agent  of  the  proprietors,  petitioned  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts, 
asking  them  to  empower  the  Attorney-General  to  enter  into  a  rule  of  the 
Supreme  Judicial  Court  all  the  controversies  and  disputes  existing  between 
the  Commonwealth  and  the  Pejepscot  proprietors.  The  General  Court  readily 
acceded  to    this   petition    and   authorized    the   attorney-general,    Hon.    James 

Early  Titles,  Occupancy,  Etc.  63 

Sullivan,  to  enter  into  a  rule  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court  of  the  County 
of  Lincoln  all  questions  of  dispute  between  the  Commonwealth  and  the 
proprietors.  By  the  terms  of  the  resolve  Mr  Sullivan  was  to  appoint 
the  commissioners  (subject  to  the  approval  of  Colonel  Little)  to  whom  "any 
or  all"  the  controversies  in  dispute  were  to  be  submitted.  It  was  also 
stipulated  that  as  there  liad  been  "  disputes  and  controversies "  between  the 
proprietors  and  many  of  the  persons  who  had  settled  within  the  limits  of  the 
Pejepscot  claim,  that  some  equitable  mode  should  be  provided  for  adjusting 
the  claims.  The  conditions  imposed  by  the  General  Court  were  that  these 
settlers  should  have  one  hundred  acres  of  land  so  laid  out  as  best  to  include 
the  improvements  made  by  them,  and  for  such  sums  of  money  and  on  such 
terms  and  conditions  as  the  commissioners  should  judge  reasonable.  The 
expense  of  the  commission  "to  be  paid  by  the  proprietors  and  settlers  in 
equal  halves." 

Mr  Sullivan  informed  the  General  Court  the  next  year  that  he  had  agreed 
to  submit  to  Levi  Lincoln,  Samuel  Dexter,  Jr,  and  Thomas  Dwight,  the 
disputes  between  the  Commonwealth  and  the  Pejepscot  proprietors,  and  asked 
for  an  appropriation  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  commission,  and  the  General 
Court  appropriated  one  thousand  dollars  for  that  purpose.  The  commissioners 
made  their  award  February,  1800,  which  was  substantially  that  affirmed  by  the 
General  Court  in  1787.  This  award  was  not  satisfactorj^  to  the  proprietors 
who  claimed  that  the  Uppermost  Falls,  mentioned  in  the  Warumbee  deed,  were 
not  the  Twenty-Mile  Falls,  but  those  now  known  as  Rumford  Falls.  This 
claim  was  groundless  and  the  boundaries  were  hnally  established  about  1814, 
by  decisions  in  the  courts  of  Cumberland  and  Lincoln  counties,  on  the  basis 
of  the  award  of  1800.  As  finally  settled  the  territory  embraced  Topsham,  a 
part  of  Lisbon,  all  of  Lewiston  and  Greene,  three-fourths  of  Leeds,  all  of 
Brunswick,  nearly  all  of  Durham,  most  of  Auburn,  and  a  part  of  Poland. 

The  disputes  between  the  company  and  the  settlers  were  adjusted  according 
to  the  award  made  by  the  commissioners,  Nathaniel  Dumraer,  Ichabod  Goodwin, 
and  John  Lord,  appointed  by  the  governor,  who  made  the  assignments  and 
prescribed  the  terms  and  conditions  of  payment.  About  twenty  thousand  acres 
of  land  were  conveyed  to  the  settlers  by  virtue  of  the  conditions  stipulated. 
Thus  ended  a  controversy  which  had  continued  for  nearly  a  century,  and  been 
participated  in  by  more  than  three  generations.  None  of  the  parties  were 
satisfied,  but  it  gave  substantial  rest  to  those  who  for  a  long  time  held  their 
homes  by  doubtful  titles. 

64  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 



Early  Settlements  in  Androscoggin  Valley  — After  the  Revolution  — Population  from 
1780  to  1800  — Commencement  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  — Et!ects  of  the  War  of  1812  — 
Severity  of  CHmate  — The  Cold  Year— Improvement  in  Condition  —Changes  and  Progress 
in  Agriculture  — Development  and  Transition  —  Manufacturing. 

IN  THE  last  decade  of  the  seventeenth  century  settlements  were  undertaken 
on  both  sides  of  the  Androscoggin  at  Pejepscot  Lower  Falls  by  gentlemen 
of  energ}^  and  means,  but  fears  of  impending  Indian  warfare  prevented 
great  advancement.  Fort  George  was  built  here  in  1715  where  a  small  fort 
of  early  days  had  gone  to  ruin,  but  in  1718  there  were  no  established  homes  in 
Brunswick  but  those  inside  the  walls  of  the  fort,  and  in  the  block  house  at 
Maquoit  Bay,  where  Lieutenant  Woodside  kept  a  guard  to  protect  the  lauding 
of  stores  and  the  road  to  the  fort.  In  1722  Brunswick  was  burned  by  the 
Indians  who  had  destroyed  three  families  in  Topsham  in  1716.  After  the  war 
closed  Fort  George  was  rebuilt  (1727)  and  again  became  the  nucleus  of  a 
settlement.  In  1730  the  garrison  was  so  large  that  a  chaplain  was  stationed 
here.  It  was  here  that  Sabattus,  sagamore  of  the  Anasagunticooks,  requested 
tlie  government  to  keep  stores  whence  his  people  could  be  supplied  in  times  of 
need.  Still  civilization  was  kept  back  by  fear  of  the  Indians.  Brunswick, 
from  the  protection  of  the  fort  and  soldiers,  advanced  the  most,  and  was 
incorporated  in  1738,  twenty-nine  of  the  citizens  signing  the  petition.  About 
forty  families  were  then  living  in  town.  Topsham  as  late  as  1750  had  but 
eighteen  families,  and  in  1764  Brunswick  had  a  population  of  308. 

The  financial  condition  of  the  United  States  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution 
was  very  poor.  An  enormous  debt  in  the  shape  of  the  large  issues  of  pa|)er 
money  which  the  exigencies  of  the  war  had  brought  into  being  was  in  the 
hands  of  the  people  demanding  payment,  and  there  was  no  means  of  payment. 
The  soldiers  had  been  paid  with  it,  and,  on  account  of  its  great  depreciation, 
"a  bushel  of  it  would  not  buy  a  breakfast."  The  only  means  of  giving  an 
equivalent  was  in  tlie  unappropriated  lands  in  the  several  commonwealths. 
Massachusetts  had  plenty  of  wild  land  in  the  District  of  Maine,  and  to  her 
unemployed  citizens  who  had  served  in  the  army  was  given  the  opportunity  of 
settling  on  "states  land"  where  they  could  develop  homes  for  their  families 
and  give  in  payment  at  face  value  the  colonial  scrip  otherwise  valueless.    From 

Early  Settlements,  Progress  and  Changes.  65 

this  offer  arose  a  great  emigration  to  Maine,  and  the  Valley  of  the  Androscoggin 
received  its  share.  Although  in  many  of  the  towns  or  settlements  the  claim 
of  the  state  to  the  lands  was  opposed  by  that  of  the  Pejepscot  proprietors,  still 
many  had  no  faith  that  a  conveyance  made  by  wandering  Indians  could  hold 
against  the  civilized  claims  of  Massachusetts,  and,  pleased  with  the  country, 
became  settlers,  and  even  where  the  disputed  territory  became  the  property  of 
tlie  Pejepscot  proprietors,  in  numerous  cases  made  their  permanent  homes. 
So  in  the  history  of  every  town  we  find  its  beginnings  of  civilization  made  by 
Massachusetts  men,  and  the  rolls  of  the  settlers  sound  like  the  poll  lists  of  Old 
Colony  and  Massachusetts  Colony  towns. 

In  1784  there  were  thirty  families  living  in  Turner  (increased  to  349 
population  in  1790,  and  722  in  1800).  The  settlement  in  Greene,  begun  before 
the  Revolution,  numbered  nearly  five  hundred  people  at  its  incorporation  in 
1788,  and  in  1796  a  post-office  was  established.  Royalsborough  had  been 
settled  rapidly  from  1760,  and  when  incorporated  as  Durham  in  1789  was  a 
prosperous  community.  Poland  had  1,400  inhabitants  at  its  incorporation  in 
1794.  Lewiston  in  1790  had  532  residents,  while  at  the  settlement  of  Port 
Royal,  later  Livermore,  about  400  people  were  living  (increased  to  863  in 
1800).  Thompsonborough  (Lisbon)  became  a  town  in  1799.  Littleborough 
(Leeds)  and  Pejepscot  (Danville)  had  thriving  communities. 

The  nineteenth  century  opened  with  prosperity  prevailing  here.  The 
critical  and  dependent  period  of  struggling  for  homes  among  the  forests  during 
the  pioneer  stage  had  passed  away.  Comfortable  farms  of  productive  new 
soil  had  begun  to  be  remunerative,  while  a  steady  immigration  flowed  hither 
from  the  old  towns  of  Massachusetts  and  the  Maine  coast.  The  lumber  and 
fur  trades  were  valuable  and  largely  extended,  and  a  wise  legislature  had  taken 
measures  to  prevent  the  extermination  of  deer  and  fur-bearing  animals.  As 
early  as  1784  an  act  was  passed  making  it  a  penal  offense  to  cut  one  of  the 
primitive  growth  of  white  pine  upon  the  public  land,  thus  following  the  laws 
enacted  under  William  and  Mary  and  Georges  I  and  II,  and  regulations  were 
made  for  the  maintenance  of  a  standard  quality  of  lumber,  pot  and  pearl 
ashes,  etc.,  which  gave  an  added  value  to  these  productions  of  a  new  country. 
There  was,  however,  little  money  in  circulation  and  heavy  taxes  pressed  heavily 
upon  the  people  whose  commodities  brought  returns  in  barter  rather  than 
money.  The  cotton  and  linen  goods  used  were  largely,  if  not  wholly,  the 
production  of  the  mothers  and  daughters  at  the  home  fireside,  while  the 
tanned  hides  of  the  deer,  moose,  etc.,  formed  an  important  factor  in  making 
the  clothing  of  the  men.  Industry,  temperance,  and  economy  were  cardinal 
principles  of  this  generation,  and  there  was  an  uncommon  increase  in  the  value 
of  lands  and  in  their  improvement.     Williamson  justly  says:  — 

To  clear  the  woodlands  of  their  rugged  incumbrances,  and  render  them  smooth  for  the 
plough  and  the  scythe  and  fit  for  human  habitaucy,  required  a  fortitude  and  persevering 

66  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

industry  which  are  never  permitted  to  abate.  The  first  settlers  possessed  these  qualities 
in  an  eminent  degree.  Nor  were  their  felicities  all  in  prospect.  Rough  as  the  log  house 
may  appear  to  the  eye  of  luxury— it  was  usually  the  sanctuary  of  virtue,  of  health,  of 
character,  and  the  birthplace  of  many  such  as  the  world  calls  great.  Even  the  merest 
wood-cutter  amidst  his  solitude  breathes  a  nectarine  atmosphere  and  exults  in  his  freedom 
as  he  sees  field  added  to  field  and  "cottage  after  cottage  rise,"  until  the  wilderness  changes 
and  brightens  into  towns,  the  products  of  honest  adventure  and  productive  toil  — the 
prospective  dwelling  places  of  posterity  in  successive  generations. 

Up  to  the  breaking  out  of  the  War  of  1812  the  settlements  flourished. 
The  coasting  vessels  brought  articles  of  necessity  that  were  easily  and  cheaply 
obtained  by  the  people  and  many  of  their  products  were  sold  at  remunerative 
prices.  With  the  War  came  hard  times.  The  force  of  the  embargo  was  heavily 
felt.  A  stagnation  occurred  in  all  business.  The  coasting  trade  was  at  an  end. 
No  markets  could  be  had  for  home  products  and  the  articles  of  necessity  so 
common  and  cheap  before  the  War  were  hardly  to  be  procured,  and  then  only 
at  enormous  prices.  Emigration  took  many  to  the  new  lands  of  the  West. 
The  deprivations  caused  by  the  cold  seasons  of  1815,  1816,  and  1817  added  to 
the  gloom  and  discontent.  Many  people  sold  their  homes  for  a  tithe  of  their 
value  to  go  to  more  promising  lands.  Small  grain  of  all  kinds  was  very  scarce. 
The  poorer  settlers  had  much  difficulty  to  get  seed,  and  how  to  obtain  bread 
was  an  unsolved  and  often  an  unsolvable  problem. 

From  the  first  the  settlers  had  grave  trials  and  unlooked-for  calamities.  In 
1785  there  was  a  remarkable  freshet  which  carried  off  all  of  their  bridges  and 
was  unprecedented  for  height.  The  year  1791  was  marked  by  a  great  incursion 
of  grasshoppers;  they  ate  the  corn  and  potatoes  to  the  ground,  and  in  many 
fields  not  one  bushel  of  potatoes  was  raised.  By  1802  crows  were  so  numerous 
and  destructive  that  one  of  the  first  acts  of  the  new  town  of  Minot  was  to 
vote  a  bounty  of  twelve  and  a  half  cents  for  each  head.  In  1815  winter 
continued  through  the  spring  months,  snow  falling  in  the  middle  of  May  from 
twelve  to  eighteen  inches  in  depth.  December  was  very  cold.  January,  1816, 
was  extremely  mild.  February,  mild,  with  a  few  cold  days.  March,  first  half 
cold  and  boisterous,  last  half  mild.  April  commenced  warm,  but  growing 
steadily  colder  was  like  winter  when  it  closed.  May  was  cold;  corn  was  killed, 
replanted  and  again  killed;  buds  and  fruits  were  frozen;  ice  formed  half  an 
inch  thick.  June  was  still  colder  than  May.  Snow  fell  to  the  depth  of  ten 
inches,  nearly  every  green  plant  was  killed,  and  fruit  was  everywhere  blighted,' 
July  was  a  winter  montli  with  snow  and  ice.  Corn,  except  on  some  hill  farms 
and  in  some  extremely  warm  locations,  was  entirely  killed.  August  was  cold, 
ice  forming  half  an  inch  thick.  The  corn  and  green  plants  the  previous  months 
liad  spared  were  frozen.      September,  after  the  first  two  weeks,  which  were 

iRcv.  Ransom  Dunham,  of  Paris,  as  quoted  by  Dr  Lapham  in  "  History  of  Norway,"  says:  "In 
18U),  June  7th,  snow  fell  two  inches.  I  redo  from  Hebron  to  Livermore  on  horseback  and  came 
near  freezing.    It  was  so  cold  that  it  killed  the  birds.     English  robins  were  frozen  to  death." 

Eaely  Settlements,  Progress  and  Changes.  67 

warm,  was  cold  and  frosty.  October  was  colder  than  usual,  with  much  ice  and 
frost.  November  was  cold,  with  sleighing.  December  was  pleasant.  The  corn 
of  1815  sold  for  seed  in  1817,  bringing  from  $2  to  13  a  bushel;  wheat  was 
worth  as  much.  This  year  was  a  cold  and  frosty  one;  all  crops  were  seriously 
injured,  corn  nearly  ruined.  Flour  brought  from  eight  to  ten  cents  a  pound; 
corn  could  not  be  bought  after  the  spring-time. 

The  fall  of  1817  was  the  commencement  of  better  days.  The  crops  were 
bounteous.  Those  who  had  not  migrated  tarried,  and  set  themselves  to  draw 
support  from  the  soil  and  were  successful.  Uncommon  efforts  were  now  put 
forth  throughout  the  state  to  promote  agriculture,  and  in  1818  an  agricultural 
society  was  organized  "to  cultivate  enterprise  and  improvements  in  farming, 
horticulture,  and  stock  raising."  Prosperity  again  returned,  and  the  Andros- 
coggin towns  grew  in  strength  and  wealth  until  the  coming  of  the  financial 
depressions  which  culminated  in  the  panic  of  1837.^  After  slowly  recovering 
from  these  hard  times,  agriculture  was  a  profitable  employment  for  many  years, 
yet  its  character  was  steadily  changing.  The  wheat  crop,  once  an  extensive 
one,  was  limited  about  1840  by  the  attacks  of  the  weevil,  yet  up  to  1850 
enough  was  raised  to  provide  flour  for  home  use.  The  culture  of  flax  and  the 
home  manufacture  of  cloth  was  discontinued  after  1840  with  the  buildinsf  of 
woolen  mills  that  made  satinets  and  exchanged  them  for  wool.  This  gave  an 
impetus  to  sheep  raising.  Before  this  time  sheep  were  only  raised  to  produce 
the  small  amount  of  wool  needed  for  domestic  use  and  occasionally  a  little 
mutton.  Roast  lamb  was  always  in  order  at  "  huskings."  The  greatest  number 
of  sheep  was  raised  from  1835  to  1850,  and  in  the  last  decade  of  that  period 
many  importations  of  merinos  were  made  and  the  quality  greatly  improved. 
Since  the  civil  war  but  few  sheep  have  been  raised.  Indian  corn  was  an 
extensive  crop  fifty  years  ago  and  its  yield  to  the  acre  was  but  little  short  of 
that  of  tlie  prairies.  But  a  small  amount  is  now  grown.  With  the  establish- 
ment of  canning  factories  in  the  last  few  years  the  culture  of  sweet  corn  has 
been  entered  upon  to  quite  an  extent.  From  the  first  settlement  every  farmer 
had  his  orchard,  not  as  a  source  of  revenue  but  of  home  comfort  and  social 
enjoyment.  The  evening  caller  and  day  visitor  was  regaled  with  apples  and 
cider,  and  cider  mills  were  in  operation  during  the  fall  in  every  section  of 

1  The  Aroostook  or  Madawaska  War,  in  1839,  claimed  national  attention,  and  arose  from  tlie  dispute 
about  the  northeastern  boundary.  New  Brunswick  and  the  United  States  claiming  the  same  territory. 
In  1839  a  party  from  New  Brunswick  captured  Rufus  Mclntire,  a  land  agent  of  Maine,  near  M.adawaska 
settlement,  and  took  him  to  Frederioton.  Considering  this  an  usurpation  and  an  invasion  of  Maine, 
Governor  Fairfield  called  out  the  militia  and  actual  warfare  seemed  imminent.  General  Hodsdon  was 
made  commander,  and  rendezvoused  the  troops  at  Bangor  and  Augusta.  General  Winfield  Scott  came 
to  Maine  as  the  military  representative  of  the  United  States,  and  sent  a  demand  to  the  provincial 
government  for  the  release  of  Mclntire.  The  demand  was  complied  with  and  the  state  troops 
disbanded.  All  anxiety  concerning  further  trouble  was  removed  by  the  Webster-Ashburton  treaty  in 
1842,  which  defined  the  boundary.  The  militia  of  the  Androscoggin  County  towns  was  engaged  in 
this  incipient  war,  and  old  settlers  yet  tell  of  the  excitement  and  deprivation  of  their  camp  life  on  the 
road  and  at  Augusta. 

68  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

the  settlements.  When  the  making  of  cider  was  forbidden  orchards  were 
neglected  and  many  trees  were  cut  down.  About  1870  a  foreign  demand  and 
market  were  created  for  American  apples,  and  from  that  time  great  attention 
has  been  paid  to  orcharding,  and  with  profit.  Greene  and  Turner  find  here  a 
rich  source  of  income,  as  Maine  apples  bring  highest  prices. 

The  raising  of  cattle  was  made  a  specialty  about  1870,  and  from  1875  to 
1880  great  improvement  was  made  by  the  bringing  in  of  Durham,  Hereford, 
Jersey,  and  Holstein  stock,  and  to-day  these  breeds  prevail  in  the  stock 
of  the  county.  The  breeding  of  fine  horses,  now  so  extensively  and  profit- 
ably carried  on,  was  commenced  somewhat  later.  Many  have  valuable  farms 
devoted  to  this,  and  nearly  every  farmer  has  some  colt  that  promises  speed 
and  a  high  price.  The  growth  of  Lewiston  and  Auburn  has  caused  market 
gardening  to  be  taken  up  by  many  within  a  short  distance  of  the  cities  and 
the  growing  of  small  fruits  is  also  a  profitable  business.  Creameries  and 
butter  factories  have  been  recently  established  in  various  places  and  have 
yielded  fine  returns.  In  1874  the  Grange  was  established  here  and  has  worked 
with  perceptible  good  among  the  farmers,  and  while  those  who  cling  to  the 
methods  of  farming  in  vogue  forty  years  ago  complain  that  there  is  no  "  money 
in  farming,"  those  who  have  kept  in  touch  with  the  changing  conditions  of 
the  country  and  adapted  their  agriculture  to  the  new  demands  arising,  and 
who  have  given  energy  and  capital  to  the  production  of  a  proper  supply  realize 
that  farming  will  pay  in  Androscoggin  county.  The  canning  factories  are 
having  a  marked  influence  upon  the  new  agriculture.  The  corn  canned  is 
"sweet  corn."  As  an  illustration  of  their  effect  we  clip  this  item  from  a 
Lewiston  Journal  of  March,  1891:  — 

The  manageraeut  of  the  United  Packers  canniof;-  factory  in  Auburn  paid  out  $12,000 
last  season  for  goods  and  for  help.  As  will  be  seen  the  industry  is  one  of  considerable 
importance  to  Auburn  and  surrounding  towns.  Last  season  an  unusually  large  business 
was  done  at  this  factory,  but  the  prospects  are  that  this  season  they  will  do  a  still  greater 
business.  As  is  known  they  commenced  operations  last  season  in  the  early  fall,  continuing 
it  into  the  winter  to  a  considerable  extent.  On  a  conservative  estimate  their  total  pack 
was  as  follows:  corn,  5,000  cases;  pears,  500  cases;  plums,  200  cases;  api)les,  10,000 
bushels;  lima  beans,  6  tons,  besides  a  large  quantity  of  other  kinds  of  beans,  and  quantities 
of  pumpkin  and  squash.  With  the  exception  of  corn  the  farmers  were  paid  the  cash  on 
delivery  of  goods;  the  corn  was  paid  for  by  checks  later  on,  as  is  the  usual  custom.  Last 
year  they  paid  three  cents  for  every  twenty-six  ounces  of  corn ;  this  year  they  are  engaging 
acreage  at  three  and  one-fourth  cents  for  twenty-six  ounces.  This  is  an  advance  of 
one-fourth  of  a  cent  over  last  year,  an  advance  asked  by  the  farmers  of  the  canning 
concerns  hereabouts  not  so  long  since.  The  United  Packers  will  pack  the  same  kind  of 
goods  at  their  Auburn  factory  as  last  season  and  will  pay  the  market  price  for  everything 
they  buy.     They  will  put  up  more  corn  and  of  everything  than  last  season. 

Agriculture  was  superseded  by  manufacturing  as  a  business  factor  by  the 
development  of  the  magnificent  water-power  of  Lewiston,  the  growth  of  the 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  69 

shoe  industry  of  Auburn,  and  the  establishment  of  the  pulp  and  paper  mills 
at  Mechanic  Falls,  Livermore,  and  Lisbon,  and  the  wealth  derived  from 
agriculture  now  forms  but  a  small  fraction  of  that  produced  by  the  diversified 
manufactories  within  the  limits  of  the  county. 



By  Herbert  E.  Walter. 

Notes  on  the  Perching  Birds  of  Androscoggin  county,  supplemented  by  a  Catalogue 
of  Other  Species,  excluding  the  shore  and  water  birds,  also  identified  in  the  county. 

Introductory  Note.  — It  is  a  pleasant  office  to  turn  the  eyes  of  busy  mankind  from 
the  dusty  turmoil  of  the  work-a-day  world  to  the  green  fields,  the  fragrant  coolness  of  the 
woods,  and  our  friends  in  feathers  which  dwell  there.  Even  during  the  blustering,  snow- 
bound period  of  our  Maine  winter  the  birds  do  not  entirely  forsake  us,  but  it  is  especially 
in  the  spring  and  summer  that  they  bring  us  their  offering  of  song  and  sunshine.  By  the 
last  of  March  the  pageant  begins  with  the  arrival  of  the  robins,  bluebirds,  and  song 
sparrows,  and  soon  the  highways  of  the  air  are  thronged  with  the  little  travelers,  and  not 
until  the  last  of  May,  when  the  plaintive  notes  of  that  frowsy-headed  procrastinator,  the 
wood-pewee,  are  heard,  does  the  winged  stream  from  the  south  cease.  Nothing  is  more 
fascinating  when  once  begun,  or  more  health-giving,  mentally,  morally,  and  physically, 
than  to  study  these  wonderful  creatures  of  the  earth  and  air,  and  if  a  greater  sympathy 
than  has  hitherto  existed  between  some  reader  of  these  notes  and  God's  feathered  helpers, 
becomes  aroused,  the  object  of  writing  them  will  have  been  attained.  The  endeavor  has 
been  to  give  such  points  as  shall  enable  an  observer  to  identify  the  bird  as  seen  alive  in  the 
open  air  of  the  fields  and  forests,  for  the  needless  shooting  of  birds  should  be  severely 
condemned.  In  compiling  the  following  notes  I  am  indebted  to  the  well-known  works  of 
Baird,  Brewer, and  Ridgway;  Cones;  Samuels;  Stearns;  Brown;  Minot  and  Oliver  Davie;  to 
which  I  have  continually  been  obliged  to  turn  in  order  to  supplement  my  own  scanty  notes, 
and  I  am  especially  under  obligation  to  Professor  J.  Y.  Stanton,  not  only  for  much  valuable 
assistance  which  he  has  generously  given  me  in  preparing  this  article,  but  also  for  inspiring 
within  nie  a  love  for  the  birds.  •  g    j^   -^ 

THE  Passeres,  or  Perchers,  including  one-third  of  all  our  birds,  are  divided 
into  two  sub-orders.  The  Oscines,  or  singers,  constitute  the  first  sixteen 
families,  and  the  single  family  of  the  Tyrannidre,  or  fly-catchers,  makes  up 
the  second  sub-order  of  Clamatores,  or  non-singers.  The  nomenclature  of  the 
American  Ornithological  Union  is  used  in  this  article. 

70  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

First  Sub-order— OSCINES.     First  Family  — Turdidae. 

The  tlirush  family  occurs  everywhere,  except  in  Australia,  and  includes  the 
highest  singers.  Although  twenty-two  thrushes  are  catalogued  for  the  United 
States,  only  five  have  been  seen  in  this  county.  Their  special  mission  seems 
to  be  to  rid  the  surface  of  the  ground  of  noxious  insects.  Singing  at  the  close 
of  day  seems  to  be  a  family  characteristic. 

1.  WILSON'S  THRUSH.     Turdus  fuscesoens.     Stephens. 

This  is  the  "veery,"  and  he  holds  an  enviable  position  among  our  singers. 
His  back  is  colored  throughout  a  reddish-brown,  and  his  breast,  instead  of 
being  mottled  like  the  hermit's,  presents  a  faded  appearance.  They  often  sing 
their  low,  flute-like  song  in  concert.  Arriving  here  the  last  of  April,  the 
retrograde  migration  begins  the  last  of  August,  and  by  the  middle  of  September 
hardly  a  straggler  is  left. 

2.  BICKNELL'S  THRUSH.     Turdus  alici/E  bicknelli.    Ri(l(iway. 

Olive  back  and  gray  cheeks.     They  rear  their  young  well  up  towards  the 
sunnnit  of    Mount    Washington,  and    probably    pass    through    Androscoggin 
county,  though  I  am  not  aware  that  it  has  ever  been  seen  here. 
:3.   OLIVE-HACKED   THRUSH.     Turdus  usi'ulatus  swainsonii.     Cahanis. 

Uniformly  olive  from  head  to  tail,  with  spotted  breast.     He  is  sometimes 
seen  in  this  county  on  his  migration  during  May.     With  us  he  only  utters  a 
sharp,  harsh  call-note,  but  after  he   reaches  his    northern  home  and  begins 
housekeeping,  he  vindicates  his  right  to  belong  to  a  musical  family. 
4.   HERMIT  THRUSH.    Turdus  aonalaschk^^  pallasii.     Cahanis. 

Like  Jennie  Lind,  here  is  a  "natural-born  singer,"  by  many' regarded  as 
entirely  without  a  rival  among  our  feathered  vocalists.  He  is  a  shy  bird  as  his 
name  suggests,  and  his  plumage  accords  with  the  dry  leaves  and  twigs  of  early 
spring,  but  his  song  is  divine  in  its  sweetness  and  plaintive  melody.  It  is 
heard  in  out-of-the-way  thicket  places,  flute-like,  clear  and  woodsy,  just  at 
night-fall  and  in  early  morning.  They  arrive  by  the  middle  of  April,  but  soon 
become  rare  in  comparison  to  Wilson's,  which  follows  soon  after.  They 
usually  rear  two  broods. 

.5.   AMERICAN  ROBIN.    Merula  mioratoria.    Linnaus. 

Tlie  pilgrims  at  Plymouth,  worn  out  and  discouraged  by  that  first  long, 
dreary  winter  on  our  "rock-bound  coast,"  hailed  with  joy,  when  spring  came  at 
last,  this  cheerful  thrush  so  familiar  to  us  all.  In  their  homesickness  they 
christened  him  the  robin,  althougli  no  ties  of  relationship  bind  him  to  his 
English  namesake.  He  is  the  pioneer  of  the  spring,  being,  with  the  bluebird, 
the  earliest  to  arrive  from  the  south.  Sometimes  a  stracrgler  remains  all 
winter,  finding  shelter  low  down  in  the  thick  bushes  of  a  swamp.  They  rear 
their  young  everywhere  excej)t  in  the  grass  or  on  the  ground,  and  usually  have 
two  or  three  broods  during  the  season.     Young  robins  are  very  voracious,  and 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  71 

while  attaining  their  majority  keep  their  industrious  parents  at  work  from 
morning  till  night  to  supply  them  with  insect  food.  Mr  William  Brewster, 
in  The  Auk  for  October,  1890,  brings  to  our  notice  one  peculiar  habit  of  the 
robins  that  has  escaped  the  notice  of  even  the  ornithologists  until  recently. 
The  male  robins  do  not  remain  over  night  in  the  vicinity  of  the  nest,  but  at 
night-fall  fly  off  to  a  "roost"  together  in  some  dense  grove  of  trees,  congre- 
gating there  night  after  night  in  great  numbers.  This  habit,  so  far  as  has 
been  observed,' is  peculiar  to  the  robin. 

6.  BLUEBIRD.     Sialia  sialis.     Linn/nts. 

"Skj'-'tinged  above,  earth-tinged  below."  Coming  from  the  south  with  the 
robin  the  last  of  March,  the  bluebird  is  among  the  first  of  our  migrants.  Soon 
after  their  arrival  they  retire  to  the  woods,  usually  building  a  coarse  nest 
in  stumps  or  deserted  woodpeckers'  holes.  Their  warbling  call-note  is  some- 
times mistaken  for  that  of  the  robin,  which  it  resembles. 

Second  Family — Sylviidse. 

7.  GOLDEN-CROWNED   KINGLET.     Regulus  satrapa.    Lichtensfcin. 

The  males  have  an  olive-green  back  and  an  orange-red,  yellow-margined 
crown,  while  the  crowns  of  the  females  are  entirely  yellow.  Length  about 
four  inches.  The  weiglit  of  this  tiny  bird  is  only  one-sixth  of  an  ounce,  yet 
he  is  with  us  from  about  the  first  of  October  until  the  middle  of  April, 
evidently  enjoying  our  winter  weather.  They  breed  in  the  northern  part  of 
Maine,  and  one  nest  has  been  identified  by  Dr  Brewer  as  far  south  as  Bangor. 
They  are  very  social,  and  are  usually  seen  flying  restlessly  about  among  the 
bare  twigs,  after  insects  and  their  larvae,  in  company  with  nuthatches  and 
chickadees.  Their  note  while  with  us  consists  of  three  or  four  lisps,  zee-zee-zee, 
given  in  quick  succession. 

8.  RUBY-CROWNED   KINGLET.     Regulus  calendula.     Linmeus. 

The  mature  male  has  a  scarlet  patch  on  his  head ;  the  female  none. 
Rearing  its  young  in  Nova  Scotia,  this  bird  is  with  us  only  for  two  or  three 
weeks  from  the  middle  of  April,  but  he  makes  his  stay  memorable  by  his 
spirited  singing,  which  is  quite  remarkable  for  so  small  a  musician.  The  song 
is  very  difficult  of  description,  but  once  heard  will  never  be  forgotten.  In 
habits  the  ruby-crowned  are  similar  to  the  golden-crowned. 

Third  Family— Paridse. 

9.  WHITE-BREASTED   NUTHATCH.     Sitta  carolinensis.    Latham. 

Ashy  blue  above  and  dirty  white  beneath,  with  a  black  cap  and  neck  and 
white  cheeks.  The  nuthatches  have  long  bills  and  go  up  trees  like  the  wood- 
peckers, except  their  tails  are  too  short  for  bracing.  This  deficiency  is  more 
than  made  good,  however,  by  their  sharp  claws.  They  stay  throughout  the 
year,  nesting  in  hollow  trees.     Their  note  is  a  peculiar  nasal  cark,  repeated 

72  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

rapidly  at  intervals.     They  also  have  a  sibilant  note,  uttered  while  searching 
the  bark  of  trees  for  insects.     Length,  six  inches. 

10.  RED-BREASTED   NUTHATCB.     Sitta  canadensis.     Linnmis. 

Back  slaty;  under  parts  a  brownish  rusty  red.  A  black  line,  beneath  a 
white  line,  runs  through  each  eye.  In  shape  and  habits  similar  to  No.  9, 
excepting  that  they  remain  here  very  rarely  throughout  the  summer.  A  pair 
nested  in  a  hollow  tree  near  Lewiston  in  the  summer  of  1890.  The  hole  of 
the  nest  is  usually  smeared  with  pitch.  Some  say  in  explanation  that  this  is 
to  catch  insects,  and  others  say  that,  with  more  than  human  thoughtfulness, 
they  wipe  their  pitch-besmeared  feet  at  the  entrance  of  the  nest  whenever  they 
return  from  foraging  excursions  up  and  down  the  trunks  and  limbs  of  pine 
trees.  They  usually  arrive  from  the  north  the  third  week  in  August  and 
remain  until  the  first  of  April. 

11.  CHICKADEE.     Parus  atricapillus.    Linmrus. 

This  is  the  bird  that  is  happy  and  cheerful  with  us  all  the  year  around  and 
familiar  enough  to  be  a  living  example  to  every  one.  He  has  two  songs,  the 
one,  chick-a-dee-dee,  and  the  other,  given  only  rarely,  a  flute-like  pt'-wee-wee. 
Like  the  nuthatches  and  kinglets  they  are  always  busy,  searching  out  with 
never-failing  eye  the  insects  and  the  eggs  and  pupte  of  insects  that  infest  trees 
and  bushes.     They  build  in  hollow  trees  and  rear  large  families,  usually  seven. 

12.  HUDSONIAN   CHICKADEE.     Pards  hudsoniccts.    Forster. 

This  rare  visitor  has  a  brown  cap  and  is  slightly  smaller  than  his  more 
familiar  cousin,  whom  he  resembles  in  habits  and  disposition.  They  breed  in 
Labrador  and  the  Hudson  Bay  region  and  very  rarely  in  the  winter  come  as 
far  south  as  Androscoggin  count3^  The  writer  took  a  specimen  near  Lewiston, 
February  5,  1890,  and  a  second  May  5th  of  the  same  year,  and  three  other 
stragglers  were  taken  iu  this  locality  during  that  season,  with  these  excep- 
tions, so  far  as  I  am  informed,  the  bird  has  not  been  seen  within  the  county 
for  several  years.     They  fly  in  company  with  the  other  chickadees. 

Fourth  Family  —  Certhiidae. 

13.  BROWN  CREEPER.     Certhia   familtaris  Americana.    Bonaparte. 

Upper  parts  dark  brown,  streaked  with  ashy  white,  with  a  curved  bill  as 
long  as  the  head.  This  is  the  only  genus  of  the  family  in  America.  He 
remains  in  this  county  throughout  the  year,  although  seen  less  frequently  dur- 
ing the  summer  months.  The  nest  was  not  found  for  years,  but  finally  it  was 
discovered  that  it  built  iu  the  bark-pockets  formed  by  the  loosening  of  the 
bark  from  the  wood  of  balsam  firs  growing  in  swampy  places.  He  climbs 
trees  like  the  woodpecker,  bracing  with  his  tail,  and  is  often  seen  ascending 
and  descending  trees  in  spirals.  His  usual  note  is  only  a  sibilant  lisp  which 
has  been  represented  hy  the  syllables  cre-e,  cre-e^  cre-e-ep. 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  73 

Fifth  Family— Troglodytidse. 

14.  CATBIRD.     Galeoscoptes  carolinensis.     Linmeus. 

This  is  the  "  Maine  mocking-bird."  A  black-capped,  dark  slate  individual, 
with  the  versatility  and  nonchalance  of  a  Yankee.  He  arrives  early  in  May 
and  chooses  some  exposed  place  a  few  feet  from  the  ground,  like  a  clump  of 
bushes,  in  which  to  build  his  nest  of  bark,  sticks,  and  leaves.  The  finishing 
touch  of  his  architecture  is  usually  weaving  into  his  nest  a  discarded  snake 
skin.  Besides  mewing  like  a  cat,  whence  his  name,  he  has  at  his  command 
quite  an  extensive  repertoire  that  he  has  picked  up  from  his  neighbors. 
Mr  John  Burroughs  says  of  him:  "He  is  a  good  versifier,  but  not  a  great 
poet."  His  food  is  almost  exclusivel}^  the  larvae  of  insects,  and  so,  notwith- 
standing he  is  Paul-Pry-on-wings  and  makes  havoc  with  fruit,  he  is  a  valuable 
friend  of  the  farmer,  after  all.  The  eggs,  usually  four,  are  the  darkest  of  all 
our  blue  eggs  and  are  unspotted. 

15.  BROWN  THRASHER.     Harporhtnchus  rufus. 

Upper  parts  a  rich,  rusty  red.  Under  parts  white,  brown  tinged  with  an 
unspotted  throat  bordered  by  a  necklace  of  spots.  This  delightful  songster 
resembles  in  habits  the  catbird,  although  he  is  not  so  curious  and  is  less 
familiar  with  mankind.  His  song,  consisting  of  from  eighteen  to  twenty-two 
different  strains,  is  more  original  and  can  be  heard  at  a  greater  distance. 
They  come  north  in  pairs  the  first  week  in  May  and  return  the  first  of  October. 
The  nest,  similar  to  that  of  the  catbird,  is  built  on  the  ground  or  low  down  in 
bushes  or  trees.     Length,  eleven  inches. 

16.  HOUSE  WREN.    Troglodytes  aedon.     VieUlot. 

This  bird  is  variable  in  its  habitat  and  has  almost  deserted  some  towns 
where  it  was  formerly  abundant.  With  a  tail  turning  up  like  the  nose  of  a 
typical  Hibernian,  this  pugnacious  little  fellow  has  rights  of  his  own  which  he 
proposes  to  defend.  Often  they  are  not  content  with  their  own  rights  alone. 
For  instance,  they  have  been  known  to  drive  bluebirds  and  purple  martins 
from  their  nests,  which  they  have  afterwards  appropriated  for  themselves. 
Familiar  and  fearless  with  man  they  usually  build  in  hollow  trees  or  post-holes, 
and  even  in  boxes,  etc.,  near  houses,  always  filling  up  the  hole,  however  large 
it  may  be,  in  which  they  locate  their  nest.  They  utter  hoarse,  chattering  notes 
as  well  as  a  hearty,  trilling  song.  Length,  under  five  inches. 
\7.   WINTER  WREN.    Troglodytes  hyemalts.     VieUlot. 

This  pert,  inquisitive,  sly  busy-body  comes  to  us  the  last  of  April,  and 
again,  on  the  retrograde  migration,  about  the  middle  of  September,  tarrying  a 
little  longer  in  the  autumn  than  in  the  spring.  Occasionally  he  remains  all 
winter.  He  is  usually  to  be  seen,  hopping  in  and  out  of  brush-heaps,  on  low, 
moist  ground,  and  is  as  difficult  of  location  as  the  Irishman's  flea.  He  has  a 
gushing,  lyrical  song  that  is  very  sweet  and  quite  prolonged.  It  is  remarkably 
loud  and  is  so  spontaneous  that  it  seems  to  have  escaped  in  spite  of  the  singer. 

74  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

His  tail  is  more  than  erect  and  quite  short,  giving  him  an  air  of  jauntiness 
that  is  not  e(inaled  by  any  of  our  other  birds.     Length,  four  inches. 

Sixth   Family  —  Motacillidae. 

18.  AMERICAN  PIPIT.     Anthus  pensilvanicus.    Latham. 

Upper  parts  olive  brown,  showing  in  flight  two  white  tail-feathers.  Dr 
Coues  says  of  them:  "Voice  querulous,  gait  tremulous,  and  flight  vacillating." 
They  are  walkers  and  are  never  still,  but,  like  the  water  thrush,  seem  to  be 
afflicted  with  the  St  Vitus'  dance,  especially  in  their  tails.  They  rear  their 
young  in  Labrador,  going  north  by  one  course  and  returning  by  another, 
passing  through  this  county  only  in  the  fall. 

Seventh  Family — Mniotiltidae. 

The  warblers  are  the  real  woodbirds  and  are  the  second  largest  North 
American  family,  having  wide  range  in  habit  and  song.  All  are  small,  migra- 
tory and  insectivorous.     AH  confined  to  America. 

19.  BLACK  AND  WHITE   WARBLER.     Mniotilta  varia.     Linnmis. 

More  like  a  nuthatch  than  a  creeper  or  warbler,  this  bird,  from  the  last  of 
April  until  the  middle  of  October,  is  commonly  seen  in  woodlands,  thickets, 
and  swamps,  gracefully  searching  up  and  down  the  trunks  and  larger  branches 
of  trees  for  his  insect  food.  He  is  often  so  absorbed  in  his  work  as  to  entirely 
ignore  the  presence  of  spectators.  By  some  he  is  called  "  saw-your-leg-qff," 
from  his  song,  which  strikingly  resembles  the  noise  made  by  a  fine  saw. 

20.  NASBVILLE  WARBLER.     Helminthophila  rdficapilla.     Wilson. 

Upper  parts  olive  green.  Under  parts  a  rich,  clear  yellow  at  all  seasons. 
Cheeks  and  shoulders  gray  and  a  reddish-brown  cap  characterize  this  bird. 
Arriving  the  first  of  May,  comparatively  silent  and  songless,  they  proceed  to 
build  on  the  ground  a  nest,  which,  by  the  way,  is  very  large  for  so  small  tenants 
as  themselves,  of  leaves,  bark,  and  pine  needles,  sometimes  lining  it  with  horse- 
hair. The  song,  which  is  weak  but  interesting,  consists  of  repetitions  of  single 
notes,  the  whole  ending  suddenly. 
2L   TENNESSEE  WARBLER.    Helminthophila  peregrina.     Wilson. 

Much  like  the  Nashville  in  appearance  and  song,   except  being  entirely 
yellowish-gray  and  having  no  brown   head.      It  is  one  of  the  rarest  of  the 
warblers  that  pass  through  the  county  but  has  been  identified  several   times. 
A  specimen  was  taken  by  Mr  H.  V.  Neal,  in  Lewiston,  May  1,  1888. 
22.   PARULA  WARBLER.     Compsothlypis  Americana.     Linno'us. 

This  bird  was  formerly  called  the  "blue  yellow-back,"  and  the  name  gives 
an  idea  of  its  appearance.  Arriving  in  pairs  early  in  May,  they  return  during 
September.  They  are  abundant  in  high,  open  places,  where  they  may  be  seen, 
nervous  and  active,  among  the  terminal  foliage.  Mr  John  Burroughs  speaks 
of  them  as  the  handsomest  as  well 'as  the  smallest  warblers  known  to  him. 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  75 

The  note  is  a  drawling  one,  as  if  the  bird  had  an  impediment  in  his  throat. 
The  nest  is  often  an  architectural  wonder,  built  high  up  in  some  spruce  tree, 
and  is  the  only  nest  in  Maine  built  entirely  of  moss. 

23.  CAPE  MAY  WARBLER.     Dendroica  tigrina.     Gmelm. 

Upper  parts  yellowish-olive.  Under  parts  yellow,  black-striped.  Crown 
black  with  cheek  patch  of  orange  brown.  This  rare  visitant  flies  in  company 
with  the  magnolia  warblers,  which  it  resembles.  It  does  not  nest  in  the  county 
and  is  rarely  seen  here.    The  writer  took  a  specimen  May  7, 1890,  in  Lewiston. 

24.  YELLOW  WARBLER.     Dendroica  -iESTiVA.     &meUn. 

The  male  is  bright  yellow,  striped  with  orange,  while  the  female  has  no 
orange  stripes.  The  "summer  yellow-bird"  is  the  commonest  of  all  the 
warblers,  coming  as  tlie  forerunner  of  unfolding  leaves  and  summer  itself,  they 
return  soutli  early,  being  too  delicate  to  endure  much  cold  weather.  The 
nests  are  very  skillfully  constructed  of  fine  strips  of  bark,  willow  catkins,  etc., 
and  are  lined  with  fine  grasses,  feathers,  and,  when  the  little  architect  is 
fortunate,  with  cotton  or  wool.  The  vagrant  cowbird  often  turns  this  nest 
into  an  orphan  asylum  by  depositing  her  eggs  therein. 

25.  BLACK-TBROATED  BLUE  WARBLER.     Dendroica  cerulescens.     Gmclin. 
The  male  above  is  slaty  blue,  below   white,  with  a  black  throat  and  chin, 

all  the  colors  being  in  masses.  The  female  is  a  dull  olive-green,  with  a 
triangular  white  spot  at  the  base  of  the  primary  wing  feathers.  Their  note  is 
harsh  and  hoarse.  They  arrive  the  first  of  May  and  call  again  the  last  of 
September  on  their  return  south.  At  each  period  they  tarry  only  for  about 
i  two  weeks.  I  am  not  aware  that  their  nest  has  been  found  within  Andros- 
coggin county,  the  White  Mountains  being  one  of  their  usual  nesting  places. 

26.  MYRTLE  WARBLER.     Dendroica  coronata.     LinnrBus. 

Marked  by  a  white  throat  and  four  sharp  yellow  spots,  one  each  on  the 
I  head,  rump,  and  each  side  of  the  breast.  This  warbler  passes  through  the 
county  on  both  migrations,  the  last  of  April  and  earl}^  in  September,  usually 
in  company  with  other  birds,  and  in  quite  large  numbers  during  the  passage. 
Their  note,  which  is  not  very  noticeable,  may  be  represented  by  the  syllables 
zillet,  zillet,  repeated  very  rapidly. 

27.  MAGNOLIA  WARBLER.     Dendroica  maculosa.     Gmelin. 

A  slate-colored  head  with  black  eye-stripes  and  a  yellow  throat.  Black 
spots  and  stripes  on  the  chest.  A  dainty  bird  and  quite  a  common  summer 
resident,  arriving  about  May  6th  and  remaining  well  into  September. 

28.  CHESTNUT-SIDED  WARBLER.     Dendroica  pensylvanica.     Linnrcus. 
Whole  crown  pure  yellow  and  entirely  white  beneath,  with  chestnut  stripes 

down  each  side.  A  beautiful  bird,  coming  early  in  May  and  remaining  during 
the  season.  They  are  more  conspicuous  during  the  migrations,  for  they  scatter 
to  low,  wild,  swampy  localities  during  the  summer  months  in  order  to  build, 
in  low  saplings,  shrubs,  or  bushes,  their  nests  of  dried  grass  and  thin  strips  of 

76  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

bark.  Their  song,  tirelessly  repeated  at  short  intervals  while  searching  the 
leaves  and  twigs  for  insects,  is  something  like  the  syllables  whish-whlsh-whish- 

29.  BAY-BREASTED  WARBLER.     Dendroica  castanea.     Wilson. 

Bay  on  breast  and  back  of  head.  Black  on  forehead  and  sides  of  head. 
This  is  one  of  the  rarer  warblers  breeding  in  northern  Maine,  especially  in  the 
vicinity  of  Urabagog.  It  is  sometimes  seen  here  dnring  its  migratory  passage. 
The  writer  took  one  May  17,  1890,  while  it  was  sluggishly  feeding  among  the 
lower  branches  in  a  pine  grove  near  the  city  of  Lewiston. 

30.  BLACK-POLL  WARBLER.     Dendroica  striata.    Forster. 

Upper  parts  grayish  olive-green,  heavily  streaked  with  black.  Black  cap. 
Under  parts  pure  white.  When  this  straggler  reaches  us,  usually  about  the 
21st  of  May,  we  may  know  that  summer  has  begun  in  good  earnest,  for  he  is 
the  last  of  the  warblers  to  arrive.  Although  he  is  so  tardy  in  reaching  us,  he 
goes  still  farther  north  to  rest.  His  retrograde  migration  begins-  by  the  middle 
of  September  and  continues  into  October.  He  is  active  and  restless,  and,  in 
addition  to  his  other  accomplishments,  is  something  of  a  fly-catcher. 

81.   BLACKBURNIAN  WARBLER.     Dendroica  blackburni^.     Gmelin. 

A  brilliant  flame-colored  throat  makes  this  bird  unmistakable.  Dr  Cones 
says  of  it :  "  There  is  nothing  to  compare  with  the  exquisite  hue  of  this 
Promethean  torch."  He  is  shy,  keeping  well  in  the  tree-tops  of  mixed  wood- 
lands, and  is  somewhat  rare.  They  arrive  in  Androscoggin  county  as  early  as 
the  first  week  in  May,  and  the  return  begins  early  in  September.  They  nest 
low  among  the  bushes. 

32.  BLACK-THROATED   GREEN  WARBLER.     Dendroica  virens.     Gmelin. 
Back  yellowish-olive.     Chin,  throat,  and   breast   black.      Cheeks   yellow. 

This  warbler  is  next  in  abundance  to  the  yellow  warbler,  especially  in  the 
vicinity  of  pineries,  for  they  nest  in  the  forks  of  pine  trees.  They  come  early 
in  May  and  prefer  the  foliage  of  the  high  trees  for  their  hunting-grounds. 
Their  peculiar  song,  something  like  fe-te-tc-te-fa-fe,  with  the  next  to  the  last 
syllable  dropped  in  i)itch,  can  be  easily  distinguished  in  tlie  jargon  of  warblers 

33.  PINE  WARBLER.     Dendroica  vigor.sii.    Audubon. 

Dull  yellow  breast  without  distinct  markings,  and  often  called  the  "pine 
creeper,"  from  his  habits.  He  is  among  the  first  to  leave  the  south  for  our 
fragrant  pine  forests,  where  his  delicate,  high-pitched  trill  is  repeatedly  heard, 
and  he  does  not  return  until  about  the  second  week  of  October.  They  nest 
very  liigh,  sometimes  even  seventy  feet  from  the  ground,  and  when  not 
breeding  are  often  gregarious,  traveling  with  other  birds.  In  summer  they 
feed  on  the  larvse  and  eggs  of  insects,  but  in  the  winter  supplement  their  bill 
of  fare  with  such  small  fruits  as  they  can  find  south. 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  77 

34.  YELLOW  PALM  WARBLER.    Dendroica  palmarum  hypochrtsea.    Bidgwai/. 
Yellow  breast  and   reddish   crown.      This  is  the  first  warbler  to  arrive, 

coming  often  by  the  middle  of  April  and  returning  in  the  latter  part  of 
October  after  all  the  others,  with  the  possible  exception  of  the  myrtle,  have 
taken  passage.  On  each  migration  they  linger  in  this  county  about  a  month. 
The}^  have  the  noticeable  peculiarity  of  jerking  their  tails,  and  are  more  often 
seen  on  swampy  ground  than  in  high,  dry  places.  The  only  member  of  the 
Dendroecce  to  build  on  the  ground,  and  remarkable  also  for  nesting  nowhere  in 
the  United  States  except  in  northern  Maine. 

35.  OVEN-BIRD.     Seiurus  aurocapillus.     Linnreus. 

Yellow  crown,  with  breast  distinctly  marked  black  and  white.  This 
summer  resident  receives  his  common  name  of  "  oven-bird  "  from  his  peculiar 
habit  of  roofing  over  the  nest,  which  is  built  on  the  ground,  like  an  old-fashioned 
oven.  This  is  not,  however,  always  the  case  with  them.  They  arrive  about 
the  first  week  of  May  and  proceed  directly  with  their  matrimonial  arrange- 
ments, which  have  evidently  been  neglected  until  this  time.  Their  accustomed 
habitat  is  in  hard-wood  groves,  where  they  are  often  seen  walking  mincingly 
about  on  the  ground  or  scratching  among  the  leaves  like  a  hen.  Their  song, 
loud,  clear,  rapid,  and  echoing,  is  very  familiar.  Mr  John  Burroughs  describes 
it  very  happily  as  follows, —  teacher,  teacher,  teacher.  Teacher,  TEACHER! 

36.  WATER-THRUSH.     Seiurus  noveboracensis.     Gmelin. 

Chest  yellowish,  with  very  conspicuous  dark  stripes.  Resembling  his 
relative,  the  oven-bird,  in  many  ways,  he  differs  noticeably  in  his  habitat, 
preferring,  instead  of  dry,  hard-wood  groves,  lovv,  wet  places,  and  building  a 
nest,  principally  of  green  moss,  on  the  ground  near  the  water.  He  has  a  loud, 
clear,  cheerful,  striking  song  which  he  frequently  sings  while  bathing.  He 
walks  like  the  oven-bird,  and  has  the  additional  peculiarity  of  wagging  his 
tail  sideways. 

37.  MARYLAND  YELLOW-THROAT.     Geothltpis  trichas.     Linnreus. 

Male  with  yellow  breast  and  black  stripes  through  the  eyes.  Female  with- 
out the  black  stripes.  Distinctively  a  ground  warbler  and  very  common  in 
shrubbery  and  underbrush  from  the  first  week  in  May  until  well  into  October. 
Occasionally  found  in  fields  of  grain  when  the  insects  are  plenty  there.  Silent 
in  the  fall  but  tirelessly  repeating  its  tvhit-ta-tee-tee  during  the  earlier  months. 
Her  basket-like  nest  is  built  carelessly  of  very  coarse  materials. 

38.  WILSON'S  WARBLER.     Sylvania  pusilla.    Wilson. 

Mature  males  with  bright  yellow  chest  and  black  cap.  The  females  and 
young  males  lack  the  black  cap.  This  warbler  also  nests  upon  the  ground, 
and  is  often  classed  as  a  fly-catcher,  because  of  his  proficiency  in  that  direction. 
They  come  north  the  second  week  of  May,  and  are  occasionally  seen  until  the 
last  of  August,  sometimes  rearing  their  young  in  this  county,  although  they 
usually  go  a  little  farther  north  to  nest. 

78  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

39.  CANADIAN   WARBLER.     Sylyania  Canadensis.    Linnmus. 

Upper  parts  bluish-lead  color.  Yellow  chin  and  throat,  the  latter  bordered 
with  a  necklace  of  black.  Also  has  a  yellow  breast.  In  habits  much  like  No. 
38.  They  usually  nest  in  a  tussock  of  grass,  and  the  male  has  a  lively, 
animated  song.  Mr  John  Burroughs  speaks  of  him  as  "too  happy  to  keep 

40.  AMERICAN   REDSTART.     Setophaga  ruticilla.     Linnccus. 

Glossy  blue-black  above  and  white  beneath.  In  the  male  six  rich,  orange 
spots,  situated  one  on  each  side  of  the  tail,  wings,  and  breast,  being  replaced 
in  the  female  by  yellow  spots  similarly  placed.  As  the  scientific  name  signifies, 
the  redstart  is  pre-eminently  a  "mosquito  eater."  Graceful  and  rapid  in 
flight,' always  nervous  and  vivacious,  they  adorn  our  moist  woodlands  from 
May  to  September,  nesting  usually  either  in  or  near  the  fork  of  some  tree. 

Eighth    Family — Vireonidse. 

Half  warbler  and  half  fly-catcher,  measuring  between  five  and  one-quarter 
and  six  inches  in  length.  These  summer  residents  have  a  sweet  song  and  neat, 
delicate  plumage,  though  far  less  brilliant  and  variegated  than  that  of  the 
warblers.  Their  nests  are  well  woven,  pendulous  cups  suspended  almost 
invariably  from  the  small  forks  of  trees  and  bushes.  They  are  peculiar  to 
America,  and  are  often  called  "greenlets." 

41.  HED-EYED   VIREO.     Vireo  olivaceous.     Linnceus. 

Olive  color  above.  Whitish  beneath  with  a  black  stripe,  above  a  white 
stripe,  over  the  eye.  Iris  of  eye  red.  This  genial,  happy,  industrial  bird  is 
one  of  the  commonest  and  most  widely  distributed  of  all,  and  from  May  to 
August  can  be  seen  and  heard,  especially  among  the  elms  and  maples  of  old 
pasture  lands,  where  he  busily  searches  the  leaves  for  his  insect  food.  He  sings 
a  sleepy,  persistent,  sing-song  strain  all  day  long,  and  with  apparent  indifference, 
like  a  boy  whistling  abstractedly  at  his  work.  He  even  continues  to  sing  late 
in  the  summer  after  all  the  other  birds  have  abandoned  the  musical  profession. 

42.  WARBLING   VIREO.    Vireo  gilyus.     Vicillot. 

Similar  in  appearance  to  the  red-eyed,  the  warbling  vireo  is  distinguishable 
by  the  absence  of  the  black  line  over  the  eye.  This  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  singei'S  that  comes  to  us  in  the  cities  and  towns,  warbling,  at  short 
intervals,  from  the  second  week  in  May  until  September,  a  cheerful,  long- 
continued  strain  in  the  trees  that  line  our  streets  and  roadsides.  His  voice  is 
weak,  but  it  is  tenderly  liquid. 

43.  YELLOW-THROATED  VIREO.     Vikeo  elavifrons.     VieUlot. 

Olive  head  and  slate-blue  rump.  Yellow  throat  and  white  beneath.  Tail- 
feathers  white-edged.  This  is  the  handsomest  of  the  vireos  and  probably  the 
least  common,  although  often  seen  here  during  their  passage. 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  79 

44.  BLUE-HEADED  VIREO.     Vireo  solitarius.     Wilson. 

Olive  back  and  white  around  the  eyes.  Whitish  beneath,  with  yellow 
undersides.  Distinguishable  by  its  dark  ashy-blue  head.  Arriving  the  earliest 
of  all  the  vireos  late  in  April  or  early  in  May,  they  are  quite  abundant  for  a 
short  time,  after  which  they  pass  farther  north,  perhaps  a  few  remaining  to 
breed  here.  They  also  linger  the  last  of  the  vireos  in  their  retrograde 

Ninth  Family  —  Laniidae. 

45.  NORTHERN   SHRHvE.     Lanius  p.orealis.     Vieillot. 

Snuff-colored  back,  dark  wings,  rippled  breast,  and  white-edged  tail.  This 
is  the  "  butcher-bird,"  who  exercises  his  cruel  and  tyrannical  disposition  in  our 
county,  from  October  to  April,  on  small  birds,  mice,  and  such  insects  and 
larvai  as  are  in  exposed  situations.  He  is  the  "white  whisky-John"  of  the 
Indians  and  has  been  very  suggestivel}^  designated  by  Dr  Wheaton  as  the 
"  bushwhacker  among  birds."  Sometimes  he  is  attracted  even  into  the  cities 
after  the  English  sparrows  that  throng  our  streets,  and  he  has  the  peculiar 
habit  of  impaling  his  prey  on  some  thorn  or  stub  after  he  has  torn  off  its  head 
and  taken  its  brain,  for  the  shrike  is  a  great  believer  in  brain  food.  He  seizes 
his  quarry  in  his  bill  with  unerring  aim,  usually  darting  from  some  lookout 
where  he  has  been  quietly  perched,  with  his  fiery  red  eye  wide  open  for  the 
opportunity.  Only  occasional  instances  are  given  of  their  breeding  in  the 
United  States  and  never  in  Androscoggin  county,  its  accustomed  nestino- 
haunts  being  farther  north. 

46.  LOGGERHEAD   SHRIKE.     Lanius  ludovicianus.     Llnnccus. 

Similar  to  No.  45  in  habits  and  appearance,  with  the  exception  of  beino" 
somewhat  smaller.  A  black  line  running  above  its  eyes  and  beak  is  its 
distinguishing  characteristic.  This  shrike  is  much  less  common  than  the 
former,  but  has  been  taken  in  the  county.  The  nests  of  both  shrikes  have 
been  found  in  Maine. 

Tenth  Family  —  Ampelidae. 

47.  CEDAR  WAXWING.     Ampelis  cedrorum.     Vieillot. 

This  gipsy-like  bird,  with  his  sleek  coat  of  an  indescribable  snuff-brown 
color,  looks  as  if  he  had  just  stepped  out  of  that  traditional  bandbox  from 
which  some  scrupulously  neat  persons  are  supposed  to  emerge.  A  gentleman 
of  leisure  in  the  midst  of  a  busy  world,  he  delays  the  shackles  of  wedded  life 
until  late  in  the  season,  and  usually  it  is  the  first  of  July  before  their  bulky 
nest  appears,  built  in  some  cedar  or  orchard  tree.  Dr  Cones  aptly  describes 
their  insignificant  note  as  a  "weak  and  wheezy  whistle."  They  are  sociable, 
amiable,  and  affectionate  in  disposition,  and  seem  to  liave  quite  a  code  of 
genteel  manners,  as  is  illustrated  by  their  peculiar  habit,  which  I  had  the  good 
fortune  once  to  observe,  of  daintily  passing  an  insect  or  berry  back  and  forth 
from  beak  to  beak  before  eating  it,  as  if  out  of  pure  politeness.     In  the  earlier 

80  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

part  of  the  season  they  feed  on  the  insects  and  their  larvae,  which  are  so 
injurious  to  the  fruit  trees,  but  later,  as  the  cherries  ripen,  they  turn  them- 
selves into  generous  paymasters  for  their  own  valuable  services,  much  to  the 
annoyance  of  the  farmer,  who  only  sees  his  cherries  disappearing  before  his 
very  eyes.  Still  later,  in  "dog-days,"  when  the  small  fruits  become  less 
plenty,  the  "cherry-birds"  take  a  few  weeks'  hunting  excursion  for  insects  up 
the  streams  and  lakes,  and  by  September  their  summer  vacation  is  over. 

Eleventh  Family  —  Hirundinidae. 
This  well-defined  group  of  insectivorous  birds  is  distributed  all  over  the 
world,  about  one  hundred  species  being  nominally  recorded.  They  are  great 
housekeepers  and,  returning  usually  in  April,  they  build  their  peculiar  nests, 
not  so  much  in  concealment  as  in  inaccessible  places.  They  often  return  year 
after  year  to  the  same  nest.  Graceful  and  dextrous  in  flight,  they  scarcely  ever 
use  their  feet,  relying  on  their  pinions  for  locomotion.  The  following  are  the 
only  representatives  of  this  family  in  this  county,  the  so-called  "  chimney 
swallow  "  belonging  to  an  entirely  different  family,  the  Ci/jjseliihe. 

48.  PURPLE   MARTIN.     Progne  subis.    Linnmus. 

This  loquacious  and  interesting  bird  is  the  largest  of  the  swallows,  and  has 
come  to  be  familiar  in  many  localities  where  bird  houses  have  been  erected  for 
his  occupancy.  He  is  something  of  a  city  bird,  since  his  choice  for  a  nesting- 
place  in  the  country  is  too  often  disputed  for  his  comfort  by  the  blue  birds, 
wrens,  and  tree  swallows.  They  formerly  built  in  hollow  trees,  but  since 
bird  houses  have  been  constructed  for  them  they  keep  abreast  of  civilization 
and  occupy  these.  It  requires  two  years  for  the  young  to  attain  the  beautiful 
purple-black  color  of  the  adult.  The  male  has  been  observed  occasionally  to 
stay  at  home  on  the  eggs  during  incubation,  like  a  dutiful  spouse,  and  give  the 
female  a  short  afternoon  out.  He  often  has  pitched  battles  with  the  king  bird, 
and  also  the  irrepressible  English  sparrow  with  whom  he  has  had  a  misunder- 
standing from  time  immemorial.  Their  food  is  principally  flies,  wasps,  bees, 
and  beetles,  and  their  song  is  noisy  and  loud,  but  quite  pleasant, 

49.  CLIFF  OR  EAVES   SWALLOW.     Pbtrochelidon  lunifrons.     Say. 

Ash  colored  crescent  on  the  head.  This  bird  was  originally  a  South 
American  species,  and  it  has  slowly  migrated  north  until  it  has  reached  Maine 
in  abundance.  They  build  their  flask-shaped  nests  of  mud  usually  under  the 
eaves  of  barns  and  sheds  where  their  unmusical,  earnest,  and  not  unpleasant 
creaking  note,  uttered  as  if  with  difficulty,  becomes  familiar  to  every  one. 
They  are  called  republicans  from  their  social  habits. 

50.  BARN   SWALLOW.     Chelioon  erythrogaster.     Boddaert. 

This  most  abundant  of  the  swallows,  flashing  in  and  out  of  old  barns  in 
every  country  place,  is  the  only  one  of  the  family  with  the  forked,  or  typical, 
swallow  tail.     Like  the  other  swallows,  while  abroad  on  his  beautifully  erratic 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  81 

and  graceful  flight,  he  catches  flying  insects  in  his  mouth  and  sticks  them 
together,  by  means  of  a  peculiar  mucus,  into  little  balls  which  are  afterwards 
fed  to  the  young.  The  nest  is  a  structure  of  mud  pellets  interwoven  with 
straw  or  hay  and  lined  with  fine  grasses,  often  a  whole  village  of  them  being 
placed  together  in  the  rafters  of  a  barn.  Social,  affectionate,  and  wonderfully 
active,  they  are  always  benefiting,  and  never  injuring  their  human  brothers. 

51.  TREE   SWALLOW.     Tachycineta  bicolor.     Vieillot. 

White  beneath  and  iridescent  bluish-black  above.  These  beautiful  little 
inhabitants  of  the  air  are  more  conservative  than  some  of  their  family,  and 
still  build  in  hollow  trees  and  old  woodpeckers'  holes,  as  their  ancestors  did, 
although  occasionally  a  pair  will  occupy  the  chinks  of  a  building  or  a  martin 
house.  They  have  an  especial  fondness  for  water  and  linger  quite  late  in 
autumn,  depending  somewhat  on  the  weather  for  their  departure. 

52.  BANK  SWALLOW.     Clivicola  riparia.     Lmncrus. 

Brown  back,  white  throat,  and  dirty-tinged  beneath.  The  least  in  size  and 
the  commonest  of  the  swallows  in  such  localities  as  are  favorable  for  the 
construction  of  their  remarkable  nests.  These  nests  are  dug  in,  perpendicularly 
to  the  surface  of  some  bank,  usually  from  two  to  four  feet,  and  all  the  work  is 
done  with  the  closed  bill  of  the  little  bird.  They  possess  a  rapid,  flickering 
flight,  and  delight  to  dip  their  breasts  into  the  water  as  they  skim  over  its 
surface  in  their  zigzag  course  after  insects.  They  are  the  shyest  of  all  the 

Twelfth  Family  —  Tanagridae. 

53.  SCARLET   TANAGER.     Piranga  erythromelas.     Vieillot. 

Mature  male,  bright  scarlet  with  dark  wings  and  tail,  the  scarlet  being 
replaced  in  the  female  by  dull  olive.  This  bird  is  so  brilliant  that  he  attracts 
even  the  most  careless  eye  as  he  flashes  in  the  midst  of  the  green  foliage.  The 
full  color  of  the  male  is  not  attained  until  after  the  first  year,  and  it  fades  in 
the  autumn  almost  to  the  olive  of  the  female.  Although  quite  rare  yet  it  has 
been  repeatedly  seen  in  Androscoggin  county. 

Thirteenth  Family  —  Fringillidae. 

This  is  the  feathered  Smith  family,  being  the  largest  and  containing  one- 
ninth  of  our  North  American  birds.  It  includes  the  finches,  grosbeaks,  and 
crossbills,  hailing  chiefly  from  the  north,  and  the  vast  army  of  sparrows,  mostly 
from  the  south. 

54.  EVENING  GROSBEAK.     Coccothraustes  vespertina.    Cooper. 

Yellowish  brown,  with  black  wings  and  tail  and  a  large  white  spot  on  the 
upper  part  of  the  wing.  Black  on  the  head.  A  striking  combination  of  black, 
white,  and  yellow.  The  nest  and  eggs  of  this  very  rare  visitor  have  never 
been  found.  The  birds  themselves  have  been  reported  only  a  few  times  within 
the  limits  of  the  United  States  and,  so  far  as  I  am  informed,  it  has  never  been 

82  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

seen  in  Maine  but  once,  when  a  male,  in  full  plumage,  was  taken  on  the  Bates 
College  campus  in  Lewiston,  January  10,  1890. 

55.  PINE   GROSBEAK.     Pinicola  enucleatok.     Linnaus. 

Male  reddish.  Female  olive-green.  With  a  large  beak,  as  the  name 
signifies.  These  birds  are  not  uncommon  visitors  of  our  coniferous  woods 
during  the  winter  months,  where  they  feed  on  young  buds.  Sometimes  they 
visit  an  orchard  for  the  seeds  which  they  can  pick  out  of  the  frozen  apples 
which  may  be  left  hanging  on  the  trees.  Being  good  singers  and  quite  tame, 
they  are  often  taken  into  captivity  as  cage  birds.  They  fly  about  in  small 
flocks  and  are  somewhat  sluggish  in  their  movements.  Length,  eight  and 
one-half  inches. 

56.  PURPLE   FINCH.     Carpodacus  purpureus.     Gmelin. 

Male  with  reddish  breast,  fading  away  insensibly  beneath  and  not  attaining 
its  color  until  the  second  year.  Female  olive.  The  only  purple  about  this 
bird  is  in  its  name.  Brilliant  and  lively  in  song,  he  holds  rank  as  one  of  the 
sweetest,  best,  and  most  constant  of  our  singers,  and  therefore  he  is  often 
caged,  when  he  is  known  as  the  red  linnet.  Although  they  have  no  proper 
crest,  yet  they  are  in  the  habit  of  erecting  their  crown  feathers  on  occasion, 
and  often  after  moulting,  especially  in  captivity,  their  plumage  turns  to  a 
yellowish  color.  They  fly  in  compact  flocks,  usually  alighting  and  starting 
up  together.  With  the  robin  and  cedar  waxwing  he  forms  the  trinity  of 

57.  AMERICAN  CROSSBILL.     LoxiA  curvirostra  minor.     Brehm. 

This  winter  resident,  red-tinged  in  the  male,  is  never  mistaken  when  once 
his  beak  can  be  examined.  The  mandibles  cross  each  other,  this  peculiar 
arrangement  being  especially  adapted  for  prying  out  the  pine-cone  kernels  on 
which  the  bird  feeds.  They  are  seen  flying  in  flocks  high  overhead  and 
alighting  only  in  the  tops  of  tall  evergreens,  and  they  utter  a  peculiar, 
whistling  twitter  while  in  flight.  They  nest  very  early  and  are  quite  erratic 
in  their  appearance,  a  flock  being  seen  and  three  of  them  taken,  in  Lewiston, 
June  3,  1891. 

58.  WHITE-WINGED  CROSSBILL.     LoxiA  leucoptera.     Gmelin. 

Similar  to  but  somewhat  more  rare  than  No.  57,  and  distinguishable  by  the 
marked  white  bars  on  the  wings.  They  usually  fly  in  company  with  the 
American  crossbills  and  have  been  reported  in  the  Arctic  regions  by  Sir  John 
Richardson.  They  were  very  abundant  throughout  the  county  in  the  winter 
of  1888-89,  remaining  even  into  the  spring. 

59.  REDPOLL.     Acanthis  linaria.     Limiccus. 

Brown,  with  small  red  crown.  These  neat,  hardy  little  snow-birds  usually 
make  their  cheerful  api)earance  after  the  first  heavy  snow  fall,  taking  possessioji 
of  fields  and  gardens  wherever  the  weed-stalks  and  grasses  lift  up  a  supply 
of  seeds  above  the  sno\y.     They  are  timid  and  easily  alarmed,  and  in  note 


The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  83 

and  general  habits  resemble  the  goldfinches.  They  nest  in  the  alders  of 
Greenland  and  the  Hudson  Bay  region,  and  their  migration  seems  to  be 
controlled  rather  by  the  food  supply  than  the  weather,  as  they  are  very  erratic 
in  appearance. 

60.  AMERICAN   GOLDFINCH.     Spinus  tristis. 

Black  cap,  wings,  and  tail.  The  male  bright  yellow  elsewhere,  and  the 
female  olive  green.  This  nomadic  little  dandy  in  feathers  is  regularly  a 
summer  resident,  but  occasionally  he  remains  in  the  count}^  all  winter.  They 
gather  in  large  flocks  in  the  autumn  and  cau  everywhere  be  heard,  festooning 
their  plaintive  lisping  twe-e  twe-e  through  the  air  in  their  undulatory  flight. 
For  three-fourths  of  the  year  they  are  gregarious,  and  separate  into  pairs  only 
long  enough  to  build  their  peculiar  felted  nests  and  to  rear  one  brood.  They 
are  called  the  "  thistle  birds"  because  they  feed  so  largely  on  the  seeds  of  the 
Canadian  thistle. 

61.  PINE   SISKIN.    Spinus  pinus.     Wilson. 

Olive  green,  black  mottled,  with  a  very  pointed  beak  and  considerably 
yellowish  on  the  wings.  This  is  the  "pine  finch."  With  querulous  notes  and 
undulatory  flight  they  frequent  thickets  and  uuderbrush  in  flocks.  They  are 
strictly  seed-eaters,  and  are  the  rarest  of  the  finches  that  visit  us,  with  the 
exception,  of  course,  of  the  evening  grosbeak. 

62.  SNOWFLAKE.     Plectkophenax  nivalis.     Linncnis. 

In  full  dress  much  more  nearly  white  than  it  is  in  its  winter  plumage.  The 
"snow  bunting"  is  always  welcome  when  a  flock  of  them  come  scurrying 
down  in  the  teeth  of  a  snow-storm  to  brighten  a  dreary  winter  day.  The}' 
are  entirely  terrestrial  and  seed-eating  in  habits.  One  peculiarity  about 
them  is  the  fact  that  they  change  from  winter  to  summer  plumage  by 
the  fraying  off  of  the  ends  of  the  feathers  without  moulting.  They  breed 
within  the  Arctic  Circle,  and  are  said  to  have  a  beautiful  song  in  their  far 
northern  home. 

63.  VESPER  SPARROW.     Pooc.ictes  gramineits.     Gmelin. 

The  individuality  of  this  bird,  often  called  the  "  grassfinch  "  or  "  bay-winged 
bunting,"  is  betrayed  chiefly  by  two  or  three  white  tail-feathers  made  conspic- 
uous in  flight.  He  has  been  called  the  "  poet  of  the  pastures,"  and  his  soft, 
sweet,  and  somewhat  plaintive  strain  is  usually  heard  greeting  the  djnng  day, 
from  which  habit  Mr  Wilson  Flagg  christened  him  the  "  vesper  bird."  Their 
nest  is  built  on  the  ground,  and  the  mother  bird  will  always  do  her  best  to 
decoy  intruders  by  running  before  them  in  the  grass,  or  even  by  feigning  a 
broken  wing,  to  attract  attention  when  the  safety  of  her  trust  becomes 
especially  imperiled.  They  are  summer  residents,  coming  usually  by  the 
middle  of  April,  and  are  fearless  and  unsuspicious  of  mankind  in  their  general 
habits,  neither  seeking  nor  shunning  human  society.  The  eggs  have  a  milky, 
yellowish  tinge  instead  of  the  green  of  the  song  sparrow, 

84  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

64.  SAVANNA  SPARROW.     Ammodramus  sandwichensis  savanna.    Wilson. 

It  requires  some  experience  to  distinguish  this  sparrow  away  from  his 
accustomed  haunts  of  open,  marshy  ground  and  when  he  is  not  singing  his 
peculiar  trilling  song.  A  yellowish  line  above  the  eye  marks  him  for  the  near 
observer.  They  come  early  in  April  and,  although  they  nest  in  open,  marshy 
fields  and  swampy  places,  yet  the  nest  itself,  of  coarse  grass,  is  always  sunken 
in  the  ground  in  a  dry  spot,  and  is  usually  somewhat  elevated.  Whenever  the 
nest  is  approached  they  thread  their  way  through  the  grass  like  a  mouse. 
They  are  somewhat  gregarious,  and  are  eminently  terrestrial.  Chiefly  in  the 
morning  their  weak  song  is  heard,  resembling  a  thin  insect  trill  in  its  volume 
and  ventriloquistic  properties. 

65.  WHITE-CROWNED   SPARROW.     Zonotrichia  leucophrys.     Forstcr. 

The  white  of  the  crown  separates  two  black  stripes  on  either  side  rather 
narrower  than  itself.  No  yellow  anywhere.  This  rare,  transient  visitor  is 
quite  irregular  in  his  appearance,  but  sometimes  passes  through  the  county 
on  his  way  to  Labrador,  where  the  young  are  reared.  He  pauses  long  enough 
sometimes  to  pour  forth  his  beautiful  song,  perched  in  some  tree  and  beating 
time  with  his  eloquent  tail.  The  song  is  loud,  clear,  and  musical  at  first,  with 
a  touch  of  plaintiveness,  diminishing  in  volume  until  it  dies  away  at  the  last. 

66.  WHITE-THROATED  SPARROW.    Zonotrichia  albicollis.     Gmelin. 
Yellowish  stripes  over  the  eyes.     Edge  of  wings  yellow.     The  female  has 

no  white  on  the  throat.  This  handsome  bird,  often  called  the  "  peabody  bird" 
from  his  song,  sometimes  nests  in  this  county,  although  usually  selecting  higher 
altitudes  or  latitudes.  They  arrive  by  the  third  week  of  April  and  linger  in 
the  fall  migration  until  late  into  November.  Generally  seen  flying  near  the 
ground  and  seeking  the  shelter  of  low  bushes.  Their  song,  a  series  of  clear 
whistles,  is  chanted  often  in  concert  in  earl}^  morning  and,  in  cloudy  weather, 
is  continued  at  intervals  all  day.  Often  in  the  dead  of  night  also  their  sweet 
and  plaintive  jjea-peahody-hody-bodij  is  heard,  when  the  effect  is  singularly 
striking  in  the  midst  of  the  stillness. 

67.  TREE   SPARROW.     Spizella  monticola.     Gmelin. 

Brown  cap  and  barred  wings  with  the  under  mandible  of  the  beak  yellow. 
A  rare  winter  resident,  nesting  on  the  ground  in  Labrador  and  New- 
foundland. They  are  quite  abundant  about  the  middle  of  April  during  their 
northern  migration,  flying  in  flocks  along  the  shrubbery  and  underbrush,  and 
occasionally  singing  their  soft,  sweet  song,  which  dissolves  at  last  into  a  warble. 
They  were  remarkably  abundant  in  Lewiston  during  the  season  of  1890-91. 

68.  CHIPPING  SPARROW.     Spizella  socialis.     Wilson. 

This  little  brown-capped  citizen  is  one  of  the  most  widely  distributed  and 
abundant  of  all  our  birds.  He  has  earned  the  name  of  "hair  bird,"  from  his 
skillful  workmanshij)  as  an  architect,  weaving  his  little  home,  which  is  perched 
on  some  bush,  out  of  hair  and  fine  grass.     Their  song  is  a  clear  trill,  and  the 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  85 

young  birds  experience  some  noticeable  difificulty  at  first  in  performing  it. 
Very  often  it  is  heard  in  the  night  when  it  may  be  some  overworked  little 
chipper  is  breaking  out  in  his  troubled  sleep,  or  more  likely  some  restless  little 
toiler  is  impatient  for  the  break  of  day.  Their  chipping  note,  which  they 
constantly  utter  and  from  which  they  are  christened,  sounds  like  chinking  two 
pebbles  sharply  together. 

69.  FIELD    SPARROW.     Spizella  pusilla.     Wilson. 

Faded  breast  and  reddish-yellow  beak.  This  bird  is  not  an  uncommon 
summer  resident  of  our  fields,  pastures,  and  scrublands,  building  a  deep  Jiest 
on  the  ground.  His  song  is  melodious  and  brilliant,  and  ordinarily  sung  at 
morning  and  night,  but  in  cloudy  weather  he  cheerfully  volunteers  to  sing 
during  the  day.  The  song,  which  rivals  that  of  the  white-crowned  and  fox- 
colored  sparrows,  begins  with  three  or  four  crescent-like  notes  which  dwindle 
rapidly  into  a  sweet  trill.  The  whole  has  been  very  well  described,  as  follows : 
fe-o  — f<'-o  — fe-o  — few  —  fctv  — few  — fee  — fee  — fee. 

70.  SLATE-COLORED   JUNCO.    JuNCO  hyemalis.     Linncms. 

Slate-colored  back,  and  slate-colored  bib  very  distinctly  defined  across  the 
breast.  White  bill  and  white  tail-feathers  iiirted  in  sight  during  flight.  Cheery 
and  bright,  the  "black  snowbird"  is  an  occasional  winter  resident,  when  they 
appear  as  the  feathered  prophets  of  a  coming  storm,  but  he  is  very  abundant 
during  the  spring  passage.  Their  migrations  are  quite  irregular  and  uncertain, 
often  in  flocks  with  other  birds,  but  they  retire  to  the  highlands  to  breed, 
seeming  to  be  constitutionally  unfit  to  endure  much  warm  weather.  Their 
song  is  a  simple  trill,  in  addition  to  which  they  are  continually  "sucking  their 
teeth,"  as  their  peculiar  note  has  been  happily  expressed.  Their  food  consists 
of  berries,  seeds,  and  insects. 

7\.   SONG   SPARROW.     Melospiza  fasciata.     Gmelin. 

His  quaker-like  garb  is  usually  adorned  by  a  blotch  of  black  in  the  middle 
of  the  breast.  Always  welcome,  this  cheerful  and  hardy  songster  gets  the  start 
of  the  spring  every  year,  being  the  earliest  arrival  of  his  family,  coming  with 
the  bluebird  and  robin,  and  collecting  in  loose  flocks  for  the  return  south  in 
October.  His  hopeful,  silvery,  jubilant  song  is  the  song  of  all  songs  in  the 
early  spring,  foretelling  the  joyous  carnival  to  come.  It  is  to  be  distinguished 
from  that  of  the  vesper,  who  joins  the  chorus  later,  by  the  two  or  three 
confident,  piping  notes  with  which  it  opens.  The  vesper  has  no  such  intro- 
duction, but  begins  in  the  middle  of  his  song  as  if  he  had  sung  a  part  of  it 
under  his  breath  before  opening  his  mouth.  The  song  sparrow  generally 
places  his  well-made  nest  on  the  ground,  and  usually  rears  at  least  two  broods 
during  the  summer. 
72.   SWAMP   SPARROW.     Melospiza  georgiana.     Latham. 

This  brunette  of  the  sparrows,  with  no  distinctive  mark  on  his  breast  like 
the  song  sparrow,  is  quite  a  rare  summer  resident  of  this  county.     His  life 

86  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

history  is  but  iraperfectl}^  known  because  of  his  secretiveness,  and  whenever 
his  seclusion  is  intruded  upon  by  some  member  of  the  human  family  in  rubber 
boots,  he  shows  his  indignation  by  spiteful  flirts  of  his  expressive  tail  as  he 
skulks  from  bush  to  bush  among  the  swampy  thickets. 

73.  FOX  SPARROW.     Passerella  iliaca.    Merreni. 

Conspicuous  from  his  beauty  and  size  as  well  as  his  form,  this  rare  visitor 
abounds  for  a  short  time  in  the  middle  of  April  and  then  disappears  for  his 
Arctic  nesting  grounds.  Haunting  shrubbery  and  undergrowth  and  frequently 
scratcliing  among  the  leaves  like  the  brown  thrasher  and  ovenbird,  whenever 
he  is  alarmed,  instead  of  taking  precipitous  flight  like  many  birds,  he  usually 
flies  to  some  low  perch  and  looks  about  for  the  cause  of  his  alarm.  His  song, 
once  identified,  is  unmistakable,  being  a  series  of  sweetly  modulated  tones 
terminated  by  a  vocal  twist  that  would  turn  Patti  herself  green  with  envy. 

74.  TOWHEE.     Pipilo  erythrophthalmus.     Limueus. 

Black  back,  chestnut  sides,  and  white  beneath.  A  red  iris  to  his  eye,  and 
showing  white  tail  feathers  in  flight.  With  as  many  dliases  as  the  crookedest 
of  us,  this  stylishly  dressed  scratcher-among-the-leaves  answers,  with  a  saucy 
flirt  of  his  tail,  to  the  names  of  "  towhee,"  "  chewink,"  and  "  joreet,"  because 
of  his  note,  and  "  ground  robin  "  and  "  marsh  robin  "  because  of  his  habits, 
although  it  is  questionable  how  far  the  latter  name  is  applicable.  He  is  quite 
rare  in  this  county,  although  he  is  very  common  farther  south  in  New  England. 

75.  ROSE-BREASTED  GROSBEAK.     Habia  ludoviciana.     Linn(eus. 

The  male  has  a  black  back  and,  after  the  first  year,  a  beautiful  blood  stain 
on  his  white  breast.  The  female  is  more  quietly  dressed  in  light  brown  and 
white.  Both  have  the  big  beak  of  the  grosbeaks  and  are  sometimes  tamed  as 
cage  birds.  Perhaps  no  one  of  our  birds  combines  more  attractions  in  beauty 
and  song  than  this  "rose  bud"  of  the  North  American  birds.  Nuttall  ranks 
him  even  next  to  the  mocking-bird  as  a  singer,  and  surely  his  rich  rolling  song, 
suggesting  that  of  the  robin  at  its  start,  entitles  him  to  much  praise.  They 
feed  on  the  seeds  of  birches  and  alders,  berries  and  buds,  and  do  not  scorn  an 
occasional  indulgence  in  insects. 

76.  INDIGO   BUNTING.     Passerina  cyanea.     Linnreiis. 

Male  dark,  rich  indigo,  with  black  wings  and  tail,  not  acquiring  its  full 
color  until  after  the  first  year.  One  would  never  suspect  that  the  modest 
snuff-colored  bird,  with  never  a  trace  of  blue  about  her,  wiio  follows  this 
gaudy  and  vivacious  bit  of  color,  was  liis  faithful  mate.  His  song,  given  rapidly 
and  often  —  even  in  the  heat  of  noonday  —  consists  of  about  six  notes  dimin- 
ishing in  volume. 

Fourteenth  Family  —  Icteridae. 

These  are  the  starlings  of  the  old  world,  and  they  all  have  sharp  beaks 
running  well  back  into  the  head,  'i'hey  are  walkers,  and  their  eggs  are  beau- 
tifully marked. 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  87 

77.  BOBOLINK.     Dolichonyx  ortzivorus.     Linnceus. 

This  merry  minstrel  of  our  meadows  has  a  sufficiently  changing  indi- 
viduality to  be  called  a  feathered  "•  Dr  Jekyll  and  Mr  Hyde."  Known  to  us  as 
the  most  light-hearted  and  rollicking  bird  of  the  whole  catalogue,  appearing 
in  his  motley  garb  by  the  middle  of  May,  before  the  summer  is  over  the  laugh 
has  died  out  of  his  song  and  his  theatrical  plumage  has  become  replaced  by 
citizen's  clothes.  Late  in  August  or  early  in  September  this  reformed  trouba- 
dour turns  his  course  to  the  south,  departing  usually  in  the  night,  when  his 
metallic  chink  from  the  blackness  of  the  upper  air  falls  on  the  ear  of  the 
belated  traveler.  In  Pennsylvania  he  becomes  the  ''reed-bird,"  where  he 
turns  himself  into  such  a  gourmand  and  become:fso  plump  that  whole  flocks 
are  shot  by  gunners  for  the  market.  In  the  Carolinas  he  undergoes  another 
change  and  is  the  "rice-bird,"  doing,  according  to  the  Agricultural  Depart- 
ment, -12,500,000  yearly  damage.  In  South  Aiuerica  he  is  the  "butter-bird," 
and  after  his  songless  winter  is  over  he  threads  his  way  north  to  our  New 
England  meadows  again,  where  he  turns  over  a  new  leaf  and  rears  his  young, 
covering  his  multitude  of  sins  by  that  most  popular  and  jolly  of  all  our 
summer  songs.  The  young  birds  fly  before  the  hay  harvest,  and  the  nests, 
although  placed  in  open  meadows  on  tussocks  of  grass,  are  rarely  found  except 
by  accident.  The  bobolink  with  a  hovering  flight  sings  often  in  the  air,  and 
then  his  music  sounds  as  if  some  musical  winged  bottle,  with  its  stopper  lost 
forever,  was  bubbling  out  its  liquid  contents  over  the  green  fields. 

78.  COWBIRD.     MoLOTHRUS  ater.     Boddaert. 

This  glossy  black  polygamist  with  his  faded-out  wives  has  a  very  question- 
able character  among  bird  circles.  Gipsy-like,  they  never  build  a  nest,  but  the 
females  foist  their  eggs  in  nests  already  occupied,  to  be  hatched  and  reared  by 
respectable  birds.  The  vireos,  warblers,  and  sparrows  are  especially  the 
philanthropists  who  are  thus  imposed  upon.  The  young  cowbird,  with  the 
blood  of  generations  of  vagabonds  in  his  unsightly  little  body,  instinctively 
pushes  his  nest-mates  over  the  edge  of  the  nest,  if  they  ever  have  the  mis- 
fortune to  be  hatched  after  his  advent,  and  monopolizes  the  entire  care  of  his 
foster-parents.  As  soon  as  he  can  fly  he  always  joins  others  of  his  kin  and  in  their 
company  goes  to  the  bad  like  his  fathers  before  him.  Like  some  people,  they 
seem  to  think  that  they  can  sing,  and  often  alighting  in  the  tops  of  tall  trees, 
their  painful,  but  somewhat  melodious,  squeaking  note,  given  with  spreading 
wings  and  ruftling  feathers,  and  sounding  like  the  sweaty  hand  of  the  small  boy 
as  he  slides  down  the  banister,  is  heard.  Nothing  will  draw  the  insectivorous 
"cow  blackbirds"  like  a  "burnt  piece,"  and  their  dusky  forms  seem  especially 
in  place  there  as  they  walk  about,  crow-like,  upon  the  charred  ground. 

79.  RED-WINGED   BLACKBIRD.     Agelaids  ph(ENICKus.     LnuKfus. 

General  color,  velvet  black.  The  males  who  are  two  years  old  have 
crimson  spots  on  their  shoulders,  as  if  their  maturity  entitled   them  to  these 

88  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

chevrons  of  respect.  They  are  very  abundant  in  marshy  places,  building  in 
colonies  among  the  reeds  and  cat-tails  their  deeply-hollowed,  grass-lined  nests. 
Among  the  earliest  arrivals,  they  rear  two  broods,  and  linger  until  October 
before  their  departure.  Some  one  has  well  described  the  vocal  effort  of  the 
"  swamp  blackbird,"  as  he  is  often  called,  by  the  syllables  eon-eu-ree.  All  that  is 
necessary  to  assemble  a  noisy  indignation  meeting  of  these  blackbirds  about  one's 
head  is  to  enter  their  marshy  retreat  where  their  nests  are  located.  The  young 
birds  assemble  in  flocks  with  their  parents  in  the  fall  for  migration  together. 

80.  MEADOWLARK.     Sternella  magna.    Linnaeus. 

Variegated  plumage  with  yellow  predominating,  and  a  black  spot  on  the 
breast.  Long  bill  and  short  tail.  This  rare  summer  resident,  occasionally 
nesting  in  the  swampy  fields  of  this  county,  is  the  "old  field  lark,"  quite 
common  farther  south  of  us  where  they  whir  up  suddenly  in  flocks  before  the 
gunners,  who  delight  to  practice  shooting  them  on  the  wing.  Because  of  this 
they  have  learned  to  be  very  shy. 

81.  BALTIMORE   ORIOLE.     Icterus  galbdla.     Linnrrus. 

Black  head  and  throat.  Orange  beneath  and  sides  of  tail.  The  social  and 
genial  "golden  robin,"  swinging  his  graceful,  pensile  nest  from  the  drooping 
branches  of  the  old  elms  even  in  ourcities  and  towns,  and  brightening  the 
summer  by  his  lively  color  as  well  as  by  his  bugle-like  co-weet—co-'weet^  is 
always  recognized  as  a  friend.  Their  well-known  nest  is  a  deep,  pendulous 
pocket,  woven  with  hair  so  as  to  be  stiffened  into  maintaining  its  form. 
They  seem  justly  proud  of  their  workmanship  as  nest-bailders,  and  often 
return  to  build  again  where,  the  year  before,  the  breezes  swung  their  little 
ones  to  and  fro  between  heaven  and  earth.  The  male  comes  in  advance  of 
the  female  in  the  spring,  and  the  period  of  song  is  not  a  long  one.  A  fortune 
awaits  the  man  who  can  interpret  the  story  penciled  in  black  hieroglyphics 
on  their  white  eggs,  which  hold  the  reputation  of  being  the  most  beautiful  of 
all  our  birds'  eggs. 

82.  RUSTY   BLACKBIRD.     Scolecopiiagus  carolinus.     Miiller. 

This  bird  passes  through  the  county  in  the  latter  part  of  April  for  their 
nesting  haunts  at  the  sources  of  the  Penobscot  and  Kennebec.  When  they 
return  in  the  autumn  they  present  a  brownish-black  appearance,  and  are  not 
in  full  plumage.  Somewhat  larger  than  the  cowbird,  and  not  equaling  in  size 
the  bronze  grackle,  these  "  thrush  blackbirds  "  are  not  much  known,  being  of 
too  retiring  and  shy  a  disposition.  They  frequent  low,  swampy  thickets  for 
insects,  worms,  small  cn(sf(u-a\  and  the  seeds  of  aquatic  plants,  and  utter  an 
alarm  note  which  sounds  as  if  they  said  cheek,  check!  They  collect  in  large 
flocks  for  the  retrograde  movement. 

83.  liRONZED   GRACKLE.     Quisoalus  quiscula  '^neus.     Bidgivay. 

Between  twelve  and  thirteen  and  one-half  inches  in  length,  this  miniature 
crow  is  an  occasional  summer  resident  here.     They  often  breed  in  communi- 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  89 

ties,  like  the  rooks  in  England,  in  hollow  trees  and  stumps,  and  sometimes  even 
on  the  edge  of  the  large  rambling  nest  of  the  fish  hawk.  Especially  grotesque 
and  ludicrous  are  the  actions  and  vocal  efforts  of  tlie  "  crow  blackbird,"  as  he 
is  popularly  called,  during  the  mating  season.  His  greasy,  liquid  note  has  a 
striking  resemblance  to  quis  quiUa.,  and  costs  nearly  as  much  effort  in  utterance 
as  does  that  of  the  cowbird.  He  is  a  notorious  robber  of  the  corn  fields,  and 
hence  a  coolness  has  arisen  between  him  and  the  farmers. 

Fifteenth   Family — Corvidae. 

84.  BLUE  JAY.     Cyanocitta  ckistata.     Linn( 

This  garrulous,  profligate,  rowdyish  cynic  in  blue  remains  with  us,  like  a 
bad  habit,  the  year  around,  but  is  rather  more  abundant  in  summer  than  in 
winter.  He  is  an  accomplished  house-breaker  and,  since  the  only  furniture 
the  birds  have  in  tlieir  houses  is  the  eggs  and  little  ones,  this  means  that  he  is, 
in  addition,  a  murderer.  The  food  of  the  blue  jay  is  probably  more  varied 
than  that  of  any  other  bird  we  have.  Their  coarse  nest  is  rambling  and 
conspicuous,  and  their  shrill,  high-pitched,  alarm  cry  of  jay^  jay^  is  familiar  to 
every  one.  Curious,  dishonest,  and  sneaking,  this  bird  absorbs  to  himself  so 
many  feathered  vices  that  it  leaves  all  the  other  birds  comparatively  virtuous. 

85.  AMERICAN   RAVEN.     CoRvus  corax  sinuatus.     Wagler. 

Much  larger  than  the  crow,  whom  he  displaces  in  geographical  distribution, 
this  "ominous  bird  of  the  sable  plume"  is  very  rarely  found  in  Androscoggin 
county.  They  select  the  most  inaccessible  places  on  the  highest  trees  and 
cliffs  for  their  nests  and,  already  celebrated  in  tradition  and  song,  are  very 
interesting  in  their  actual  habits.  About  two  feet  in  length.  It  has  been 
taken  in  the  winter  in  this  county. 

86.  AMERICAN  CROW.     CoRVUS  americanus.    Audubon. 

This  sagacious  and  versatile  black  knight  of  the  air  casts  a  shadow  too 
often,  as  he  passes  between  us  and  the  sun  in  his  laborious  flight,  to  need  any 
description.  Occasionally  he  is  seen  at  intervals  all  winter  in  this  county,  but 
more  often  he  goes  south  to  colonize  in  rookeries  or,  with  his  usual  contrariness 
to  the  ways  of  mankind,  he  puts  in  his  vacation  at  the  sea-shore  in  the  winter 
instead  of  the  summer,  picking  up  his  living  among  the  lower  forms  of  life 
that  are  found  there.  For  a  long  time  there  has  existed  a  family  feud  between 
the  crows  and  the  hawks,  and  they  improve  every  opportunity  with  each  other 
to  add  insult  to  injury.  The  crow  is  the  most  skeptical  of  our  birds,  unless  it 
may  be  the  blue  jay,  as  his  sarcastic  tones  and  distrustful  ways  signify,  and  if 
there  is  a  single  atheist  among  all  the  feathered  citizens  of  Androscoggin 
county,  it  is  he.  Sometimes  he  is  tamed,  when  he  becomes  notorious  for  his 
love  of  mischief  and  his  shrewd  ways,  but  he  evidently  prefers  to  live  the  life 
of  an  outlaw.  Authorities  differ  as  to  whether  the  crow,  everything  consid- 
ered, is  a  benefit  or  an  injury  to  us,  and  this  open  question  has  moi^e  than  once 

90  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

afforded  the  legislators  a  means  for  earning  their  daily  bread.  He  has  a 
peculiar  note,  not  often  heard,  by  which  he  expresses  his  feelings  daring  his 
courtship,  which  sounds  singularly  like  the  whinny  of  a  horse. 

Sixteenth  Family — Alaudidae. 

87.  HORNED   LARK.     OxocoRis  alpestkis    Linnreus. 

A  yellowish-white  throat  and  a  black  spot  on  the  chest.  Often  called  the 
"shore-lark"  or  "sky-lark."  They  rear  their  young  on  the  coast  and  in  Min- 
nesota, and  have  been  seen  within  this  county  during  the  winter.  They  have 
a  shrill  voice,  are  easily  alarmed,  and  are  one  of  the  soaring  birds. 

Second  Sub-Order— CLAMATORES.   Seventeenth  Family— Tyrannidae. 

There  are  twelve  species  of  this  family  in  New  England,  and  eight  of  these 
visit  Androscoggin  county.  They  are  all  eminently  insectivorous  and  migra- 
tory, and  their  large  heads  and  beaks,  flattened  at  the  base  and  surrounded  by 
hairs,  especitilly  adapt  them  for  their  office  as  fly-catchers. 

88.  KINGBIRD.     Tyrannus  tyrannus.     Linnmis. 

These  familiar  birds,  arriving  about  the  first  of  May,  are  distinguished 
especially  by  the  white  tips  on  their  tail-feathers,  which  they  spread  like  a  fan 
whenever  they  sink  or  rise  slowly  through  the  air  from  one  bush  to  another. 
Also  beneath  their  crest  of  crown  feathers  is  a  little  flame-colored  patch  that  is 
not  often  seen  except  by  sharp  eyes.  This  audacious  and  self-reliant  little 
fellow  is  quite  warlike,  especiall}'^  during  his  mating  and  nesting  season,  and 
does  not  hesitate  to  defend  his  trust  from  any  of  the  larger  birds  that  approach. 
He  is  often  seen  flying  above  a  crow  or  hawk  and  pouncing  down  upon  him  at 
intervals  with  spiteful  jabs,  while  the  persecuted  bird,  sullen  and  wrathy,  tries 
in  vain  to  outfly  him.  The  kingbird  places  his  nest  in  all  kinds  of  conspicuous 
situations  and  tlien  proceeds  to  stand  guard  over  it,  with  much  the  same  spirit 
as  the  small  boy  exercises  when  he  balances  a  chip  on  his  shoulder  and 
challenges  any  one  of  the  barefooted  world  to  walk  up  and  knock  it  off 
if  he  dares.  He  is  called  the  bee  martin  because  he  is  not  particular  as  to  his 
insect,  and  he  often  makes  havoc  with  a  hive  of  bees,  but  it  is  doubtless  true 
that  he  destroys  hundreds  of  noxious  insects  to  one  bee,  and  therefore  peace 
should  be  maintained  between  them  and  the  bee-keepers.  During  the  latter 
part  of  September  they  depart  for  their  winter  home  in  Central  America  and 
southern  Mexico. 

89.  CRESTED   FLYCATCHER.     Myiarchus  crinitus.     Unnceus. 

Olive  above,  with  gray  throat  running  back  beneath  into  yellow.  This 
wild,  solitary,  irritable  bird  is  rare  and  keeps  high  up  in  the  trees  during  his 
occasional  visits.  Excitable  and  pugnacious,  he  seems  to  have  difficulty  in 
getting  along  with  any  of  the  bird  kind  except  his  own  individual  family. 
He  is  liable  to  be  seen  from  May  to  September,  and  when  he  nests  it  is  usually 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  91 

in  a  hollow  tree  or  post-hole,  and  he  has  the  peculiar  weakness  of  adorning  his 
nest  with  an  old  snake  skin.  His  note  is  harsh  and  not  very  pleasant,  for  he 
"rolls  his  r's  "  very  badly.     Length,  nine  inches. 

90.  PHCEBE.     Satornis  Phcebe.    Latham. 

Olive  brown  above  and  blackish  on  the  head.  Soiled  white  and  pale  yellow 
beneath.  Bill  wholly  black.  The  "pewee"  comes  earlier  and  lingers  later  than 
any  other  fly-catcher,  not  departing  for  the  south  until  October.  They  build  in 
bridges  and  culverts  a  peculiar  nest,  largely  of  mud  and  usually  placed  on  the 
side  of  a  vertical  rock  over  the  water.  They  show  great  attachment  to  certain 
localities,  returning  year  after  year  to  rebuild,  even  in  the  face  of  great 
difficulties.  Perching  on  some  lookout  twig,  where  he  jerks  his  tail  and  moves 
his  scalp  feathers  nervously,  or  darting  into  the  air  in  the  fluttering,  zigzag 
pursuit  of  a  passing  insect,  this  most  peaceable  of  the  fly-catchers  is  familiar 
to  us  all.  During  the  earlier  part  of  the  season  he  is  almost  constant  in  the 
nervous  repetition  of  his  name — peiree,  jjetvee  —  as  if  continually  on  the  point 
of  forgetting  his  identit}^  and  trying  to  avoid  such  a  disaster ;  but  later  he 
becomes  more  reassured  and  utters  his  name  rarely.  They  seldom  alight  upon 
the  ground  except  when  they  are  after  building  material. 

91.  OLIVE-SIDED   FLYCATCHER.     Contopus  borealis.     Stvainson. 

Dark  olive  brown,  darkest  on  the  head  and  lightest  on  the  sides.  Bill  black 
above  only.  Dr  Coues  says  of  this  rarest  of  the  fly-catchers :  "  A  stocky,  able- 
bodied,  dark,  and  streaky  species,  quite  unlike  any  other."  The  note  resembles 
the  syWahles  pip,  pip,  j:>eu.     This  bird  has  been  seen  in  Androscoggin  county. 

92.  WOOD   PEWEE.     Contopus  virens.    Linnceus. 

This  miniature  pewee  in  form  and  porportion,  but  differing  in  having  only 
the  upper  half  of  the  bill  black  and  in  not  flirting  his  tail,  is  the  last  of  all  the 
birds  to  arrive.  He  builds  a  peculiar  nest  of  lichens  and  moss,  so  saddled  upon 
a  limb  as  to  resemble  a  knot,  and  he  is  rather  partial  to  forests,  although  if  the 
trees  are  numerous,  he  often  nests  in  cities  and  towns.  They  are  very  active 
and  by  no  means  so  pensive  and  melancholy  as  their  striking  note,  pe-to-ivee, 
pe-to-ivdy,  liee-reu,  repeated  very  slowly,  would  seem  to  imply. 

93.  YELLOW-BELLIED   FLYCATCHER.     Empidonax  flaviventris.     Bainl. 
This   rather  rare  bird  is  distinguishable  by  the  yellow  coloring  beneath. 

Their  nest,  usually  situated  under  the  roots  of  trees,  is  very  rare  and  has 
not  been  found  in  this  county,  so  far  as  I  am  informed.  Their  note  is  a 
prolonged  pea. 

94.  TRAILL'S   FLYCATCHER.     Empidonax  pusillus  traillii.     Audubon. 

This  fly-catcher  is  also  a  rather  rare  summer  resident,  nesting  in  the  upright 
fork  of  a  tree,  usually  about  swamps  where  the  insects  are  abundant.  When- 
ever he  utters  his  harsh,  complaining  note,  he  jerks  back  his  head  as  if  his 
vocal  efforts  were  painfully  difficult. 

92  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

95.   LEAST   FLYCATCHER.     Empidonax  minimus.    Baird. 

Abundant  and  familiar,  preferring  the  neighborhood  of  humanity,  this  well- 
known  little  bird  is  distinguishable  from  the  Traill's  only  by  his  grayish  rather 
than  his  brownish  hue,  and  his  smaller  size.  With  the  robin  and  the  chipping 
sparrow,  he  is  the  most  abundant  of  all  our  birds.  He  places  his  compact  nest 
in  the  upright  forks  of  trees,  and  his  tireless  chehee,  chehee,  uttered  with  a  back- 
ward snap  of  his  head  and  a  flirt  of  his  tail,  is  among  the  commonest  of  mid- 
summer sounds. 

The  following  is  a  catalogue  of  the  other  birds  occurring  in  Androscoggin 
county,  excluding  the  shore  and  water  birds:  — 

Second  Order— MACROCHIRES.— Long-winged  Birds. 

Eighteenth  Family  — Tkochilid.t:.  —  Hummingbirds. 

96.  Rubj-throated  Hummingbird.     Trochilus  colubris.    Linnceus. 

Nineteenth  Family — Micropodidj*:.  —  Swifts. 

97.  Ciiimney  Swift.     Chretura  pelagica.    Linnaus. 

Twentieth  Family  —  Caprimulgid^.—  Goatsuckers. 

98.  Whip-poor-will.     Antrostomus  vociferus.     Wilson. 

99.  Nightbawk.     Cbordeiles  virginianus.     Gmelin. 

Third  Order  — PICI  — Woodpeckers. 
Twenty-First  Family  —  Picid.e.  —  Woodpeckers. 
100.    Hairy  Woodpecker.     Dryobates  villosus.     Linnceus. 
lOL   Downy  Woodpecker.     Dryobates  piibescens.     Linnceus. 

102.  Arctic  Three-toed  Woodpecker.     Picoides  arcticus.     Swa'mson. 

103.  Yellow-bellied  Sapsucker.     Sphyrapicus  varius.     Linnceus. 

104.  Pileated  Woodpecker.     Ceophloeus  pileatus.     Linnams. 

105.  Flicker  or  Yellow-hammer.     Colaptes  auratus.     Linnceus. 

Fourtli  Order— COCCYGES.— Kingfishers  and  Cuckoos. 
Twenty-Second  Family  —  Alcedinid^.  —  Kingfishers. 

106.  Belted  Kingfisher.    Ceryle  alcyon.    Linnceus. 

Twenty-Third  Family — Cuculid^.  —  Cuckoos. 

107.  Yellow-billed  cuckoo.     Coccyzus  americauus.     Linnceus. 

108.  Black-billed  cuckoo.     Coccyzus  erythrophthalraus.     Wilson. 

Fifth  Order  — RAPTORES.— Birds  of  Prey. 

Twenty-Fourth  Family  —  Bubonid.e.  —  Owls. 

109.  American  Long-eared  Owl.     Asio  wilsonianus.     Lesson. 

110.  Short-eared  Owl.     Asio  accipitrinus.     Fallds. 
HI.   Barred  Owl.     Syrnium  nebulosum.    Forster. 

112.  Great  Gray  Owl.    Ulula  cinerea.     Gmelin. 

113.  Richardson's  Owl.     Nyctala  tengmalmi  richardsoni.     Bonaparte. 

114.  Saw-whet  Owl.    Nyctala  acadica.     Gmelin. 

115.  Screech  Owl.     Bubo  virginianus.     Gmelin. 

116.  Great  Horned  Owl.     Megascops  asio.    Linnaus. 

117.  Snowy  Owl.     Nyctea  nyctea.    Linnceus. 

118.  Hawk  Owl.     Surnia  ulula.     Linnceus. 

Twenty-Fifth  Family  — Falconid^..  — Hawks  and  Eagles. 

119.  Marsh  Hawk.     Circus  hudsonius.    Linnceus. 

120.  Sharp-shinned  Hawk.    Accipiter  velox.     Wilson. 

The  Birds  of  Androscoggin  County.  93 

12J.  Cooper's. Hawk.     Accipiter  cooperi.     Bonaparte. 

122.  Aiuericau  Goshawk.     Accipiter  atricapillus.     Wilson. 

123.  Red-tailed  Hawlt.     liuteo  boreaiis.     Gmelin. 

124.  Red-shouldered  Hawk.     Buteo  linneatus.     Gmelin. 

125.  Broad-wiuged  Hawk.     Buteo  latissimus.     Wilson. 

126.  Rough-legged  Hawk.     Archibuteo  lagopus.    Brilnnich. 

127.  Bald  Eagle.     Halia?etus  leucocephalus.     Linnreus. 

128.  Duck  Hawk.     Falco  peregriiius  anatum.     Bonaparte. 

129.  Pigeon  Hawk.     Falco  colunibarius.     Linnreus. 

130.  American  Sparrow  Hawk.     Falco  sparverius.     Linnccus. 

131.  American  Osprey  or  Fish-hawk.    Pandion  haliai'tus  carolinensis.    Gmelin. 

Sixth  Order -COLUMBiE. 
Twenty-Seventh  Family  —  Columbid.e.  —  Pigeons. 

132.  Passenger  Pigeon.     Ectopistes  migratorius.     Linnreus. 

Seventh  Order  — GALLING. 
Twenty-Eighth  Family  —  Tetraonid.e.  —  Grouse. 

133.  Rufied  Grouse.     Bonasa  umbellus.    Linnreus. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  birds  (excluding  shore  and  water  birds)  which 
have  been  observed  in  the  state  of  Maine  but  have  not  yet  been  reported  as 
occurring  in  Androscoggin  county  :  — 

First  Family  —  Turdid^. 

1.  Bicknell's  Thrush.     Turdus  alicia'  bicknelli.    Bidgway. 

Second  Family  —  Silviid^. 

2.  Blue-gray  Gnatcatcher.     Polioptila  CiBrulea.     LAnnccus. 

Seventh  Family—  Mniotiltid^. 

3.  Connecticut  Warbler.     Geothlypis  agilis.     Wilson. 

4.  Mourning  Warbler.     Geothlypis  Philadelphia.     Wilson. 

Eighth  Family  —  Vireonid.e. 

5.  Philadelphia  Vireo.     Vireo  philadelphicus.     Cassin. 

Thirteenth  Family  — Fringillid^. 
G.    Lapland  Longspur.     Calcarius  lapponicus.     Linnoius. 

7.  Ipswich  Sparrow.     Ammodramus  princeps.    3Iaynarcl. 

8.  Sharp-tailed  Sparrow.     Ammodramus  caudacutus.     Gmelin. 

Fifteenth  Family  — Corvid^. 

9.  Canada  Jay.     Perisoreus  canadensis.    Linnaus. 

Twenty-First  Family— Picid^. 

10.  American  Three-toed  Woodpecker.     Picoides  araericanus.    Brehm. 

11.  Red-headed  Woodpecker.     Melanerpes  erythrocephalus.    Linnceus. 

Twenty-Fifth  Family^ — Falconid^. 

12.  Golden  Eagle.     Aquila  chrysaetos.     Linnceus. 

13.  Gray  Gyrfalcon.     Falco  rusticolus.     Linnceus. 

14.  Black  Gyrfalcon.     Falco  rusticolus  obsoletus.     Gmelin. 

Twenty-Sixth  Family  —  CATHARTiDiE. 

15.  Turkey  Vulture.     Cathartes  aura.     Linnccus. 

Twenty-Seventh  Family  —  Columbid.e. 

16.  Mourning  Dove.     Zenaidura  macroura.     Linnreus. 

Twenty-Eighth  Family  — Tetraonid.e. 

17.  Bob-White.     Colinus  virgiuianus.    Linnceus. 

18.  Canada  Grouse.     Dendragapus  canadensis.     Liunceus. 

94  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 


Early  Mail  Routes  — Staging  — Railroads— Post-Offices  and  Postmasters. 

EARLY  MAIL  ROUTES.  — In  1793  a  new  highway  was  opened  from 
Augusta  to  Portland  by  way  of  Monmouth,  Greene,  etc.  By  the  old 
route  via  Bath  it  took  two  days  to  reach  Portland  from  Hallowell,  but 
by  this  new  road  Portland  could  be  reached  in  the  forenoon  of  the  second  day, 
if  Monmouth  was  reached  for  breakfast  on  the  first  day.  This  new  route  was 
adopted  as  the  United  States  mail  route  when  the  mail  service  was  established 
in  1794.  The  mails  were  carried  weekly  by  "  post-riders  "  on  horseback ;  the 
mail  was  in  a  pouch  fastened  behind  the  saddle.  The  rider  had  another  bag 
for  local  mail  matter  for  the  conveyance  of  which  he  received  extra  pay.  He 
gave  warning  of  his  approach  by  blowing  a  long  tin  horn,  so  he  should  not  be 
delayed.  This  route  was  from  Portland  to  Gray,  New  Gloucester,  Greene, 
Monmouth,  Winthrop,  Hallowell,  Pittston,  Pownalborough,  to  Wiscasset.  The 
first  post-rider  between  Portland  and  Winthrop  was  William  Blossom.  Another 
route  led  from  Portland  to  Gorham,  Baldwin,  Fryeburg,  Bridgton,  Waterford, 
Norway,  Paris,  Hebron,  Poland,  New  Gloucester,  and  Gray,  to  Portland.  The 
post-riders  were  Joseph  Howe,  Seba  Smith,  William  Sawin,  and  Joshua  Pool. 
A  weekly  post  route  was  established  in  1806  from  Portland  through  New 
Gloucester,  Danville,  Minot,  Turner,  Livermore,  Hartford,  Buckfield,  Paris, 
and  other  towns  to  Portland.  Josiah  Smith  was  the  first  post-rider.  In  the 
first  of  the  century  John  Walker  went  through  the  Androscoggin  towns  from 
Livermore  to  Danville  every  week,  doing  the  work  of  a  modern  expressman 
and  private  letter-carrier  between  those  towns  and  Portland.  In  1826  a  post 
route  was  established  from  Brunswick  through  the  upper  Androscoggin  towns, 
but  from  1824  Joseph  Griffin  had  sustained  a  weekly  mail  route  from  Brunswick 
to  Jay,  primarily  established  for  the  distribution  of  the  Maine  Baptist  Herald 
he  published  at  Brunswick.  The  first  mail  service  to  Lewiston  was  probably 
given  by  Samuel  Nash,  who  rode  a  gig  from  Portland  to  Augusta,  on  tri-weekly 
trips.     He  was  succeeded  by  Thomas  Longle}^  who  came  to  Greene  in  1810. 

In  1830,  or  earlier,  tri-weekly  stage  lines  were  established  on  the  principal 
mail  routes,  and  the  mails  were  then  carried  by  them.  "Tom"  Longley  put 
on  the  first  coach  on  the  Portland  and  Augusta  route  at  that  time.  He  was 
driver  and  proprietor  for  many  years,  g,nd  wa,s  the  heau  ideal  of  a  dashing 

Mail  Routes,  Railroads,  and  Post-Offices.  95 

driver,  courteous  and  obliging,  tall  and  commanding  in  appearance.  He  had 
a  wonderful  memory,  and  it  is  said  that  in  the  many  errands  entrusted  to  him 
he  never  made  a  memorandum  and  never  forgot  the  smallest  detail.  He  was 
a  marvelous  story-teller  and  the  aroma  of  his  narrations  yet  lingers  in  the 
atmosphere  of  the  places  along  his  route.  In  later  life  he  left  the  box  and 
became  an  hotel  keeper  in  Portland. 

Starting  from  Augusta  in  the  morning  the  stage  reached  Lewiston  at  noon 
and  Portland  at  night.  Two  dollars  was  the  usual  fare,  but  sometimes  a  route 
by  Brunswick  lowered  rates  by  competition.  Four  relays  of  horses  were  used 
in  the  palmiest  days  of  the  stage-coach,  and  changes  were  made  at  Winthrop, 
Greene,  and  Gray.  At  Littlefield's  tavern,  in  Danville,  the  stage  from  Farm- 
ington  was  met,  and  two  coaches  were  generally  required  from  there  to 
Portland.  Longley  sold  the  route  to  Edward  Little,  Esq.,  and  he  sold  it  to 
Charles  Clark,  who  is  presumably  the  last  survivor  of  the  early  "  whips." 
Among  the  successors  of  Longley  as  drivers  were  his  son  Benjamin,  Lewis 
Howe  of  Leeds,  Albion  C.  Howard,  and  Benjamin  Beede. 

With  the  building  of  railroads  staging  lost  its  splendors,  and  the  small 
lines  connecting  with  the  cars  to-day  have  not  the  prestige,  coaches,  or 
romance  of  the  early  time.  The  veteran  driver  of  the  old  time  who  tarried 
longest  was  Phineas  Clough,  for  many  years  seated  on  the  box  of  the  Turner 
and  Livermore  stage. 

Railroads. —  The  Grand  Trunk  Railway  in  Maine  is  the  successor  of  the 
Atlantic  and  St  Lawrence  Railroad  Company,  incorporated  by  the  State  Legis- 
lature February  10,  1845.  This  road  was  completed  to  Mechanic  Falls,  thirty- 
seven  miles,  in  the  autumn  of  1848.  The  Grand  Trunk  leased  this  road,  in 
1853,  at  a  rental  of  six  per  cent,  on  the  cost  of  construction  of  the  oiie  hundred 
and  forty-nine  miles  from  Portland  to  Island  Pond  —  $6,003,900.  This  road 
has  done  much  to  develop  the  resources  of  the  country  along  its  line,  and  has 
created  several  prosperous  villages.  In  Maine  it  operates  under  a  lease,  the 
branch  from  Lewiston  to  Lewiston  Junction  —  5.41  miles  —  and  at  Mechanic 
Falls  it  receives  the  road  of  the  Rumford  Falls  and  Buckfield  Railroad 
Company,  extending  to  the  Androscoggin  river  in  Canton. 

Maine  Central  Railroad.  —  Under  this  name  is  operated  several  railroads 
built  under  early  charters  by  different  companies.  The  Androscoggin  and 
Kennebec  Railroad  Company  was  chartered  March  28,  1847,  and  by  January 
1,  1850,  it  had  built  a  road  from  Waterville  to  Danville,  Mdiere  it  connected 
with  the  Atlantic  and  St  Lawrence  Railroad.  The  Penobscot  and  Kennebec 
Railroad  Company  was  chartered  April  5,  1845,  and  constructed  a  road  from 
Bangor  to  Waterville,  making  there  a  connection  with  the  Androscoggin  and 
Kennebec.  A  law  was  enacted,  in  1856,  authorizing  these  two  companies  to 
consolidate  under  a  new  name.  One  section  of  the  law  was  not  acceptable 
to  the  companies,  and  they  did  not  form  the  new  corporation  until  after  this 

96  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

section  was  repealed.  September  9,  1862,  the  union  was  effected,  and  October 
28,  1862,  the  Maine  Central  Railroad  Company  was  organized.  The  Kennebec 
and  Portland  Railroad  Company,  chartered  in  1836,  built  a  road  from  Augusta 
to  Yarmouth,  connecting  there  with  the  Atlantic  and  St  Lawrence  Railroad, 
and  a  branch  from  Brunswick  to  Bath.  Later  it  extended  its  road  from 
Yarmouth  to  Portland.  In  1852  this  corporation  mortgaged  its  road  to  secure 
an  issue  of  |!250,000  in  bonds.  This  mortgage  was  foreclosed  and  title  obtained 
of  the  road  by  the  mortgagees,  and  a  new  corporation,  the  Portland  and 
Kennebec  Railroad  Company,  organized  May  20,  1862.  January  1,  1864, 
this  road  leased  the  Somerset  and  Kennebec  Railroad  (organized  August  10, 
1848),  reaching  from  Skowhegan  to  Augusta.  May  20, 1870,  the  Portland  and 
Kennebec  Company  leased  its  road  and  assigned  its  lease  of  the  Somerset  and 
Kennebec  id  the  Maine  Central  for  nine  hundred  and  ninety-nine  years. 

The  Androscoggin  Railroad  was  constructed  from  Farmington  to  Leeds 
Junction.  Under  the  state  law  the  company  issued  its  bonds,  securing  them 
by  a  mortgage  on  the  road.  Later  the  company  was  authorized  to  extend  its 
railroad  to  Brunswick,  and  it  was  provided  that  this  new  portion  should  not 
be  subject  to  the  mortgage.  The  mortgaged  portion  of  the  road  became  the 
property  of  the  mortgagees  by  foreclosure.  May  11,  1865.  They  formed  a  new 
corporation,  the  Leeds  and  Farmington  Railroad  Company.  The  Androscoggin 
Railroad  then  extended  from  Leeds  to  Brunswick,  covering  the  branch  from 
Crowley's  Junction  to  Lewiston.  June  1,  1867,  the  Leeds  and  Farmington 
Railroad  Company  leased  its  road  to  the  Androscoggin  Railroad  Company, 
which,  June  29,  1871,  gave  a  lease  of  its  road  for  nine  hundred  and  ninety-nine 
years  to  the  Maine  Central,  and  assigned  to  it  its  lease  of  the  Leeds  and 
Farminsrton  road.  This  lease  was  later  confirmed  and  extended  to  nine 
hundred  and  ninety-nine  years  by  the  company  owning  the  road. 

Thus,  in  1872,  the  Maine  Central  Company  had  long  leases  of  the  Portland 
and  Kennebec  Railroad,  the  Somerset  and  Kennebec  Railroad,  the  Andros- 
coggin Railroad,  and  the  Leeds  and  Farmington  Railroad.  By  an  act  of 
February  7,  1872,  these  corporations  were  authorized  to  unite  with  the  Maine 
Central  in  a  mortgage  to  secure  bonds  issued  by  that  company.  The  Maine 
Central  now  operates  and  controls  in  Maine,  besides  the  above,  the  Newport 
and  Dexter  Railroad,  the  Belfast  and  Moosehead  Lake  Railroad,  the  Eastern 
Maine,  the  European  and  North  American,  the  Portland  and  Ogdensburg, 
the  Knox  and  Lincoln,  and  the  road  from  Bangor  to  Bar  Harbor.  The  distance 
along  some  of  these  lines  are :  Portland  to  Vanceboro,  250.8  miles ;  Cumber- 
land Junction  to  Waterville,  72.5  miles;  Bath  to  Farmington,  71.2  miles; 
Crowley's  to  Lewiston,  4.7  miles;  Waterville  to  Skowhegan,  18.2  miles;  Belfast 
and  Moosehead  Lake  Railroad,  33.1  miles;  Dexter  and  Newport  Railroad, 
14  miles;  Eastern  Maine  Railroad,  18.8  miles;  Bangor  and  Bar  Harbor 
Railroad,  42.6  miles. 

Mail  Routpis,  Railroads,  and  Post-Offices.  97 

These  roads  have  done  a  great  work  in  opening  the  country,  in  developing 
manufacturing,  and  although  the  early  stockholders  were  in  most  cases  losers, 
and  many  difficulties  attended  tlie  construction,  to-day  no  section  of  the 
country  has  better  shipping  facilities  or  patronizes  the  railroads  more.  We 
fittingly  close  with  an  extract  from  the  diary  of  one  who  noted  some  of  the 
occurrences  in  railroading  in  its  beginnings  in  this  county. 

The  Androscoggin  branch  of  the  Maine  Central  was  opened  to  travel  from  Leeds 
Junction  to  Liverniore  Falls,  in  November,  1852.  The  rolling  stock  consisted  of  one  small 
engine,  one  baggage,  and  two  passenger  cars,  also  a  few  box  and  flat  cars.  There  were 
no  snow  fences,  and  many  hard  times  were  experienced  in  getting  through  the  snow. 
December  29,  1853,  fifteen  inches  of  snow  fell,  drifting  so  that  no  trains  were  run,  and 
no  trains  were  run  December  30,  but  one  managed  to  get  through  to  Livermore  Falls  late 
in  the  afternoon  of  December  31st.  Again,  February  23,  1854,  it  commenced  snowing  at 
4  A.M.,  and  continued  all  day.  The  train  started  from  Leeds  Junction  at  10  a.m.,  and  ran 
about  three  miles  and  got  stuck  in  a  drift,  and  as  the  engine  was  getting  short  of  wood  and 
water,  the  engineer  left  the  cars  and  proceeded  about  two  miles  to  Pettengill's  crossing, 
where  he  filled  the  tender  with  water,  carrying  it  in  pails  from  the  brook  about  ten  rods. 
It  was  very  cold  and  the  men  were  covered  with  ice.  As  it  was  near  night,  the  engineer 
concluded  to  stop  there  all  night.  The  passengers,  two  ladies  and  three  men,  were  obliged 
to  stay  in  the  cars  two  days  and  one  night.  Friday  morning,  the  24th,  commenced 
shovelling  out  the  track,  and  2  p.m.  got  the  engine  down  to  the  cars,  and  carried  the 
ladies  to  Abram  Wheeler's,  then  started  toward  Leeds  Junction  and  arrived  there  at 
12  p.m.  Saturday,  February  25th,  they  left  Leeds  Junction  at  noon  and  went  as  far  as 
North  Leeds  and  stopped  all  night.  February  26th  they  left  North  Leeds  at  7  a.m., 
arrived  at  Livermore  Falls  at  noon,  and  did  not  start  again  until  Wednesday,  March  1st. 
March  18th  the  train  left  Leeds  Junction  at  11  a.m.,  went  about  one  mile,  got  stuck  and 
returned.  March  19. —Snowed  all  day.  No  trains  over  the  road  to-day.  March  20. — 
Train  left  the  Junction  at  noon  and  arrived  at  Livermore  Falls  at  5  p.m.  March  24. — Two 
feet  of  snow  fell.  No  trains  over  the  road  to-day.  March  25. — Snow  deep  on  the  track. 
No  trains  to-day.  March  26.— Very  blustering.  No  trains  to-day.  March  27. — Very 
blustering.  No  train  to-day.  March  28-29-30-31. — No  trains.  April  1.— Train  went  down 
at  2  P.M.  Sunday,  April  2. — Trains  made  regular  trips.  December  9. — ^  Very  blustering 
last  night;  train  left  Livermore  Falls  on  time  this  morning  with  two  engines,  and  when 
near  Leeds  Centre  ran  off  the  track  and  completely  wrecked  both  engines  and  baggage 
car.    Nobody  was  injured.     The  veteran  Josiah  Littlefleld  was  one  of  the  engineers. 

January  19,  1855.  —Snowed  hard  all  day.  No  trains  run  20th.  Snow-plough  with  one 
engine  left  the  junction  at  12  m.,  got  to  Livermore  Falls  at  10  p.m.,  and  returned  to  Leeds 
Junction  same  night.  February  19,  1856. —Very  blustering  all  day.  No  trains  on  the 
Androscoggin  Railroad  to-day.  January  9,  1857.  —  Train  run  off  the  track;  nobody  injured; 
19th,  snowed  fast  all  day;  no  trains;  10th,  train  left  Leeds  Junction  at  6.30  p.m.  January 
22.  —  Snowed  all  day;  23d,  fair  and  colder;  no  trains  run  to-day;  24th,  train  got  to  Leeds 
at  9.30  P.M.  During  the  winter  of  1858  there  was  but  little  snow  and  trains  were  run 
regularly  all  winter.  Commenced  running  to  East  Wilton  December  2Ist.  January  1, 
1859. — Commenced  snowing  at  10  a.m.,  and  continued  all  day.  No  trains  up  to-day. 
January  5. — Train  with  two  engines  left  Leeds  Junction  for  East  Wilton  at  2  p.m.,  and 
went  as  far  as  Leeds  Center,  and  thinking  that  it  would  be  impossible  to  get  through, 
returned  to  Leeds  Junction.  Soon  after  they  returned,  Charles  Garcelon,  with  an  engine 
called  the  "old  widow,"  and  snow-plow  came  down.    If  the  up  train  had  not  returned, 

98  History  op  Androscoggin  County. 

undoubtedly  there  would  have  been  a  serious  accident,  as  there  was  no  telegraphic  line, 
and  the  up  train  did  not  know  that  "  the  widow"  was  coming.  After  "  the  widow  "  had 
arrived  at  Leeds  Junction,  the  two  engines  with  passenger  train  left  Leeds  at  10  p.m. 
February  3.— John  Kauflfer,  engineer,  burnt  his  mouth  and  throat  so  badly  in  blowing  into 
a  pet-cock  which  was  frozen  on  his  engine,  that  he  died  in  a  few  hours.  February  4.— 
Train  went  down  at  8  p.m.,  and  did  not  go  up  till  1  a.m.,  February  5th.  February  10, 
I8G0.  — Stormy  and  blustering  all  day.  Train  arrived  at  Curtis  Corner  at  2  p.m.,  out  of 
water  and  wood,  and  was  obliged  to  haul  water  about  twenty  rods  in  a  hogshead  with  a 
yoke  of  oxen.  Six  passengers  put  up  at  S.  Brewster's  for  the  night.  The  engineer,  Mr. 
Parker,  stayed  in  his  engine  all  night.  The  other  train  men  stopped  at  S.  Brewster's. 
February  11.— Got  the  engine  fired  up  and  started  for  Leeds  Junction  at  1.30  p.m.,  and 
returned  to  Farmington  that  night.  January  16,  1861.  — Snowed  fast  all  day.  No  trains 
to-day.  January  17.  —No  trains  run.  January  18.  —Train  got  down  at  7  p.m.  February 
2.  — Snow  fell  four  inches  last  night,  rained,  and  made  a  crust,  and  no  trains  were  run 
to-day.  Februarys.  —  Was  called  the  cold  Friday;  thirty  degrees  below  at  sunrise  and 
very  windy.  No  trains  run  to-day.  February  9. — No  trains  run  to-day.  February  21. — 
Cold  and  blustering.  The  morning  train  from  Farmington  got  down  to  Leeds  Junction  at 
5  p.m.,  and  returned  that  night.  February  22. — Very  blustering.  No  trains  run  to-day. 
February  23.  —  No  trains  run.  January  2,  1862.  —  Cold  and  very  blustering.  Train  went 
down  but  did  not  return  till  10.30  p.m.,  January  3d.  January  22.  —  Snowed  all  day. 
Train  went  down  but  did  not  return  till  Sunday  morning,  January  26th.  January  27.  — 
Train  went  down  at  1.30  p.m.,  and  did  not  return  till  1  a.m.,  January  30th. 

Post-Offices  and  Postmasters.  —  The  first  post-office  established  in  the 
limits  of  this  county  was  Greene,  April  1,  1796;  the  next  was  Lewiston,  July 
15,  1799,  We  are  indebted  to  researches  made  in  the  Post-Office  Department 
at  Washington,  by  Asa  P.  Knight  for  the  Lewiston  Journal,  in  1882,  for  the 
following  valuable  compilation  of  postmasters  and  date  of  appointment  on 
taking  office.     A  few  of  the  dates  are  approximative  only. 

Auburn  (established  as  Goff's  Corner,  changed  to  Lewiston  Falls,  July  18, 
1854,  to  Auburn,  December  27,  1854).  — James  Goff,  March  28,  1825;  Edward 
Little,  September  16,  1826;  James  Goff,  Jr,  February  24,  1835;  Joseph  D. 
Davis,  June  6,  1849;  Daniel  G.  Hall,  March  30,  1853;  Freeman  Newell, 
November  28,  1853;  Rufus  Penley,  May  29,  1858;  Silvester  Oakes,  March 
19,  1861;  Willard  Small,  August  24,  1866;  Jonathan  A.  Hill,  March  11, 
1867;  Henry  Little,  July  18,  1868;  Delance  Young,  April  28,  1885,  John  C. 
Blake,  February  14,  1890.  West  Auhurn  (established  as  Nason's  Mills, 
changed  to  Auburn,  March  5,  1842,  to  West  Auburn,  December  27,  1854). — 
Palfrey  Lane,  March  20,  1833;  Enoch  Littlefield,  July  3,  1834;  Nathaniel 
Small,  February  9,  1839;  Enoch  Littlefield,  October  20,  1840;  Samuel  H. 
Pickard,  November  9,  1842;  Enoch  Littlefield,  December  22,  1842;  George 
Ricker,  Jr,  February  1,  1850;  Apollos  C.  Howard,  March  7,  1860;  George 
Ricker,  August  5,  1861;  Henry  M.  Packard,  December  15,  1862;  John  M. 
Perry,  December  11,  1871;  E.  S.  Crafts,  October  2,  1884.  Hast  Auburn.— 
John  C.  Briggs,  July  2,  1844;  discontinued  July  2,  1845;  re-established  with 
same  postmaster,  December  24,  1849;  Stillman  T.  Allen,  April  10,  1863;  C. 

Mail  Routes,  Railroads,  and  Post-Offices.  99 

White,  December  3,  1863;  John  C.  Briggs,  August  13,  1866;  Charles 
Withington,  October  30, 1866;  William  K.  Vickery,  December  13, 1866;  Alvin 
Waterman,  July  7,  1871;  David  A.  Whitman,  March  8,  1882;  Charles  F. 
Curtis,  July  1,  1889.  North  Auharn  (established  as  Center  Minot,  changed 
to  present  name  June  7,  1845).  —  Oliver  Pollard,  December  19,  1825;  Stephen 
Packard,  February  13,  1835;  Oliver  Pollard,  June  18, 1841;  Stephen  Packard, 
June  7,  1845;  Joseph  Keitli,  July  14,  1849;  Isaac  Osgood,  May  19,  1853; 
Levi  Perry,  October  3,  1857;  Isaac  Osgood,  January  6,  1862.  Auburn 
Plains.  —  F.  A.  Allen,  commissioned  postmaster  June  5,  1889;  office  opened 
July  1st.  South  Auhurn  (established  as  West  Danville,  changed  to  present 
name,  March  10,  1868).  —  Joseph  S.  Foster,  March  11,  1850;  discontinued 
November  13,  1850;  re-established  with  same  postmaster,  December  16,  1850; 
Samuel  Hicks,  June  30, 1852;  Brackett  Marston,  December  29,  1853;  William 
Freeman,  October  6,  1859;  Joseph  W.  Foster,  August  16,  1864;  Israel  T. 
Merrill,  March  14,  1866;  Quade  L.  Allen,  January  25,  1875;  John  R.  Pulsifer, 
February  11,  1875;  Loring  Lovejoy,  October  13,  1882;  J.  G.  Dexter, 
November,  1883.  South  DanviUe.  —  Emerson  Bowie,  March  27,  1886;  Mrs.  A. 
M.  Bowie,  December  30,  1886.  Danville.  —  Moses  Rowe,  February  13,  1822; 
Nathaniel  L.  Ingersoll,  May  15,  1826;  Jeremiah  Stinchfield,  November  13, 
1850;  Oliver  Waterman,  May  17,  1860;  Nathaniel  G.  Sturgis,  November 
14,  1861;  Oliver  D.  Stinchfield,  October  7,  1864;  Harriet  W.  Ingersoll, 
December  10,  1866;  S.  S.  Waterhouse,  December  7,  1885;  P.  M.  Austin, 
August  20,  1888;  C.  A.  Leonard,  April  12,  1890;  Charles  Thurston, 
December,  1890. 

Durham  (established  as  South  West  Bend,  changed  to  Durham,  September 
3,  1849).  —  Joseph  Merrill,  December  17,  1835;  Rufus  Jordan,  December  5, 
1837;  JamesStrout,Jr,  April  2, 1840;  William  L.  Harmon,  June  3, 1841 ;  Rufus 
Jordan,  June  7,  1845;  James  Strout,  Jr,  March  31,  1846;  Emery  S.  Warren, 
June  27,  1849;  James  Strout,  Jr,  March  30,  1853;  E.  S.  Warren,  August  10, 
1858;  Henry  Fitz,  September  6,  1861;  James  H.  Eveleth,  March  21,  1862; 
George  E.  Warren,  September  24,1885;  Marcus  W.  Eveleth,  June  26,1890. 
West  Durham  (established  as  Durham,  changed  to  West  Durham,  September 
3,  1849).  —  Thomas  Freeman,  December  16,  1818;  Alvan  Robinson,  November 
26,  1819;  Job  Sylvester,  3d,  March  15,  1822;  Aaron  Turner,  January  24, 
1831 ;  Benjamin  M.  Moses,  April  7, 1835 ;  Ward  Bonney,  July  24,  1835 ;  Alvena 
Moses,  December  21, 1838;  Joshua  Lambert,  August  24, 1839;  William  G.  Hoyt, 
June  3, 1841;  Job  P.  Sylvester,  January  7,  1847;  William  G.  Hoyt,  September 
6,1849;  Elisha  Strout,  March  30,1853;  Job  P.  Sylvester,  March  31,  1854; 
Simon  W.  Miller,  December  4,  1861;  Charles  W.  Harding,  February  4,  1865; 
Charles  G.  Burgess,  March  30, 1868 ;  Nathan  Bangs,  June  24, 1870 ;  Christopher 
Moses,  October  22, 1878;  Nathan  Bangs,  December  17, 1878;  Charles  D.  Dow, 
October  3,  1881;   Samuel  W.  Wilson,  November  7,  1881;    F.  M.  Soper,  June 

100  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

1,  1884;  R.  A.  Rich,  October  25,  1887.  Garcelon's  Ferry.  — O.  S.  Libby, 
November,  1885;  soon  discontinued.  South  Durham.  —  Thomas  Tuttle, 
February  19,  1830;  Thomas  Estes,  September  5,  1835;  Francis  A.  B.  Hussey, 
June  3,  1841;  John  Collins,  January  17,1843;  Thomas  Estes,  June  7,1845; 
Amos  F.  Lunt,  May  29,  1849;  Alfred  Gatchell,  March  30,  1853;  Jeremiah  G. 
Duran,  April  26,1855;  George  Tuttle,  August  12,  1801;  Thomas  C.  Pinkham, 
January  26,  1866;  Charles  C.  Smith,  October  17,  1873;  Amos  F.  Lunt, 
October  14,  1885. 

G-reene  (established  as  Greene,  changed  to  Greene  Depot,  December  10, 
1849,  and  to  Greene,  May  3, 1851).  — Benjamin  Merrill,  April  1,  1796;  Luther 
Bobbins,  March  13,  1804;  Alfred  Pierce,  September  17,  1840;  Nathaniel 
Robbins,  August  2,  1841;  Alfred  Pierce,  August  16,  1843;  George  H.  Dear- 
born, September  29,  1849;  William  C.  Dow,  May  3,  1851;  Nathaniel  Harris, 
April  23,  1853;  Erastus  H.  Morse,  November  27,  1860;  Everett  L.  Mower,  Jan- 
uary 14,  1863;  H.  W.  Gamage,  July  15,  1886;  Everett  L.  Mower,  November 
16,  1889.  Greene  Corner  (established  as  Greene,  changed  to  present  name. 
May  3,  1851).  — Elijah  Barrell,  December  10,  1849;  Alfred  Pierce,  April  10, 
1853;  Albion  Pierce,  May  8,  1860;  Franciana  Pratt,  July  13,  1863.  North 
Greene  (established  June  18,  1883).  —  Z.  A.  Gilbert,  present  incumbent 
commissioned  first  postmaster. 

Leeds.  —  Solomon  Lothrop,  August  27,  1822;  Giddings  Lane,  Jr,  June  17, 
1829;  Joseph  Scammon,  April  19,1830;  Stillman  Howard,  May  10,  1834;  J. 
W.  L.  Mitchell,  August  18,  1837;  Thomas  W.  Bridghara,  April  18,  1840; 
Franklin  B.  Leonard,  July  10,  1841;  Issacher  Lane,  July  19,  1845;  Isaac 
T.  Boothby,  April  9,  1849;  Solomon  T.  Lothrop,  June  6,  1853;  Green  G. 
More,  October  7,  1864;  Charles  H.  Lane,  January,  28,  1868;  Albert  Knight, 
January  30,  1880;  Willard  Lothrop,  May  10,  1880;  W.  L.  Francis,  March 
22,  1886.  EfM  Leeds.  —  Stephen  Day,  August  5,  1840;  discontinued,  October 
8,  1842.  North  Leeds.  ~V^?i\iQ\:  Foss,  January  28, 1826;  Reuel  Foss,  March  5, 
1842;  Thomas  C.  Foss,  August  7,  1861;  Jason  Woodman,  December  20,  1871; 
Louisa  M.  Woodman,  December  10,  1880;  Charles  A.  Whitehouse,  August 
18,  1888.  South  Leeds.  —  Martin  Leonard,  June  6,  1826;  Franklin  B.  Leonard, 
August  27,  1828;  Joshua  S.  Turner,  December  5, 1838;  Oscar  D.  Turner,  July 
27,1840;  John  Gilmore,  July  10,  1841;  Salmon  A.  Wing,  August  16,1843; 
Ormand  T.  Wing,  June  2, 1856;  William  Wing,  March  10,  1863;  Sanford  Gil- 
bert, May  19,  1863;  James  L.  Bates,  January  2,  1865;  Duane  S.  Wing,  March 
12, 1867;  Greenleaf  Parker,  January  18, 1876;  Lois  V.  Parker,  August  3, 1887. 
West  Leeds.  —  Jonas  P.  Lee,  April  10,  1828;  Perez  S.  Jennings,  November  15, 
1828;  discontinued,  April  18,  1840;  established  with  Gessius  F.  Jennings, 
postmaster,  February  24,  1866;  Stephen  R.  Deane,  April  28,  1868;  G.  A.  Jen- 
nings, May  2, 1883;  Roscoe  E.  Swain,  June  30, 1888.  Curtis  Corner.  —  Salmon 
Brewster,  January  22,  1853;  H.  M.  Brewster,  December  10,  1887. 

Mail  Routes,  Railroads,  and  Post-Offices.  101 

LewiMon.  —  Dixn  Read,  July  15,  1799;  William  R.  Frye,  December  9,  1839; 
Mark  Lowell,  May  24,  1842;  Nelson  B.  Reynolds,  February  26,  1846;  John 
Smith,  February  26,  1849;  Oliver  Herrick,  June  15,  1849;  John  Herrick,  July 
26,  1852;  William  R.  Frye,  March  5, 1853 ;  Joseph  P.  Fessenden,  April  17, 1861 ; 
George  A.  Parker,  June  7,  1870;  Horace  C.  Little,  January  30,  1879;  Charles 
Walker,  April  1,  1887;  William  T.  Smart,  April  1,  1891.  South  Lewiston.— 
Joseph  Daniels,  September  16,  1867;  Benjamin  F.  Morrell,  August  27,  1874; 
Albert  B.  Clark,  June  12,  1879;  Andrew  J.  Hinkley,  July  26,  1880;  H.  W. 
Knowles,  September  26,  1882. 

Lisbon  (established  as  Factoryville,  changed  to  Lisbon,  December  6, 
1834).  — Robert  Jack,  October  3,1823;  Samuel  Moody,  June  23,  1832;  Benja- 
min Burgess,  February  8,  1836;  Joshua  Gerrish,  October  26,1838;  Reuben  1). 
Rand,  May  28,  1856;  Levi  T.  Coombs,  November  7,  1857;  Cliarles  B.  Jordan, 
January  6,  1862;  Charles  W.  Gerrish,  April  7,  1873;  Hannah  W.  Gerrish, 
January  6,  1880;  J.  M.  Corbett,  July  31,  1885;  Alfred  E.  Jordan,  August  10, 
1889.  Lisbon  Falls  (established  as  Little  River  Village,  changed  to  present 
name,  February  20,  1865). — William  P.  Davis,  December  14,  1818;  Ezekiel 
Thompson,  February  3,  1819;  Joseph  Cowing,  March  30,  1832;  Josiah  Lane, 
December  11,  1834;  Moses  Tibbetts,  February  17,  1842;  James  Booker, 
August  19,  1845 ;  Jedediah  Moulton,  December  23,1845;  Warren  A.  Bibber, 
January  29,  1853;  Aaron  I.  West,  March  29,  1853;  John  O.  Tracy,  November 
29,  1855;  John  H.  Coombs,  November  6,  1858;  Seth  P.  Grossman,  July  2, 
1861;  Samuel  Crowell,  February  4,  1868;  Horace  C.  White,  April  8,  1869; 
George  W.  Coombs,  July  24,  1874;  George  Plummer,  January  22,  1883;  John 
H.  Coombs,  October  28,1885;  George  Plummer,  November  9,  1889.  Lisbon 
OeMter. — John  W.  Jordan,  August  4, 1884;  A.  K.  P.  Edwards,  August  15, 1888. 

Last  Livermore.  —  Francis  F.  Haines,  October  8,  1822;  William  B.  Small, 
February  9,  1839;  F.  F.  Haines,  June  30,  1841;  William  B.  Small,  March  2, 
1846;  F.  F.  Haines,  August  15,  1851;  William  B.  Small,  March  2,  1852; 
Francis  Morrill,  January  11,  1854;  Jonathan  Lovejoy,  July  7,  1854;  Elisha  B. 
Lovejoy,  June  29,  1863;  Jonathan  Lovejoy,  April  25,  1865;  Amos  Hobbs, 
December  24,  1867;  Francis  J.  Folsom,  September  24,  1868;  Caleb  P.  Brown, 
February  29,  1876;  Francis  J.  Folsom,  August  12,  1878;  Mrs.  Ellen  M. 
Folsom,  January  5,  1886.  East  Livermore  Mills  (changed  from  Brown's  Mills, 
January  19,  1872).  — Eli  N.  Berry,  January  5,  1872;  W.  A.  Francis,  April  1, 
1886;  Eli  N.  Berry,  May  1,  1889.  Livermore  J^a/^s.  — Elisha  Pettengill, 
December  21,  1830;  Nathaniel  Mayo,  July  13,  1841;  David  Hale,  April  2, 
1844;  Oliver  Pettingill,  August  22,  1845;  Comfort  Pettingill,  March  7,  1848; 
Stillman  Reed,  July  1,  1861;  Alvin  Record,  June  22,  1870;  W.  S.  Treat, 
September  14,  1885;  J.  F.  Jefferds,  September  19,  1889. 

Livermore  (Brettun's  Mills).  —  Benjamin  Prescott,  April  1,  1807;  Benja- 
min Bradford,  September  30,  1809;  Isaac  Strickland,  March  27,  1825;  William 

102  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

H.  Brettun,  December  12,  1838;  Doribus  Morrison,  May  11,  1842;  G.  W.  C. 
Washburn,  June  11,  1844 ;  David  Leavitt,  February  2,  1849 ;  Isaac  Strickland, 
June  4,  1852;  William  Child,  January  7,  1853;  Samuel  H.  Morse,  September 
20,  1856;  Lee  Strickland,  March  13,  1858;  Lamont  O.  Stevens,  August  2, 1862; 
Augustus  H.  Strickland,  September  25,  1869;  Oliver  P.  Stevens,  October  29, 
1869;  Lamont  O.  Stevens,  July  7,  1870;  George  T.  Piper,  July  31,  1871;  A. 
H.  Strickland,  May  3,  1876;  George  T.  Piper,  October  1,  1878;  Roscoe  G. 
Goding,  May  17,  1885;  W.  F.  Fuller,  September  23,  1886.  m-ickJands 
Ferry.  —  Solomon  Millett,  December  10,  1853;  Leonard  Knight,  December  23, 
1861;  David  P.  Hodgdon,  November  25,  1863;  Alonzo  P.  Russell,  August  9, 
1865;  Alpheus  E.  Guild,  April  13,  1866;  George  F.  Piper,  March  27,  1867; 
John  R.  Millett,  September  1,  1868;  Russell  B.  Hersey,  May  11,  1869;  John 
R.  Millett,  August  28,  1871 ;  R.  B.  Hersey,  January  5,  1874  ;  Charles  A.  Libby, 
May  13,  1875;  Frank  H.  Sawtelle,  May  3,  1877  ;  Albert  Caswell,  December 
11,  1877;  George  D.  Emery,  March  21,  1878;  N.  H.  Sawtelle,  February  20, 
1886.  Livermore  Ce7iter.  —  John  L.  Wyman,  June  21,  1839;  Abner  Moore, 
November  30,  1841;  Alvan  C.  Harlovi^,  February  5,  1856;  Joseph  Baird,  July 
22,  1859;  Alvan  C.  Harlow,  September  20,  1860;  John  W.  Bigelow,  July  17, 
1873;  John  L.  Cummings,  April  6,  1877;  Frank  B.  Bigelow,  July  19,  1882; 
John  L.  Cummings,  January  1,  1883;  W.  Carver,  July  15,  1885;  John  L. 
Cummings,  January,  1888.  North  Livermore.  —  Reuel  Washburn,  May  5, 
1824 ;  Jesse  Stone,  January  29,  1830 ;  Reuel  Washburn,  December  13,  1841 ; 
George  D.  Norton,  January  22,  1847 ;  Matthew  M.  Stone,  December  26,  1849 ; 
Ephraim  M.  Steadman,  February  4,  1858;  Samuel  P.  Holman,  March  10, 
1860;  Seth  D.  Washburn,  May  31,  1861;  George  D.  Norton,  December  8, 
1862;  Augustus  W.  Coolidge,  December  4, 1865  ;  George  Q.  Gammon,  July  27, 
1868;  Roscoe  G.  Godding,  April  20,  1870;  A.  W.  Coolidge,  September 
26,  1877;  C.  F.  Roberts,  October  23,  1888;  Hattie  L.  Coolidge,  March  19, 
1889.  South  Livermore.  —  George  F.  Chase,  August  19,  1856;  Elbridge  G. 
Bryant,  January  31,  1857;  discontinued  from  May  8,  1858,  to  May  24,  1858; 
Joi)  Chase,  May  24,  1858 ;  George  F.  Chase,  June  18,  1877;  William  S.  Moore, 
November  8, 1878;  Mrs.  M.  F.  Norton,  November  1,  1889. 

Minot  (called  Minot  or  Poland  indiscriminately  until  Poland  office  was 
established,  April  8,1816).  —  Samuel  Swett,  January  1,  1801;  Daniel  Cash, 
October  1,  1804;  Nathan  P.  Woodbury,  October  1,  1805;  Ebenezer  Simonton, 
May  3,  1813;  William  H.  Woodbury,  January  2,  1818;  Nathan  L.  Woodbury, 
Novend^er  2,  1832;  Jabez  C.  Woodman,  July  20,  1841;  Nathan  P.  Woodbury, 
December  23,  1843;  Willard  H.  Woodbury,  June  29,  1847;  William  Dale, 
June  28,  1849;  Josiah  D.  Pulsifer,  March  30,  1853;  John  Freeman,  Jr, 
November  14,  1854;  Cyrus  Green,  December  11,  1855;  Abeiza  S.  Freeman, 
January   28,  1857;    Seth    M.    Milliken,  January  6,    1862;    Joseph    Freeman, 

Mail  Routes,  Railroads,  and  Post-Offices.  103 

December  26,  1862;  Lyman  M.  Cousens,  September  18,  1865;  William  H. 
Rounds,  July  27,  1868  ;•  Rebecca  F.  Rounds,  December  10,  1880.  Mechanic 
Falls. — Samuel  F.  Waterman,  October  27,  1841;  Jacob  Dwinal,  July  21, 
1845;  Samuel  Carr,  May  2,  1849;  Merrill  W.  Stront,  July  7,  1851;  Alexander 
B.  Dwinal,  February  24,  1853;  Charles  K.  Smith,  July  2,  1856;  Samuel  F. 
Waterman,  June  26,  1861;  Oliver  B.  Dwinal,  October  8,  1866;  Joseph  Buck- 
nam,  April  8,  1869;  Jason  Hall,  July  19,  1869;  F.  E.  Dwinal,  April  1,  1883; 
Frank  A.  Millett,  February  22,  1887;  F.  E.  Dwinal,  April  1,  1891.  West 
iUfmof.  — Calvin  Bridgham,  February  9,  1825;  William  Lowell,  June  3,  1841; 
Levi  Whittemore,  July  21,  1845;  Calvin  Bridgham,  August  15,  1846;  William 
Lowell,  April  23,  1840;  David  B.  Sawyer,  March  30,  1853;  Joshua  Parsons, 
June  23,  1856;  Gideon  Bearce,  September  16,  1861;  L.  Y.  Millett,  December 
10,  1885;  Gideon  Bearce,  July  1,  1889.  East  Minot.  —  Martin  Leavitt, 
December  25, 1827;  discontinued  April  9,  1835;  John  A.  Dunning,  September 
7,  1839;  discontinued  April  3, 1842. 

Poland.  —  Robert  Waterman,  April  8,  1816;  James  Hackett,  June  7,  1817; 
Jabez  True,  Jr,  November  8,  1819;  Josiah  Jordan,  May  16,  1823;  David 
Dunn,  December  12,  1838;  William  Cousens,  June  29,  1841;  David  Dunn, 
June  7,  1845;  Freeland  Marble,  July  29,  1845;  David  Dunn,  December  30, 
1847;  William  Cousens,  September  28,  1849;  George  Bridgham,  March  30, 
1853;  Otis  West,  December  21,  1854;  David  Dunn,  September  25,  1856; 
Cyrus  Briggs,  September  10,  1857;  Charles  Lane,  June  18,  1861;  Levi  N. 
Estes,  October  24,  1865;  Charles  Lane,  June  17,  1867;  George  E.  Houghton, 
March  31,  1871;  Charles  Lane,  October  3,  1872;  Sumner  I.  Rowe,  July  22, 
1880.  Charles  Rowe,  July  27,  1883.  East  Po?aw(7.  — Reuben  B.  Dunn,  Jan- 
uary 28,  1834;  discontinued  June  29,  1836;  Jonas  W.  Strout,  June  23,  1837; 
discontinued  April  22,  1842;  Gilman  Martin,  September  4,  1849;  Jonas  W. 
Strout,  September  21,  1855;  William  H.  Rounds,  December  23,  1861 ;  Luther 
B.  Knight,  September  18,  1865;  Agnes  M.  Walker,  January  8,  1872;  Daniel 
W.  Bailey,  May  14,  1877.  South  Poland.  — Yiiv am  Ricker,  June  4,  1862. 
WortUe ij. —  YiixmlQt  L.  Bass,  August  8,  1882;  Charles  S.  Strout,  September  20, 
1882;  discontinued  November  17, 1884.  West  Poland.  —  Jolm  Megquier,  May 
19,1837;  James  H.  Fernald,  September  25,  1845;  William  M.  Perkins,  June 
15,  1852;  Francis  Storer,  January  11,  1854;  Oren  S.  Keene,  January  18,  1870; 
George  O.  Goodwin,  December  29,  1871;  Silas  A.  Megquier,  January  14,  1881; 
George  O.  Goodwin,  November  4,  1885 ;  Silas  A.  Megquier,  April  10,  1889. 

Turner  (established  as  Turner  Village,  changed  to  Turner,  February  4, 
1826).— William  K.  Porter,  July  19,  1824;  Philo  Clark,  October  8,  1834; 
John  Blake,  July  10,  1841;  Hiram  Clark,  December  2, 1844;  John  Blake,  June 
16,1849;  Hiram  Clark,  March  9,  1852;  Philo  Clark,  May  22,  1858;  Hira 
Bradford,  Jr,  April  18,  1861;  Mellen  A.  Bearce,  April  2,  1869;   William  L. 

104  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Bonney,  February  4,  1881;  Walter  B.  Irish,  October  1,1885;  James  P.  Water- 
man, June  14,  1889.  Emt  Turner  (originally  Turner,  changed  February  4, 
1826).  —  Ichabod  Bonney,  1804;  Alden  Blossom,  March  15,  1814;  discontinued 
March  22,  1839.  Turner  An(h-os('o</</m  post-office  was  changed  to  Uai<f 
Turner,  July  10,  1839.  Postmasters  from  establishment  are :  Ezekiel  Martin, 
February  10,  1832;  John  W.  Webster,  December  18,  1855;  James  D.  Gilbert, 
September  18,  1860;  Rutelius  S.  Coolidge,  April  23,  1873;  John  W.  Webster, 
April  23,  1877;  Warren  Webster,  November  18,  1881.  Chases  MiUs.  — Solon 
Chase,  December  18,  1874.  /^'outh  Turner.  —  Charles  H.  Barrell,  January  25, 
1875;  Mrs.  Laura  C.  Barrell,  March  31,  1887;  William  D.  Barrell,  February 
20,  1889.  Turner  Center. —  Lewis  P.  Bradford,  February  14,  1873.  Keens 
Mills  (changed  from  Keen's  Mills  to  Aqua  Mills,  January  30,  1880,  and  again 
to  Keen's  Mills,  P'ebruary  24, 1880).  — William  A.  Andrews,  February  7,  1873  ; 
Augustus  R.  Gilmore,  January  30,  1880;  William  A.  Andrews,  February  24, 
1880;  Fred  B.  Wing,  February  18,  1886.  JSTorth  Turner.  — Timothy  Howe, 
December  12,  1825;  Cornelius  T.  Richardson,  January  14,  1828;  William  B. 
Bray,  November  16,  1836;  Samuel  B.  Holt,  July  28,  1841;  Jesse  Drew, 
December  4,  1844;  discontinued  July  21,  1845;  Isaac  Strickland,  April  14, 
1846;  Samuel  B.  Holt,  January  19,  1849;  Deering  Farrar,  October  31,  1855; 
Lewis  A.  Farrar,  April  7,  1856;  Eland  Fuller,  November  7,  1864;  William  W. 
House,  March  11,  1872;  Lewis  A.  Farrar,  March  19,  1874.  North  Turner 
Bridge.  —  Lee  Strickland,  December  30,  1830;  Church  P.  Leavitt,  July  13, 
1833  ;  Lewis    J.  Pollard,  August  15;  1851 ;   Jonas  E.  Greenwood,  December 

9,  1852;  Sylvester  S.  Whitman,  March  31,  1854;  David  Morse,  Sep- 
tember   25,    1856;     Zenas    Lane,    February    13,    1857;    discontinued    July 

10,  1857;  Albert  Winsliip,  May  10,  1858;  Albert  Barker,  April  24, 
1865;  Samuel  B.  Wing,  December  20,  1'871  ;  Albert  Barker,  August  27, 
1874;  W.  W.  Hobbs,  April  30,  1883;  Goodwin  C.  Caswell,  April  16,  1886;  S. 
Houghton,  January  17,  1889.  Howe's  Corner. — Established  May  4,  1891, 
George  D.  Humphrey,  postmaster. 

Wales. — Arthur  N.  Given,  November  3,  1824;  Arthur  Given,  January  18, 
1S36;  Elizabeth  Given,  November  15,  1875;  Alden  Moulton,  April  5,1876; 
Hattie  L.  Given,  Marcli  15,  1886.  ihst  Wales.  — S.imwal  Potter,  December 
23,  1856;  Josei)h  G.  liragg,  December  4,  1857;  Llewellyn  S.  Ham,  January  30, 
1860;  Maria  N.  Ham,  September  6,  1876;  Mary  E.  Ham,  November  20,  1876; 
W.  E.  Hinckley,  Sei)tember  28,  1881.  Leedx  Junetion  (changed  from  Leeds 
Station,  March  15,  1859).  — George  Beals,  April  15,  1850;  J.  B.  Brackett, 
December  3,  1883;  J.  W.  llicker,  May  8,  1891. 

Webster  (first  Lisbon  Four  Corners,  changed  to  Lisbon,  August  8,  1832,  to 
Lisbon  Center,  December  6,  1834,  to  Webster,  June  22,  1841).  — James  Small, 
February  6,  1819;  Samuel  Heath,  February  14,  1823;  Nathan  C.  Fletcher,  July 
17,  1832,  Amos  Dwinal,  July  27,  18.33;  PJiilip  M.  Garcelon,  March  29,  1836; 

Military  Affairs.  105 

Samuel  Cushmaii,  July  3,  1851;  Albert  J.  Larrabee,  December  28,  1869; 
George  B.  Smith,  February  24,1880;  Frederick  Blethen,  April  2,  1880  ;  George 
B.  Smith,  June  1,  1885;  C.  K.  Donnell,  October  1,  1887;  C.  A.  Owen,  August 
1,1889.  iSW^rt^^Hs.— James  Weymouth,  December  21,  1831;  John  L.  Cutter, 
February  21,  1842;  Jacob  Hill,  June  22,  1844;  Daniel  Gary,  April  11,  1849; 
Retiah  D.  Jones,  June  16,  1853;  Stetson  L.  Hill,  November  9,  1857;  Bradford 
D.  Farnham,  April  11,  1860;  Isaac  N.  Davis,  April  7,  1871;  Cyprian  C. 
Crockett,  September  15,  1876;  Seth  H.  Wilkins,  March  27,  1879;  B.  F. 
Dennison,  September  25,  1885;  Edwin  Woodside,  November  13,  1889;  did 
not  take  office  until  July  1,  1890. 



Maine  Regiments  in  the  Civil  War  — The  Soldiers  of  Androscoggin  County — The  Grand 
Army  Posts  and  Associate  Bodies. 

Not  in  his  battles  won, 
Tho'  long  the  well-fought  fields  may  keep  their  name, 
But  in  the  wide  world's  sense  of  duty  done. 
The  gallant  soldier  finds  the  meed  of  fame; 

His  life  no  struggle  for  ambition's  prize, 
Simply  the  duty  done  that  in  him  lies. 

—  Melville  Weston  Fuller. 

IN  THIS  chapter  prepared  to  commemorate  the  men  of  this  county  who 
took  part  in  the  great  work  of  preserving  federal  unity  and  national  honor 
in  the  great  Civil  War,  we  have  compiled  a  brief  record  of  the  service  of 
each  military  organization  sent  from  Maine,  with  a  list  of  its  membership 
credited  to  this  county,  copying  their  names  from  the  adjutant-general's 
reports,  and  carefully  revising  this  list.  So  lofty  was  the  devotion  of  those 
who  died,  so  honorable  the  services  of  those  who  survived,  that  only  the  most 
complete  and  exhaustive  record  can  do  their  deeds  and  their  memory  justice, 
while  so  inadequate  are  sources  of  information  that  many  errors  of  omission 
must  necessarily  occur  to  pain  survivors  or  do  seeming  injustice  to  gallant 
men.  There  are  inevitable  inaccuracies  in  the  official  records  made  in 
.  times  of   haste,  excitement,  and  confusion,  and    names   and  residences  were 

106  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

often  misunderstood  and  improperly  recorded.  Through  irregularity  in  trans- 
mission of  enlistments  to  the  adjutant-general,  the  records  are  incomplete, 
and  in  many  cases  must  remain  so.  We  are  largely  indebted  for  the  his- 
torical sketches  of  the  regiments  and  other  organizations  to  the  reports  of 
the  commanding  officers  published  at  various  times  in  the  adjutant-general's 
reports  and  to  "Maine  in  the  War,"  which  has  preserved  much  of  value. 

Androscoggin  county  furnished  3,812  soldiers  for  the  Civil  War,  and  paid 
in  bounties  1529,437;  Auburn  paying  165,275,  Danville  $28,136,  Lewiston 
$113,821,  Durham  133,165,  Lisbon  $37,795,  Minot  $32,487,  Poland  $45,230, 
Turner  $62,470. 

First  Infantry  Reii'iment.  —  This  was  organized  April  28,  1861,  and 
mustered  into  the  United  States  service  at  Portland,  May  3,  for  three 
months.  Each  one  who  enlisted  expected  to  be  sent  at  once  into  active 
service.  The  field  officers  were :  Nathaniel  J.  Jackson,  of  Lewiston,  colonel  ; 
Albion  Witham,  of  Portland,  lieutenant-colonel ;  George  G.  Bailey,  of 
Portland,  major.  Companies  F  (Lewiston  Light  Infantry)  and  H  (Auburn 
Artillery)  were  militia  companies  of  excellent  discipline  and  drill.  Company 
K,  the  other  company  raised  in  this  county,  contained  raw  recruits. 

The  act  of  the  legislature  authorizing  enlistments  was  approved  April  23, 
1861.  At  a  meeting  held  on  the  evening  of  that  day,  Charles  S.  Emerson, 
lieutenant  of  Auburn  Artillery,  headed  the  list  of  volunteers,  and  is  said  to  be 
the  first  person  to  enlist  in  Maine.  The  First  went  into  Camp  Washburn  at 
Westbrook,  and  here  it  was  reviewed  by  Governor  Washburn.  Sickness 
breaking  out  among  the  men  the  regiment  did  not  leave  the  state  until 
June  1,  when  it  was  ordered  to  Washington.  Along  the  entire  route  it 
received  marked  attention.  Flags  were  presented  to  it  in  Boston  and  New 
York.  Li  Baltimore  it  marched  along  the  route  where  the  Sixth  Massachu- 
setts was  assaulted  on  the  19th,  and  preparations  were  made  for  battle;  but  no 
demonstrations  were  made  by  the  citizens,  although  the  streets  were  crowded. 
Going  into  camp  at  Washington,  its  drill,  order,  and  general  efficiency  elicited 
much  praise  and  caused  it  to  be  kept  for  the  defense  of  the  city,  and  it 
was  soon  given  the  post  of  honor  as  guard  of  the  Long  Bridge.  Here  it 
did  good  work  until  its  term  of  service  expired,  July  31.  It  was  mustered 
out  of  United  States  service  at  Portland,  August  5,  1861,  and  the  men 
discharged  from  serving  the  remainder  of  their  two-years'  enlistment  in  the 
state  service. 

Many  of  the  soldiers  re-enlisted,  and  the  non-commissioned  officers  and 
rank  and  file  furnished  numerous  officers  for  other  regiments.  Colonel 
Jackson  became  colonel  of  the  Fifth ;  Adjutant  Fillebrown,  lieutenant-colonel 
of  the  Tenth ;  Captain  Emerson  and  Lieutenants  Knowlton,  Nye,  and  Shaw, 
captains  in  the  Tenth ;  and  Lieutenant  Johnson,  adjutant  of  the  Seventh. 

Military  Affairs. 



Nathaniel  J.  Jackson,  CoL, 
James  S.  Fillebrown,  Adjt, 
Foster  Randall,  Serg.  Maj., 
Stephen    H.    Manning,    Q.    M. 
promoted  Q.  M.,  Fifth  Maine, 
Cyrus  Freeman,  Fife  Maj., 
Wellington  Dwiual,  B, 
Joseph  Q.  Edmunds,  B, 
John  Fandy,  B, 
H.  H.  Hutchinson,  A, 
Charles  E.  Harris,  B, 
A.  H.  Hutchinson,  B, 
Levi  F.  Jordan,  B, 
Hiram  B.  King,  A, 
William  Clark,  D, 
Franklin  Dyer,  D, 
Jesse  T.  Stevens,  Capt.,  F, 
William  Knowlton,  Lieut,  F, 
.John  H.  Ferguson,  Serg.,  F, 
Marvin  L.  Blood,  Serg.,  F, 
Isaac  S.  Faunce,  Serg.,  F, 
Harrison  A.  Cook,  Serg.,  P, 
Charles  H.  Moore,  Corp.,  F, 
Edward  S.  Butler,  Corp.,  F, 
Edgar  M.  Eustis,  Corp.,  F, 
Almon  J.  Gardner,  Corp.,  F, 
Edward  P.  Carman,  Mus.,  F, 
Augustus  C.  Annis,  F, 
Zelind  W.  Annis,  F, 
George  Abbot,  F, 
George  W.  Brown,  F, 
Gilbert  V.  Bangs,  F, 
Charles  A.  Beals,  F, 
Alonzo  M.  Bartlett,  P, 
Hardy  W.  Baker,  F, 
Charles  H.  Bowker,  F, 
Daniel  W.  Burnham,  F, 
John  Blake,  2d,  F, 
Lewis  Carvill,  F, 
Daniel  J.  Chandler,  F, 
Nicholas  Curran,  F, 
Frank  B.  Dakin,  F, 
Abraham  G.  Durell,  F, 
Charles  B.  Dean,  F, 
William  Forbes,  F, 
Charles  R.  Foster,  F, 
Bradley  F.  Gurney,  F, 
George  H.  Gould,  F, 
Stephen  Graffam,  F, 
Charles  W.  Heney,  F, 
Enoch  L.  Hall,  F, 
Theodore  V.  Hill,  F, 
Charles  H.  Haskell,  F, 
David  Jones,  F, 
Andrew  Jackson,  F, 
Samuel  W.  Lovell,  F, 



James  Lowe,  F, 
Samuel  S.  Mann,  F, 
Hosea  S.  Mace,  F, 
Albion  K.  P.  Neal,  F, 
Luther  Oliver,  F, 
Chester  C.  Pearson,  F, 



James  G.  Preble,  F, 
Edward  L.  Prindall,  F, 



William  Price,  F, 



Abel  G.  Rankin,  F, 



Charles  H.  Reed,  F, 



Samson  H.  Stover,  F, 


Hiram  S.  Stewart,  F, 



John  Knowles,  F, 



Isaiah  S.  Stevens,  F, 



Joseph  T.  Stockbridge,  F, 



Robert  C.  Thayer,  F, 



John  A.  Trufant,  F, 



Andrew  J.  Thompson,  F, 



Charles  H.  Whitney,  F, 



Orrin  Dwinal,G, 



Alonzo  H.  Snell,  G, 



Albion  K.  Snell,  G, 


Hiram  P.  Bailey,  G, 

Mi  not 


George  H.  Fuller,  G, 

Li verm ore 


George  W.  Field,  G, 



Joseph  F.  Raynes,  G, 
Charles  S.  Emerson,  Capt.,  H, 



James  C.  Fulsom,  Lieut,  H, 



Phineas  W.  Dill,  Lieut,  H, 



James  Dingley,  Jr,  Serg.,  H, 



Aaron  T.  Frost,  Serg.,  H, 



Horace  Wright,  Serg.,  H, 



Royal  A.  Bray,  Serg.,  H, 



John  O.  Kidder,  Corp.,  H, 



Albert  B.  Furbish,  Corp.,  H, 



Jabez  M.  Hogan,  Corp.,  H, 



George  A.  Warren,  Mus.,  H, 



Eleazer  B.  Atwood,  H, 


Charles  R.  Anderson,  H, 


James  L.  Barker,  H, 


Thomas  R.  Beal,  H, 


William  W.  Bailey,  H, 


Benjamin  M.  Bradbury,  H, 


Alex  B.  Conant,  H, 


George  B.  Coburn,  H, 


Dennett  Cotton,  H, 


Thomas  H.  Cotton,  H, 


Timothy  DriscoU,  H, 


James  T.  Doyle,  H, 


Daniel  P.  Eaton,  H, 


Stephen  R.  Estes,  H, 


Albert  W.  Freeman,  H, 


Henry  W.  Furbush,  H, 


Harrison  B.  Green,  H, 


William  H.  Gordon,  H, 



History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

George  W.  Harradon,  H, 
Washington  F.  Harradon,  H, 
Charles  E.  Harradon,  H, 
George  B.  Haley,  H, 
David  A.  Jumper,  H, 
George  F.  Joy,  H, 
Isaiah  Kimhall,  H, 
Roscoe  J.  Kidder,  H, 
William  R.  Little,  H, 
Sullivan  Luce,  H, 
Nathaniel  Lovejoy  Jr,  H, 
Lemout  Manning,  H, 
Charles  P.  Miller,  H, 
Charles  S.  Merrill,  H, 
Chandler  Nason,  H, 
George  H.  Parker,  H, 
Jabez  Pratt,  H, 
Andrew  J.  Royall,  H, 
Churchill  S.  Stevens,  H, 
IMiineas  W.  Skinner,  H, 
Josiah  Stone,  H, 
Sidney  Small,  H, 
William  M.  Savage,  H, 
Samuel  L.  Stevens,  H, 
John  S.  Turner,  H, 
Nathaniel  R.  Turner,  H, 
James  H.  Tunks,  H, 
Augustus  White,  H, 
Philip  Witham,  H, 
Benjamin  F.  Hicks,  I, 
Silas  B.  Osgood,  Capt.,  K, 
Elijah  D.  Johnson,  Lieut,  K, 
George  H.  Nye,  Lieut,  K, 
John  B.  Cook,  Serg.,  K, 
Benjamin  A.  Howard,  Serg.,  K, 
Edwin  Robbins,  Serg  ,  K, 
Richard  W.  Stewart,  Serg.,  K, 
Ethelbert  C.  Caswell,  Corp.,  K, 
James  Layden,  Corp.,  K, 
Asa  J.  Cole,  Corp.,  K, 
John  R.  Morrill,  Corp.,  K, 
Albert  E.  Hanson,  Mus.,  K, 
Henry  Ash  ton ,  K, 


Andrew  Bubier,  K,. 



James  R.  Braley,  K, 



Ivory  Brown,  K, 



George  W.  Bickford,  K. 



Albert  L.  Bolan,  K, 



Frederick  N.  Baker,  K, 
Ellsworth  A.  Brown,  K, 



Houghton  Bond,  K, 



Hiram  Cord  well,  K, 



Elmer  Chipman,  K, 



Nathan  Herrick,  K, 



Jordan  G.  Carville,  K, 



Benjamin  A.  Eaton,  K, 



James  B.  Ford,  K, 



Joseph  F.  Goss,  K, 



George  F.  Hodgdon,  K, 



Almond  L.  Goss,  K, 



James  Guiney,  K, 



Ambrose  E.  Hammond,  K, 



James  Hedon,  K, 



Charles  H.  Jumper,  K, 



Leonard  Jepson,  K, 
Albert  E.  Kingsley,  K, 
Augustus  K.  Lane,  K, 



Frederic  S.  Myrick,  K, 



Richard  McCarthy,  K, 



Jonathan  Nash,  K, 



James  E.  Osgood,  K, 



James  Onias,  K, 



Manassah  Pettingill,  K, 
Charles  W.  Smith,  K, 
Llewellyn  Sawyer,  K, 
James  Smith,  K, 
Philip  H.  Tarr,  K, 
Charles  E.  Taylor,  K, 
James  E.  Tarr,  K, 
Reuben  Viele,  K, 
Elias  S.  Webber,  K, 
Melvin  Woodcock,  K, 
Michael  Welch,  K, 
John  A.  Willard,  K, 



Lewis  Gordon,  H, 



Frank  C.  Adams,  K, 


Seeond  Infantry  Rcf/imfnt.  —  This  was  rendezvoused  at  Bangor,  and  left  the 
state  May  14,  18(31.  It  was  organized  at  Long  Island,  N.  Y.,  May  28,  1861,  to 
serve  two  and  three  years.  Charles  D.  Jameson  was  colonel;  Charles  W. 
Roberts,  lieutenant-colonel ;  George  Varney,  major;  all  of  Bangor. 

July  1  the  Second  joined  the  Army  of  Virginia  at  Falls  Church,  and  on 
July  21  did  distinguished  service  at  Bull  Run.  "The  Second,  in  its  two- 
years'  enlistment,  saw  an  amount  of  service  that  would  put  to  the  blush 
many  of  the  veteran  troops  of  the  old  world.  It  was  engaged  in  eleven  bloody 
and  hard-fought  battles  and  numerous  skirmishes,  always  distinguishing  itself^ 
and  never  received  the  slightest  word  of  censure  from  the  higher  commanding 

Military  Affairs. 

101  > 

officers.  It  had  a  i-ecord  second  to  none  from  the  state.  Its  tedious  marches 
were  cheerfully  sustained,  and  it  never  wearied,  never  faltered,  never  mur- 
mured, but  at  all  times,  even  in  its  most  desperate  engagements,  faithfully  and 
unflinchingly  performed  its  duty."  The  two-years'  men  were  mustered  out 
June  9,  i860,  and  the  others  transferred  to  the  Twentieth. 

Colonel  Jameson  was  promoted  brigadier-general  and  showed  great 
gallantry.  He  died  November  (3,  lcS62,  from  injuries  received  at  Fair  Oaks. 
He  was  succeeded  as  colonel  by  Charles  W.  Roberts,  and  January  10,  1863, 
Major  Varney  became  colonel. 


John  C.  Harmon,  Corp.,  A,  Lowiston 

John  F.  Black,  A,  pro  Lt,  Aug.  I),  01, 

Alhion  Morris,  band,  Leeds 

Michael  Young,  B,  Webster 

John  McDonald,  B,  trans  to  '20  Me,       Lewistou 
John  Sullivan,  C,  Auburn 

Third  Infanfr//  Bajimenf. —  This  regiment  went  into  camp  at  Augusta, 
May  28,  1861,  and  was  organized  June  4,  1861.  Its  in-rsonnel  was  most 
admirable,  for  the  Kennebec  lumberman  was  largely  represented,  and  all  were 
well-formed  men.  The  average  weight  of  one  company  was  170  pounds.  Its 
service  of  three  years  was  marked  by  undaunted  valor,  patient  endurance,  and 
heroic  achievements.  It  was  mustered  out  at  Augusta,  June  28,  1864,  and  the 
recruits  transferred  to  the  Seventeenth.  Its  first  colonel  was  Oliver  O. 
Howard,  of  Leeds,  promoted  to  brigadier-general  September  7, 1861.  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Isaac  N.  Tucker  was  discharged  November  4,  1861.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Charles  A.  L.  Sampson  resigned  July  7,  1862,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Edwin  Burt  was  killed  in  the  Wilderness  fight  of  May  6,  1864.  Major 
Henry  G.  Staples,  the  first  major,  was  promoted  to  colonel,  and  resigned 
November  14,  1862,  and  Major  William  C.  Morgan  was  killed  at  North  Anna, 
May  23,  1864.  November  14,  1862,  Moses  B.  Lakeman,  who  was  first  captain 
of  Company  B,  was  commissioned  colonel. 

The  Third  took  active  part  in  the  battles  of  Centreville,  Bull  Run, 
Yorktown,  Williamsburg,  White  Oak  Swamp,  Malvern  Hill,  Second  Bull  Run, 
Fredericksburg,  Chancellorsville,  Gettysburg,  Manassas,  Wilderness,  Spottsyl- 
vania,  and  South  Anna. 


Oliver  Otis  Howard,  CoL,  promoted  to 

Brig.  Gen., 
William  H.  Jewett,  Asst.  Surgeon, 
Charles  H.  Howard,  Drum  Major,  pro- 
moted to  staff, 
Russell  Carver,  A,  wd  at  Fair  Oaks,  ,, 

Page  T.  Francis,  A,  ,, 

Frank  Bubier,  B,  Lewistou 



Joseph   C.   Harlow,   C,   transferred    to 

Third  U.  S.  Artillery,  Auburn 

Charles  M.  Landers,  C,  pro  to  Serg.,      Danville 
Frank  Heald,  F,  Lewiston 

Newell  Strout,  Capt.,  K,  res  1861,  Durham 

Freeman  H.  Strout,  Serg.,  K,  killed,  ,, 

Frederic  H.  Strout,  Corp.,  K,  promoted 
to  1st  Serg.,  ,, 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

William  B.  Bryant,  K,  Turner 

Thomas  J.  Bryant,  K,  ,, 

John  W.  Campbell,   K,  died    Sept.    16, 

1861,  Livermore 

Jason  Carver,  K,  disch  Sept.  19,  ISOl,  Leeds 

Lloyd  B.  Caswell,  K,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Francis  George,  K,  ,, 

William  Heald,  K,  East  Livermore 

John  C.  Keene,  Capt.,  K,  killed,  Gettys- 
burg, July  2,  18G:{,  Leeds 
Levi  R.  Reay,  K,  died  in  prison,  ,, 
Henry  S.  Turner,  K,  ,, 
Benjamin  Woodman,  K,  died  in  service,         ,, 
Elisha  K.  Mann,  Corp.,  K,  transferred 

to  17  Maine,  ,, 

Henry  O.  Fabyan,  K,  died  Oct.  30,  18(52,         ,, 
Walter  W.  Boothby,  K,  kd  Dec.  13,  02, 
Dexter  W.  Howard,  Serg.,  trans 

17  Me,  ,, 

Buggies  S.  Keay,  K,  trans  to  17  Me,         Greene 
Clark  H.  Eldridge,  H,  Livermore 

Eben  Farrington,  Corp.,  H,  died  July  2, 

1863,  Livermore 

Charles  W.  Pike,  I,  East  Livermore 

C.  C.  Eldridge,  killed, 

Jefferson  T.  Stevens,  killed,  ,,  ,, 

John  J.  O'Connell,  B,  trans  17  Me,       Lewiston 
Edward  E.  Jones,  B,  trans  17  Me,  Minot 

Josiah  Winslow,  E,  transferred  17  Me,  ,, 

George  G.  Babb,  C,  trans  17  Me,  Lewiston 

Amos  B.  Canwell,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Frederic  Cook,  C,  trans  17  Me,  Lewiston 

George  W.  Foster,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

John  Fallen,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Henry  H.  Garcelon,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Cyrus  W.  Gilpatrick,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Lars  F.  Miller,  C,  trans  17  Me,  „ 

John  Smith,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Mandrid  O.  Savage,  C,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Charles  D.  Wallace,  C,  ,, 

Albion  P.  Cobb,  D,  died  Dec.  2,  1863, 
Emery  E.  Lowell,  D,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Henry  F.  Noyes,  D,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

James  Welch,  D,  ,, 

James  L.  Kilgore,  E,  ,, 

Alonzo  P.  Lamb,  Capt.,  G,  Poland 

Stephen  P.  Cutler,  G,  trans  17  Me,         Lewiston 
George  W.  Hatch,  G,  killed  May  12, 18(i4,      ,, 
Charles  Harris,  G,  died  Feb.  13, 1804,  Livermore 
James  L.  Faden,  H,  trans  17  Me,  Turner 

Orville  Young,  H,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Samuel  Parker,  H,  trans  17  Me,  Lewiston 

Henry  H.  Thompson,  H,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 
William  C.  Thompson,  H,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 
John  L.  Tubbs,  H,  killed  May  12,  1864,  „ 
Arthur  L.  Coombs,  I,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

Joseph  O.  Sturtevant,  I,  trans  17  Me,  Leeds 
James  M.  Hatch,P.,killedMay  31, 1864,  Lewiston 
Martin  McElroy,  B,  ,, 

Charles  W.  Lowell,  I,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

John  Warner,  I,  trans  17  Me,  ,, 

W.  Heald,  East  Livermore 

Fourth  Infantry  Regiment. — The  state  regimental  organization  was 
completed  May  8,  1861,  at  Rockland,  and  it  was  mustered  into  the  national 
service  for  three  years,  June  15,  1861.  Hiram  G,  Berry,  of  Rockland,  was 
colonel;  Thomas  H.  Marshall,  of  Belfast,  lieutenant-colonel;  Frank  S. 
Nickerson,  of  Searsport,  major.  The  Fourth  did  gallant  service  in  most  of  the 
important  battles  in  Virginia,  and  at  Gettysburg,  during  its  three-years' 
warfare,  was  mustered  out  July  19,  1864,  and  the  veterans  and  recruits 
transferred  to  the  Nineteenth.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Marshall  was  promoted  to 
colonel  of  the  Seventh  Maine,  September  9,  1861,  and  his  successor, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Frank  S.  Nickerson,  was  commissioned  colonel  of  the 
Fourteenth,  November  29,  1861.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Silas  M.  Fuller  resigned 
March  1,  1862,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lorenzo  D.  Carver  was  discharged 
December  16, 1863.  Lieutenant-Colonel  George  G.  Davis  was  commissioned 
May  10,  1864.  Major  William  L.  Pitcher  was  killed  at  Fredericksburg, 
December  13,  1862.  Major  Ebenezer  Whitcomb  died  October  5,  1863,  from 
wounds  received  at  Gettysburg,  and  Major  Robert  H.  Grey,  May  9,  1864, 
of  wounds  received  in  action.  March  17,  1862,  Major  Elijah  Walker  was  made 
colonel  on  the  promotion  of  Colonel  Berry  to  brigadier-general.  General 
Berry  won  unfading  honors.     He  was  given  official  credit  for  saving  the  day  at 

Military  Affairs. 


Williamsburg.  After  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  December  13, 1862,  General 
A.  P.  Hill,  commanding  the  Confederates,  sent  a  flag  of  truce  to  compliment 
General  Berry  on  his  skillful  generalship.  In  March,  1863,  General  Berry  was 
made  major-general,  and  May  3,  1863,  was  killed  at  Chancellorsville,  after 
having  saved  the  day  with  his  division.  Captain  Edwin  M.  Smith,  of  Company 
G,  was  made  major,  April  1,  1862,  but  soon  resigned  to  become  assistant- 
adjutant-geneial  on  the  staff  of  General  Berry,  and  was  killed  at  Fair  Oaks. 


Freeborn  G.  Bean,  A,  trans  19  Me,         Lewiston 
John  Cusick,  A,  trans  19  Me,  ,, 

John  Cochran,  A,  trans  19  Me,  ,, 

James  C.  Crafts,  A,  trans  19  Me,  ,, 

John  Carter,  A,  trans  19  Me,  ,, 

Charles  W.  Merrill,   D,   trans  19  Me,  ,, 

Henry  Martin,  D,  trans  19  Me,  ,, 

William  Reiley,  D, 
Henry  O.  Smith,  D,  trans  19  Me, 
Hezekiah  D.  Morse,  F,  died  in  service,     Poland 
William  L.  Brown,  G,  trans  19  Me,     Livermore 
Adoniram  L.  Dyer,  G,  died  Feb.  8,  G4,        ,, 
James  B.  Davis,  G,  trans  19  Me,  Lewiston 

Hngh  Hunter,  G,  trans  19  Me,  Lewiston 

Charles  Hermann,  G,  ,, 

Peter  Lee,  G.  trans  19  Me,  ,, 

George  Wilbur,  G,  trans  19  Me,  ,, 
Elisha  S.  Bisbee,  Serg.,  G,  killed  May 

23,  1864, 

Daniel  McDonald,  H,  ,, 

George  Martin,  I,  ,, 

Charles  Miles,  I,  trans  19  Me,  „ 
Otto  Smith,  K,  trans  19  Me, 

Nathan  B.  Harlow,  C,  trans  19  Me,  Auburn 

John  L.  Higgins,  C,  trans  19  Me,  Webster 

Josiah  Carr,  Surgeon,  Minot 

Fifth  Infantry  Regiment.  —  This  was  raised  in  the  third  division  of  the 
state  militia,  and,  contrary  to  the  preceding  ones  which  had  one  or  more 
organized  and  well-drilled  militia  companies  in  each  organization,  was  wholly 
composed  of  raw  men.  The  regiment  was  mustered  into  United  States  service 
June  24,  1861,  with  Mark  H.  Dnnnell,  of  Portland,  colonel;  Edwin  lUsley, 
of  Limington,  lieutenant-colonel ;  Samuel  C.  Hamilton,  of  Biddeford,  major. 
Emery  W.  Sawyer,  of  Lisbon,  was  captain  of  Company  E,  and  Aaron  S. 
Daggett,  of  Greene,  first  lieutenant.  William  A.  Tobie,  of  Poland,  was 
captain  ;  and  Hamlin  T.  Bucknam,  of  Minot,  first  lieutenant  of  Company  K. 

Two  days  after  the  muster-in,  the  Fifth  left  the  state  en  route  for  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac  and  the  battlefield,  with  1,046  men.  June  27,  the 
Sons  of  Maine  of  New  York  City,  presented  the  regiment  with  a  silken 
regimental  flag.  June  29  it  went  into  camp  at  Meridian  Hill,  but  soon 
joined  the  Union  forces  south  of  the  Potomac,  and  July  21  was  terribly 
involved  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  Bull  Run ;  in  the  retreat  losing 
knapsacks,  tents,  cooking  utensils,  and  clothing,  all  these  falling  into  Confed- 
erate hands.  The  regiment,  without  opportunities  for  drill,  was  engaged  in 
fatigue  and  picket  duty,  and  suffered  severe  privations  for  lack  of  necessary 
supplies  and  from  sickness.  Colonel  Dunnell,  who  was  United  States  consul 
at  Vera  Cruz  and  on  leave  of  absence,  resigned  the  colonelcy  September 
2,  and  was  succeeded  by  Colonel  Nathaniel  J.  Jackson,  late  of  the  First. 
The  same  month  the  lieutenant-colonel  and  major  resigned,  and  were  succeeded 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

by  Captain  William  S.  Heath  of  Company  H,  Third  Maine,  as  lieutenant- 
colonel  (killed  in  action,  June  27,  1862),  and  Captain  Edward  A.  Scammon 
of  Company  H,  of  the  Fifth,  as  major. 

A  rapid  improvement  succeeded  in  the  health  of  the  regiment,  as  they  were 
moved  to  a  healthful  location,  and  drill  soon  brought  good  discipline.  From 
this  time  it  shared  the  privations,  the  honors,  and  the  losses  of  the  bravest 
reo-iments  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  Colonel  Jackson  was  made  brigadier- 
general,  September  24,  1862,  and  November  1,  1862,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Scammon  became  colonel.  Major  Edwards,  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain 
Millett  of  Company  A,  major.  Colonel  Scammon  resigned  January  8,  1863, 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Edwards  was  made  colonel,  and  Major  Millett,  lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Captain  Aaron  S.  Daggett,  of  Company  E,  became  major,  April 
24,  1863. 

This  regiment  was  mustered  out  at  Portland,  July  27,  1864,  and  the 
veterans  and  recruits  transferred  to  the  Sixth  Maine  Battalion.  During  its 
service  it  was  engaged  in  eleven  pitched  battles  and  eight  heavy  skirmishes 
before  participating  in  the  Wilderness  campaign.  It  captured  more  prisoners 
than  were  altogether  numbered  in  its  own  ranks,  and  six  Confederate  battle- 
flags.  General  Upton,  commanding  the  division  in  wliich  the  Fifth  served, 
complimented  it  highly  as  it  left  the  front  for  liome,  in  a  letter  to  the  officers 
and  men  from  wliich  we  extract:  — 

Tour  gallantry,  your  constancy,  your  devotion  to  the  Hag  of  your  country,  your  patient 
endurance  of  fatigue  during  the  campaigns  of  three  long  years  entitle  you  to  the  lasting 
gratitude  and  esteem  of  your  countrymen.  You  have  given  proof  of  your  valor  and 
jjatriotism  on  every  field  from  the  first  Bull  Run  to  the  present  time.  Leaving  your  native 
state  with  over  1,040  men,  after  receiving  a  large  number  of  recruits,  you  now  return  with 
but  216.  The  long  list  of  battles  in  which  you  have  participated,  including  Bull  Run, 
West  Point,  Gaines'  Mill,  Charles  City,  Crarapton  Gap,  Antietam,  Fredericksburg,  Salem 
Heights,  Gettysburg,  Rappahannock,  the  eight-days'  battle  of  the  Wilderness,  Spott- 
sylvania,  and  Cold  Harbor,  will  account  for  your  losses. 


Nathaniel   J.   Jackson,   Col,   promoted 

to  Brig.-Gen.,  Lewiston 

Edwin  Illsley,  Lieut-Col,  resigned,  ,, 

Stephen  H.  Manning,  Q.  M.,  promoted 

A.  Q.  M.. 
Warren  Hume,  band,  ,, 

George    A.    Chandler,    Serg.-Maj.,  pro 

Lieut,  A,  taken  pris  July  24,  (53,  ,, 

Fabian  Churchill,  C,  killed  May  3,  1863,      Minot 
Adelbert  Churchill,  C,  killed,  ,, 

John  Foster,  C,  ,, 

John  H.  Stevens,  1st  Lieut,  C,  tr  D,         Greene 
Lawrence  Hassett,  D,  Lewiston 

Thomas  Tuttle,  D,  Durham 

William  A.  Walker,  D,  kd  Jan.  3,  64,     Durham 
Charles  Manning,  D,  Lewiston 

Emery  W.  Sawyer,   Capt.,  E,   resigned 

Aug.,  1861,  Lisbon 

Aaron   S.  Daggett,  Lieut,  E,  promoted 

Capt.,  Aug.   1.5,  1861,  promoted  Maj., 

Jan.  5,  1863,  Greene 

Frank  L.  Lemont,  E,  pro  Capt.  Jan.  8, 

1863,  kd  May  12,  1864,  Lewiston 

Norris  Litchfield,  Serg.,  E. 

John  B.  Bailey,  Serg.,  E.died,  Auburn 

Leander  Prentiss,  Corp.,  E,  discharged 

Oct.,  1861,  Lewiston 

John  A.  Lane,  Corp.,  E,  ,, 

Military  Affairs. 


Washington  Ellis,  Corp.;  E,  discharged 

Aug.,  1861,  Lisbon 

Charles  B.  Keith,  Corp.,  E,  discharged 

Nov.,  1861,  Auburn 

Isaac  G.  Jordan,   Corp.,    E,    discharged 

Oct.,  1861,  Lewiston 

Samuel  M.  Thomas,  Mus.,  E,  discharged 

Oct.,  1861,  Durham 

E.  S.  Litchfield,  wagoner,  E,  Lewiston 

Alonzo  Adley,  E,  promoted  Serg.,  Lisbon 

Rodney  B.  Atwood,  E,  killed,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Bodge,  Corp.,  E,  Leeds 

Isaac  A.  Blethen,  E,  kd  Nov.  27,  ()3,  Durham 
Silas  R.  Cummings,  E,  Greene 

Lemont  Manning,  E,  Lewiston 

David  D.  Dresser,  E,  ,, 

Francis  Day,  E,  promoted  Serg.,  Durham 

Jeremiah  Day,  E,  Leeds 

Joseph  T.  Dennison,  E,disch  Oct.,  61,  Durliam 
Edward  Collins,  E,  Lewiston 

Henry  P.  Estes,  E,  ,, 

B.  Franklin  Frost,  E,  Durham 

Almond  L.  Foss,  E,  died  Sept.,  62,         Lewiston 
Adelbert  H.  Holland,  E, 
Daniel  Harvey,  Corp.,  E,  killed  atGaines 

Hill,  Durham 

Nathaniel  Haskell,  E,  Lewiston 

Samuel  O.  Hatch,  E,  disch  Oct.,  61,  ,, 

James  C.  Higgins,  E,  kd  May  3,  1863,  Lisbon 
Thomas  Higgins,  E,  disch  Oct.,  61,  Lewiston 
George  H.  Hamilton,  E,  died  of  wounds 

Nov.  14,  1863, 
Charles  E.  Jones,  E,  kd  May  10,  64,         Turner 
David  H.  Jones,  E,  Auburn 

Horace  E.  Kimball,  E,  Lewiston 

Lucius  L.  Lothrop,  E,  ,, 

Luther  Litchfield,  E, 

Lee  W.  Laugh  ton,  E,  ,, 

William  H.  Larrabee,  E,  ,, 

Luther  C.  Manlej',  E,  Auburn 

David  Given,  E,  ,, 

James  Maloney,  E,  Lewiston 

Walter  A.  Moulton,  E,  ,, 

Horace  H.  Moody,  E,  died  Aug.  30,  62,  Durham 
Levi  Marks,  E,  Lewiston 

Thomas  H.  Mason,  E,  ,, 

Henry  McCone,  E,         '  ,, 

James  G.  Purington,  E,  Lisbon 

Isaiah  C.  Purinton,  E,  ,, 

Isaiah  Randall,  E,  disch  Sept.,  61,  Lewiston 

Daniel  Sheehan,  E,  promoted  Corp.,  ,, 

Cyrenus  P.  Stevens,  Corp.,  E,  jiromoted 

1st  Serg.,  Greene 

Daniel  Sutherland,  E,  Durham 

David  Small,  E,  Danville 

John  L.  Verrill,  E,  Poland 

Charles  N.  Waterman,  E,  Durham 

John  Howard  Nason,  F, 

Henry  Whittingham,  E,  Lewiston 

Thomas  Ward,  E, 

John  Harvey,  E,  Auburn 

Preston  R.  Bryant,  E,  disch  July,  61,  ,, 

Andrew  J.  Lufkin,  Serg.,  disch  Sept., 

1861,  Lewiston 

Charles  E.  Coombs,  F,  Auburn 

Joseph  Charlton,  F,  disch  Aug.,  61,       Lewiston 
William  Connolly,  F,  „ 

Charles  Edwards,  F,  ,, 

Lyman  H.  Edwards,  F,  ,, 

John  Loney,  P,  ,, 

Elias  Malone,  F,  trans  K,  ,, 

R.  D.  Meridith,  F,  „ 

Melvin  A.  Perkins,  F,  Auburn 

Albion  R.  Stewart,  Corp.,  F,  Lewiston 

Sylvester  Smith,  F,  disch  Oct.,  61, 
Bernard  McGee,  F,  ,, 

Samuel  Gray,  F,  ,, 

Harry  M.  Stinson,  H,  Auburu 

Josiah  M.  Penley,  H,  Danville 

John  Binner,  H,  missing  in  action  May 

3,  1863,  Lewiston 

John  Conlin,  H,  ,, 

George  W.  Fargo,  I,  Turner 

James  Kelly,  I,  Lewiston 

Josiah  Thompson,  I,  ,, 

William  A.  Tobie,  Capt.,  K,  Poland 

Hamlin    T.   Bucknam,   Lieut,   K,   pro- 
moted Capt.,  Sept.  23,  1861,  Minot 
Smith  G.   Bailey,   Serg.,   K,   promoted 

Lieut,  H,  killed,  Poland 

John  J.  Bragdon,  Serg.,  K,  promoted  1st 

John  T.  Mason  Serg.,  K,  Lewiston 

Comfort  M.  Perkins,  Corp.,  K,  Minot 

Charles  E.  Harris,  Corp.,  K,  wounded, 

transferred  to  1st  Maine  Veterans,       Poland 
George  E.   French,  Serg.,  K,  killed  at 

Fredericksburg,  Auburn 

Charles  Andrews,  K,  missing  in  action 

May  3,  1863,  Minot 

Richard  Bailey,  K,  ,, 

John  F.  Bancroft,  K,  Poland 

William  A.  Campbell,  K,  Minot 

Charles  W.  Campbell,  K,  ,, 

Dudley  Chase,  K,  ,, 

Augustus  A.  Dwinal,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Burbank  Spiller,  1st  Lieut,  K,  ,, 

George  A.  Durgin,  K,  Poland 

Joseph  Q.  Edmunds,  Corp.,  K,  Auburn 

Silas  Estes,  K,  died  Dec.  27,  1861,  Poland 

John  Fardy,  K,  Lewiston 

Solomon  Frost,  K,  ,, 

Ezra  M.  Goodwin,  K,  Minot 

William  H.  Grant,  K,  Poland 

Tristram  T.  Harris,  K,  ,, 

S.  Frank  Haskell,  K,  „ 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Delmar  Harris,  K, 


Albert  W.  Hines,  Corp.,  K, 


Barney  Heany,  K, 


Almond  H.  Hutchinson,  K, 


Samuel  H.  Hutchinson,  K, 


Henry  H.  Hutchinson,  Corp.,  K, 


Silas  C.  Libby,  K, 


Dan  Matherson,  K, 


Donald  McDonald,  K, 


Charles  F.  McKenney,  K, 


Beniah  Niles,  Jr,  K,  died  May  17, 

1863,  Auburn 

Marshall  S.  Phillips,  K, 


Charles  A.  Richardson,  K, 


Alauson  W.  St  Clair,  K, 


Horace  A.  Verrill,  K, 


George  H.  Trundy,  K, 


Henry  C.  Weston,  Corp.,  K, 


William  A.  Campbell,  K, 


Elias  Maloon,  K, 


Harrison  J.  Dwinal,  K, 


Wellington  H.  Dwinal,  K, 


John  French,  K, 


Levi    F.    Jordan,  K,   wounded,    trans- 
ferred to  1st  Maine  Veterans,  Poland 
Walter  S.  Witham,  E,  died  May  4,  62,    Lewiston 
James  L.  Baker,  E,  ,, 
John  Barnes,  ,, 
Hollis  Edwards,                                                 „ 
Isaac  G.  Jordan,  E,  ,, 
Charles  Dore,  K,                                              Minot 
Arthur  M.  Brown,  K,  ,, 
William  H.  Morse,  E,                                        ,, 
Edwin  Goss,  E,  died  July  27,  1862,        Lewiston 
Frank  S.  Goss,  E,                                        Danville 
Warren  Keen,                                                 Lisbon 
Henry  M.  Gould,                                            Greene 
James  M.  Atwood,                                   Livermore 
William  H.  Everett,  C,  died  May  14,  63,   Poland 
David  Jewell,  G,                                              ,, 
George  A.  Hodgkins,  K,  trans  V.  R.  C,        ,, 
William  E.  Morton,  E,  trans  U.  S.  N.,           „ 
Samuel  W.  Taylor,  E,                                  Wales 
Albert  L.  Deering,  Lieut,  1,   promoted 

to  Capt.,  H,  Webster 

S'ixth  Lifantry  Regiment.  —  This  was  organized  at  Portland  and  mustered 
into  the  national  service  July  15,  1861,  with  Abner  Knowles,  colonel ;  Hiram 
Burnham,  lieutenant-colonel;  Frank  Pierce,  major.  This  regiment  was  largely 
composed  of  stalwart  lumbermen.  It  went  to  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  was 
in  ten  general  engagements  and  innumerable  skirmishes;  in  three  battles  it 
led  the  attack  and  left  half  its  number  lying  on  the  field.  It  won  a  reputation 
for  unflinching  courage  and  bravery  which  caused  its  selection  for  especially 
dangerous  service.  Colonel  Knowles  resigned  his  commission  December  11, 
1861,  and  was  succeeded  by  Colonel  Burnham.  Captain  Charles  H.  Chandler, 
of  (yonipany  A,  was  made  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain  Benjamin  F.  Harris, 
of  Company  C,  major.  Chandler  resigned  March  9,  1863,  and  Harris  became 
lieutenant-colonel,  the  major  being  Major  Joel  A.  Haycock,  killed  at  Fred- 
ericksburg, May  3,  1863.  He  was  succeeded  May  28,  1863,  by  Major  George 
Fuller.  Colonel  Burnham  was  promoted  to  brigadier-general,  and  Major  Fuller 
became  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain  Theodore  Lincoln,  Jr,  of  Company  F, 
major.  General  Burnham  was  killed  at  Chapin's  Bluff,  September  28,  1864. 
The  regiment  was  mustered  out  at  Portland,  August  15,  1864,  and  the 
veterans  and  recruits  transferred  to  the  Seventh  Maine.  Eben  W.  Foster,  of 
Company  H,  was  from  Lewiston,  and  M.  V.  B.  Gilmore,  of  Company  I,  was 
from  Turner.     He  died  November  25,  1862. 

Seventh  Infantry  Mcyhicnf. — This  was  raised  throughout  the  state.  At  its 
organization,  August  21,  1861,  Edwin  C.  Mason,  of  Portland,  was  colonel; 
Selden  Connor,  of  Fairfield,  lieutenant-colonel;  Thomas  W.  Hyde,  of  Bath, 
major;  Elijah  D.  Johnson,  of  Lewiston,  adjutant;  William  L.  Haskell,  of 
Poland,  first  lieutenant  of  Company  B ;  John  B.  Cook,  of  Lewiston,  second 

Military  Affairs. 


lieutenant  of  Company  K.  The  regiment  left  the  state  August  23,  and 
arrived  in  Baltimore,  August  25.  While  here  the  Union  ladies  of  the 
city  presented  it  with  a  fine  stand  of  colors.  September  5,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Thomas  H.  Marshall,  of  the  Fourth  Maine,  was  appointed  colonel,  but  died 
October  25,  the  day  his  regiment  left  for  Washington.  His  earnest  character 
and  sterling  worth  had  endeared  him  to  all  associated  with  him.  In 
November,  the  Seventh  joined  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  on  the  tenth 
Colonel  Mason  took  command.  This  regiment  was  in  many  memorable 
battles,  and  its  soldiers  were  honored  by  the  personal  thanks  of  General 
McClellan  for  bravery  and  good  conduct  at  Williamsburg,  in  these  words: 
"  You  and  your  comrades  arrested  the  progress  of  the  advancing  enemy,  saved 
the  army  from  a  disgraceful  defeat,  and  turned  the  tide  of  victory  in  our 
favor."  The  Seventh  gained  glory  at  Yorktown,  Williamsburg,  Mechanics- 
ville,  Golding's  Farm,  White  Oak  Swamp,  Crampton's  Pass,  Antietam, 
Fredericksburg,  Gettysburg,  Wilderness,  and  Spottsylvania.  Its  numbers 
were  so  materially  decimated  by  battle  and  disease  that  in  October,  1862,  it 
was  sent  home  to  recruit.  January  25,  1863,  it  rejoined  its  old  command. 
December  1,  1863,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Connor  was  commissioned  colonel  of 
the  Nineteenth,  and  Major  Hyde  promoted  to  colonel,  and  Captain  James  P. 
Jones  promoted  to  the  majority  December  29,  1863.  After  many  sieges, 
marches,  and  battles,  the  Seventh  returned  to  Augusta,  and  September  5, 1864, 
those  soldiers  whose  term  of  service  had  expired  were  mustered  out  and  the 
others  consolidated  with  the  Fifth  and  Sixth  to  form  the  First  Veteran 


Elijah  D.  Johnson,  Adjt,  Lewiston 

Albert  L.  Frye,  Hospital  Steward,  ,, 

Marcus  M.  Small,  K,  died.  East  Livermore 

William  L.  Haskell,  1st  Lieut,  B,    pro 

Capt.,  G,  wd  Antietam,  died  62,  Poland 

•Sumner  R.  Tarbox,  B,  Lewiston 

Hiram  M.  Hatch,  B,  ,, 

Thomas  A.  Galusha,  B,  Lisbon 

C.  K.  Hewey,  D,  Webster 

Veraaus  M.  Arno,  D,  Wales 

Charles  Doughty,  D,  Durham 

John  Lee,  D,  Lewiston 

William  B.  Rush,  D, 

William  Barrows,  F,  transferred  to  D,       Minot 
Silas  Crooker,  F,  transferred  to  D,  ,, 

Almon  L.  Crooker,  F,  transferred  to  D,  ,, 

George  W.  Verrill,  F,  transferred  to  D,  ,, 

George  G.  Saunders,  Serg.,  F,  ,, 

Mark  A.  Verrill,  F,  transferred  to  D,  ,, 

John  B.  Cook,  Lieut,   K,  promoted  to 

Capt.,  I,  Lewiston 

John  B.  Jennings,  Serg.,  K,  killed  May 

4,  1863,  Leeds 

Joseph  Hackett,  K, 


John  W.  Adams,  K, 


John  F.  Adams,  K,  died  Oct 

17,  1862 


Charles  H.  Hatch,  K, 


Marcellus  F.  Cushman,  K, 


Jordan  G.  Carvill,  K, 


Ezekiel  Hackett,  K, 


Merrill  J.  Hibbard,  K, 


George  F.  Hodgdon,  K, 

East  Livermore 

Winflield  S.  Norcross,  K, 


Hiram  Jenkins,  K,  died  Oct. 

19,  1862, 


Sanford  K.  Knox,  K, 


Jacob  Kimball,  K, 


James  W.  Libby,  Serg.,  K, 


William    H.    Larrabee,    K, 


Adjt  and  1st  Lieut,  H, 


Nathan  A.  Munroe,  K, 


Charles  W.  Merrill,  K, 


Franklin  Peale,  K, 


Albert  M.  Rose,  K, 


John  Q.  Robbins,  K,  died  Oct.,  1862, 


Allen  F.  Plummer,  K, 


William  F.  Record,  K,  died  Dec.  10, 1861,  Greene 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Loring  C.  Record,  K,  Turner 
Henry  J.  Ricker,  K,  died  Jan.  20,  1862, 
Wansbron  Turner,  K,  died  Nov.  24, 1861,     Leeds 

Elbridge  P.  Wardwell,  K,  Greene 

William  H.  Whitney,  K,  Lisbon 
Joseph  P.  Getchell,  K,  died  Jan  24,  62,  Durham 

Dennis  Harris,  K,  Greene 

John  B.  Cook,  Capt.,  I,  Lewiston 

Aaron  L.  Hill,  I,  .. 

George  B.  Moor(!,  H,  Lisbon 

George  W.  McKenney,  K,  Greene 

Henry  Ricker,  K,  ,, 

Lyman  Besse,  K,  Lewiston 

James  B.  Blackstone,  K,  ,, 

Richard  Byrns,  K,  i, 

John  Collins,  K,  „ 

John  Daly,  K,  „ 

John  Dow,  K,  ,, 

Dennis  Downey,  K,  ,, 

John  Grant,  K,  >, 

Ashel  W.  Hutchins,  K,  „ 

Elijah  D.  Johnson,  Lieut,  K,  Com. 

21  Maine, 
James  McCabe,  K, 
Felix  McHannan,  K, 
John  Magner,  K, 

Patrick  Murphy,  K,  died  May,  1862, 
Increase  Gould,  K, 
James  H.  Woodward,  G, 
Francis  M.  Bragdon,  B, 
Edward  Sisk,  Serg.,  D, 
Charles  H.  Hodgdon,  G, 
Benjamin  F.  Mower,  I, 
James  Mohegan,  K, 
George  Morgan,  K, 
Lyman  E.  Besse, 
Karl  Yahr, 
J.  T.  M.  Lahrssen, 
Walter  E.  Randt, 
Robert  Huencke, 
Paul  H.  Ingensen, 










Ei;ihth  Maine  Infantrii.  —  This  regiment  was  organized  at  Augusta,  Septem- 
ber 7,  1861.  Lee  Strickland,  a  patriotic  and  loyal  citizen  of  Livermore,  raised 
a  company  and  was  elected  colonel;  John  D.  Rust,  of  Camden,  was  lieutenant- 
colonel;  Joseph  S.  Rice,  of  Ellsworth,  major;  James  Dingley,  Jr,  of  Auburn, 
adjutant;  William  H.  Timberlake,  of  Livermore,  second  lieutenant  of  Company 
C.  The  regiment  left  the  state  September  10,  and  reported  to  Brigadier-General 
E.  L.  Viele,  at  Long  Island,  N.  Y.  December  14,  Colonel  Strickland  resigned, 
on  account  of  ill  health,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Rust  was  commissioned  colonel. 
February  14,  1862,  five  companies  were  ordered  to  Dawfuski  Island,  S.  C,  and 
May  1,  Colonel  Rust  was  ordered  to  report  at  Typee  Island,  about  five  miles 
distant.  Here  during  the  bombardment  of  Fort  Pulaski  the  most  exposed 
positions  were  assigned  to  Companies  D,  E,  F,  H,  and  I.  The  regiment  was 
mostly  employed  until  the  spring  of  1864  in  guard  duty  in  South  Carolina  and 
Florida,  and  suffered  much  from  exposure.  In  the  fall  of  1862,  when  the  first 
regiment  of  colored  troops  was  raised,  the  men  of  the  Eighth  were  warm 
espousers  of  their  enlistment  and  nearly  half  of  the  line  officers  of  the  first 
regiment  of  colored  troops  were  from  the  Eighth.  In  March,  1864,  316  vet- 
erans who  had  re-enlisted  received  a  furlough  of  thirty  days,  and  the  others, 
numbering  about  one  hundred  and  twenty,  were  mustered  out  at  Augusta, 
September  15,  1864.  This  regiment  actively  participated  in  the  bombardment 
of  Fort  Pulaski  (one  of  its  flags  was  the  first  to  be  raised  over  the  fort  after 
the  surrender),  siege  of  Charleston,  Drury's  Bluff,  battle  of  Coal  Harbor, 
Chapin's  Farm,  and  many  other  engagements.  The  flag  presented  by  Governor 
Hicks,  of  Maryland,  in  behalf  of  Mrs.  Viele,  was  borne  in  all  its  battles.  The 
officers  and  men  of  the  Eighth  were  not  excelled  by  any  in  the  service  for 
bravery  and  efficiency. 

Military  Affairs. 


Colonel  Rust  was  mustered  out  August  19,  1864,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Henry  Boynton  became  colonel,  and  February  26,  1865,  tendered  his  resigna- 
tion, and  was  succeeded  by  Colonel  William  M.  McArthur.  In  the  United 
States  Official  Army  Register  it  is  stated  that  Lieutenant-Colonel  E.  W.  Wood- 
man was  discharged  May  6,  1862,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Joseph  F.  Twitchell, 
April  18,  186)3,  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Hemingway  resigned  February  16, 
1864,  and  Edward  A.  True  was  commissioned  lieutenant-colonel  March  8, 1865. 

The  Eighth  was  mustered  out  of  the  United  States  service  at  Fort  Munroe, 
January  18,  1866,  and  discharged  at  Augusta,  January  25,  1866. 


died   of 



Lee  Strickland,  Col,  res  Dec.  14,  61,     Livermore 
Augustus  H.  Strickland,   Q.   M.,  Cora. 

Sept.  9,  LSfil, 
James  Dingley,  Jr.,  Adjt, 
Charles    F.  Monroe,   Lieut,  C 

wounds,  June  6,  1864,  C, 
Wm.  H.  Timberlake,  Lieut,  C, 
John  M.  Rohbins,  Q.  M.,  Serg. 
Thomas  A.  Kilgore,  Serg.,  C,  promoted 

Lieut,  died  Nov.  19,  1862,  Turner 

James  H.  Tunks,  Serg.,  C,  transferred 

to  D,  promoted  1st  Lieut,  I,  Auburn 

Wallace  Smith,  Serg.,  C,  Turner 

Levi  W.  Metcalf,  Serg.,  C,  promoted  1st 

Serg.,  promoted  Capt.  1st  S.  C.  Vols,        ,, 
Josiah  Libby,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

William    W.    Sampson,   Corp.,   C,   pro- 
moted Serg.  and  Capt.  1st  S.  C.  Vols,         ,, 
Edward  Shurtleff,  Corp.,  C, 
Charles  E.  Cole,  Corp.,  C,  Livermore 

S.G.  Shurtleff,  Corp.,  C,  promoted  Serg., 

promoted  Lieut,  D,  ,, 

Dexter  Mitchell,  Corp.,  C,  promoted  2d 

and  1st  Lieut,  Danville 

Samuel  E.  Smith,  Mus.,  C,  Turner 

George    W.    Bean,    Mus.,    C,    died    in 

Andersonville  prison.  East  Livermore 

Sylvester  G.  Delano,  C,  Turner 

Charles  A.  Berry,  C,  East  Livermore 

Oscar  W.  Billings,  C,  Livermore 

Henry  O.  Brown,  C,  ,, 

Philip  H.  Briggs,  C,  died, 

B'ranklin  Bradford,  C,  died  Oct.  17,1862,  Turner 
Henry  Callahan,  C,  ,, 

Charles  Dorr,  C,  died,  Livermore 

H.  K.  Durfee,  C, 
Timothy  K.  DriscoU,  C,  transferred  1st 

U.  S.  Art.,  Lewiston 

Daniel  J.  Linscott,  B,  Auburn 

Wallentien  Kieler,  B,  Danville 

Samuel  Emerson,  Corp.,  C, 
George  E.  Fales,  Mus.,  C,  Turner 

Grin  M.  Godwin,  C,  Livermore 

Emulous  Godding,  C,  ,, 

Sylvester  Graves,  C,  East  Livermore 

Samuel  Holt,  C,  died  Aug.  22,  1862,  Turner 

James  Hartford,  C,  Livermore 

Gad  Hayford,  C,  Turner 

Augustus  Hayford,  C,  ,, 

A.  W.  Jackson,  C,  promoted  1st  Lieut, 

S.  C.  Vols, 
Elisha  Keen,  C,  „ 

Waldo  B.  Keen,  C, 
Leander  Kilbreth,   Serg.,   C,   promoted 

Lieut,  I,  Livermore 

George  W.  Mitchell,  C,  promoted  Q.  M. 

Serg.,  promoted  Adjt,  ,, 

Stanford  Mitchell,  C,  Danville 

Cyrus  E.  Metcalf,  C,  promoted  Corp.,  Turner 
Nathaniel  Nason,  C,  Auburn 

Edwin  T.  Quimby,  C,  promoted  Corp., 

died  May  11,  1862,  Livermore 

Abington  Ridley,  C,  East  Livermore 

Daniel  W.  Ross,  C, 

J.  Wesley  Ricker,  C  (Auburn),       ,,  ,, 

George  Raynes,  C,  Ijcwiston 

James  Smith,  C,  ,, 

William  B.  Smith,  C,  ,, 

H.  C.  Shaw,  C,  Turner 

Uzza  Thomas,  Serg.,  C,  ,, 

Enoch  L.  Tinkham,  C,  Auburn 

Charles  L.  Wyer,  C,  died  in  service,  Livermore 
John  A.  Dill,  A,  died  July  16,  1863,  Lewiston 
Peter  Neilson,  B,  Lewiston 

William  Briggs,  A,  Danville 

Delance  Young,  C,  Livermore 

Elmer  R.  Record,  C,  died  in  Salisbury 

prison,  Greene 

Joseph  M.  Fowler,  Danville 

Thomas  Mason,  Lewiston 

William  D.  Shurtleff,  Turner 

Jonathan  Ridley,  Corp.,  H,  Livermore 

Horace  C.  White,  Asst  Serg.,  resigned 

May  29,  1863,  Lisbon 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Joseph  G.  Knowles,  A,  East  Livermore 

Edmund  Blake,  A,  Auburn 

Francis  C.  Rankin,  A,  >, 

William  Bickler,  C,  Livermore 
Timothy  B.  Niles,  C,  killed  in  action,        ,, 

Eben  M.  Jones,  A,  ,, 

Isaac  P.  Davis,  Serg.,  C,  Poland 

George  W.  Hnnnawell,  C,  ,, 

Isaiah  S.  Hunnawell,  C,  ,, 

Renselaer  Jillson,  C,  ,, 

Philemon  Harlow,  G,  Auburn 

Calvin  C.  Huzzey,  C,  ,, 

William  H.  Pottle,  C,  Lewiston 

Onsville  Record,  C,  Minot 

William  Stevens,  C,  Greene 

William  H.  Weymouth,  C,  Webster 

Isaac  Bearce,  E,  Lewiston 

Samuel  A.  Wilson,  E,  died  of  wounds, 

June  14,  1804,  Durham 

James  E.  Tarr,  F,  died  of  wounds  re- 
ceived May  16,  1864,  Lewiston 
James  DriscoU,  G,  killed  May  20,  1864, 
William  E.  Toothaker,  I, 
John  A.  Skinner,  G,  ,, 
Alex  Walton,  I,                                            Auburn 
Charles  O.  Freeman,  K,                               Poland 
John  G.  McKnight,  H,                             Lewiston 
Louis  A.  Waterman,  H,                         Livermore 
Jonathan  Ridley,  H,                                        ,, 
LeRoy  Stevens,  killed  at  Gettysburg,          ,, 

JVitttJi  Infantry  Regiment.  —  In  less  than  two  weeks  from  the  arrival  of  the 
first  company  at  Augusta,  the  Ninth  was  on  its  way  to  Washington,  numbering 
over  1,000  men.  It  was  mustered  into  United  States  service  September  22, 
1861,  for  three  years,  and  started  for  the  front  on  September  24.  The  field 
officers  were  Rishworth  Rich  of  Portland,  colonel ;  Colman  Harding,  of 
Gorham,  lieutenant-colonel;  Sabine  Emery,  of  Eastport,  major.  None  of 
the  officers  in  the  Ninth  were  from  Androscoggin  county.  January  8,  1862, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Harding  resigned,  and  Captain  Horatio  Bisbee,  of  Company 
I,  was  commissioned  in  his  place.  In  the  early  part  of  1863,  Colonel  Rich  was 
dismissed  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bisbee  commissioned  colonel,  but  March 
19  he  resigned,  and  Colonel  Rich  was  reinstated.  He  resigned  May  27,  and 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Emery  was  promoted  to  colonel.  Major  Zina  H.  Robinson 
becoming  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain  George  F.  Granger  of  Company  A, 
major.  Colonel  Emery  resigned  May  25,  1864,  and  the  other  field  officers  were 
advanced.  Colonel  Robinson  resigned  August  16,  1864,  and  September  13 
was  succeeded  by  Colonel  Granger,  and  Captain  Robert  J.  Gray,  of  Company 
G,  was  promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel.  He  was  killed  in  battle  September  29, 
and  October  10  Major  Joseph  Noble,  originally  captain  of  Company  H, 
succeeded  him,  and  Captain  George  B.  Dyer  of  Company  B  became  major. 

The  Ninth  first  saw  service  at  Port  Royal,  S.  C,  and  made  a  brilliant 
record  in  South  Carolina,  Georgia,  and  Florida.  The  glory  of  capturing  Morris 
Island  is  entirely  due  to  its  bravery.  August  25,  1863,  General  Gilmore  sent 
the  flags  captured  on  this  occasion  from  the  Twenty-first  South  Carolina 
Confederate  regiment  by  soldiers  of  the  Ninth,  to  Governor  Coburn,  with  a 
complimentary  letter.  In  the  abortive  attacks  on  Fort  Wagner,  317  men 
were  reported  killed,  wounded,  and  missing.  The  original  members,  with  the 
exception  of  tlie  re-enlisted  men,  who  numbered  nearly  430,  every  man  eligible 
to  enlistment  —  eighty  men — were  mustered  out  September  27,1864.  After 
a  furlough  of  thirty  days  in  March,  1864,  the  Ninth  was  transferred  to  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac,  where  it  did  gallant  duty  until  its  muster-out,  July  13, 
1865.     Colonel  Granger  was  bre vetted  brigadier-general,  June  12,  1865. 

Military  Affairs. 



Henry  M.  Jordan,   Serg.,  B,   promoted 

2d  Lieut,  2d  S.  C.  Vols, 
Joseph  H.  Durgin,  Corp.,  B, 
Elliott  C.  Duran,  wagoner,  B, 
James  H.  Cutler,  Corp.,  B, 
Benjamin  F.  Estes,  Corp.,  B, 
James  F.  Goss,  B, 
Chase  M.  Harris,  B, 
William  Knights,  B, 
Phineas  Leach,  B, 
Isaac  B.  Martin,  B, 
Samuel  Smith,  B, 
Mark  Goodwin,  F, 
William  H.  Walker,  B, 
Warren  W.  Young,  B, 
Gilbert  T.  Johnson,  C, 
Cyrus  M.  Lord,  F, 
Ezra  Mitchell,  Jr,  F, 
John    Blake,    2d  Lieut,    F,    promoted 

Capt.,  C,  died  Nov.  9,  18G2, 
William  W.  Harlow,  F, 
Jesse  B.  Whitney,  F, 
Robert  W.  Carr,  K, 
Horace  A.  Wright,  K, 
James  B.  Walker,  K, 
Hiram  Beal,  B, 
Henry  D.  Bean,  A, 
Elias  Burgess,  A, 
Dennis  Corvine,  A, 
John  Donahue,  A, 
Joshua  S.  Spiller,  A, 
Adriel  Whales,  A, 
Thomas  J.  Segeberg,  A, 
John  E.  Worrey,  A, 
James  F.  Gerry,  B, 
Henry  Loriot,  B, 
Francis  H.  Reed,  B, 
Charles  H.  Roberts,  B, 
Samuel  A.  Temple,  C, 
Christopher  F.  Cox,  C, 
Isaac  A.  Whittemore,  C, 










East  Livermore 














Otis  S.  West,  C, 

Granville  N.  Wise,  C, 

Melville  W.  Chase,  E, 

Bradbury  Rollins,  E, 

George  L.  Allen,  F, 

Percival  D.  Herrick,  F, 

Nahum  Roberts,  F, 

Joseph  W.  Hodge,  F, 

Luther  E.  Davis,  F,  died  in  service, 

William  H.  Foss,  died  in  service, 

William  A.  Copelaud,  G, 

James  N.  Nason,  G, 

Charles  H.  Additon,  G, 

Oliver  P.  Dudley,  G, 

William  H.  Harris,  G, 

Henry  Jordan,  G, 

John  Forel,  H, 

George  F.  Blake,  C,  pro  Com.  Serg., 

Frederic  B.  Sweetser,  H, 

Stillman  Harvard, 

Charles  W.  Waterhouse,  H, 

Silas  E.  Libby,  H, 

Florentine  Butler,  I, 

John  Brooks,  I, 











William  R.  Small,  I,  died  in  service, 

David  S.  Small,  I,  died  in  service, 

George  Strout,  I, 

Winfield  A.  Winslow,  I, 

Horace  Perkins,  Chap., 

Horace  A.  Wright,  E, 

Nicholas  N.  Robertson,  G, 

Charles  K.  Sawyer,  G, 

John  J.  Sawyer,  G, 

John  Richardson,  H, 

John  C.  Gifford,  H, 

Henry  Huckius,  H, 

Alexander  W.  Lunt,  H, 

Lemuel  T.  Marshall,  F, 

Henry  M.  Stinson,  promoted  Lieut-Col, 

H,  Fifth  Regiment, 
Isaac  Verrill,  H, 






Tenth  Infantry  Regiment.  —  A  portion  of  the  First  iMaine  was  the  basis  of 
this  organization,  formed  at  Cape  Elizabeth,  and  mustered  into  the  United 
States  service  October  4,  1861.  The  field  officers  were:  George  L.  Beal,  of 
Norway,  colonel;  James  S.  Fillebrown,  of  Auburn,  lieutenant-colonel;  Charles 
Walker,  of  Portland,  major.  Adjutant  Elijah  M.  Shaw  was  of  Lewiston. 
Several  of  the  companies  had  large  representations  from  this  county,  notably 
Companies  F,  H,  and  K.  Company  F  was  officered  by  William  Knowlton, 
captain;  Edward  S.  Butler  and  Abel  C.  Rankin,  lieutenants,  —  all  of  Lew- 
iston; Company  H,  by  Charles  S.  Emerson,  captain;  James  C.  Folsom  and 
Phineas  W.  Dill,  lieutenants,  —  all  of  Auburn.  Captain  George  H.  Nye,  of 
Company  K,  was  of  Lewiston.     He  became  brevet  brigadier-general. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

This  regiment  was  in  service  in  the  Potomac  and  Shenandoali  valleys, 
and  from  its  splendid  condition,  discipline,  and  drill  it  was,  it  is  said,  mistaken 
for  regular  troops  by  Stonewall  Jackson.  It  furnished  many  scouts.  It 
participated  fearlessly  and  well  later  in  many  of  the  hard-fought  battles  of 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac  —  Winchester,  Cedar  Mountain,  Rappahannock,  and 
Antietam  bear  testimony  to  its  valor.  Of  the  three  hundred  regiments 
composing  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  the  Tenth  was  one  of  eleven  which 
received  the  commendation  of  General  Hooker  for  showing  a  good  inspection 
report.  The  two-years'  men  were  mustered  out  May  7  and  8,  1863,  and  the 
Tenth  Maine  Battalion  was  formed  from  the  three-year  men,  and  November  1, 
1863,  it  was  transferred  to  the  Twenty-ninth  Regiment,  joining  it  at  Morganzia, 
Louisiana,  after  doing  much  severe  marching  along  the  Potomac  and 
|)articipating  in  the  campaigns  in  Pennsylvania  and  Tennessee. 


James  S.  Fillebrown,  Lieut-Col 


Elijah  M.  Shaw,  Adjt, 


Horace  N.  Johnson,  Mus., 


Andrew  G.  Fitz,  Mus., 


Charles  E.  Coleman,  Mua., 


Joshua  B.  Newell,  Mus., 


Charles  O.  Warren,  Mus., 


Gilhert  H.  Bailey,  Mus., 


Elisha  Gott,  Mus., 


Thomas  B.  Edgeconih,  Mus., 


Daniel  Davis,  Mus., 


Ad  on  i  ram  B.  Crafts,  Mus., 


Moses  Crafts,  Mus., 


Cyrus  Hall,  Mus., 


Justin  E.  Hill,  Mus.,  died  in  service, 


Augustus  L.   Littlefield,  Mus., 





Moses  P.  Merrill,  B, 


Lorenao  Mayherry,  C, 


Thomas  D.  Sturtevant,  C,  died  Aug. 




David  H.  Stevens,  C, 


Joseph  H.  Sawyer,  C, 


Joshua  B.  Goodwin,  C, 


Calmon  H.  Allen,  C, 


John  G.  Annis,  C, 


J.  Bailey  Goodwin,  C, 


James  Baker,  C, 


Charles  Lancaster,  C.diod  Aug 

30,18()2,      „ 

Gorham  P.  McFaden,  C, 


Wallace  E.  Cummings,  C, 


Charles  H.  Thayer,  C, 


John  L.  Hoyt,  E, 

East  Livermore 

L.  M.  Garcelon,  E, 

Andrew  J.  Walton,  E,  kd  May  25, 


East  Livermore 

Ehen  C.  Whittemore,  E,  died. 





John  A.  Putnam,  C,  East  Livermore 

William  Knowlton,  Capt.,  F,  Lewiston 

Edward  S.  Butler,  Lieut,  F, 

Abel  G.  Rankin,  Lieut,  F, 

Hardy  N.  Baker,  Serg.,  F, 

Charles   W.   Marston,   Serg.,   F,  killed 

Aug.  9,  18G2, 
Dan  S.  Fitzgerald,  Serg.,  F, 
George  H.  Gould,  Serg.,  F,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Haskell,  Lieut,  F, 
Alfred  Roberts,  Corp.,  F, 
James  Low,  Corp.,  F, 
Charles  W.  Heney,  Corp.,  F, 
Isaac  P.  Davis,  Corp.,  F, 
William  H.  Given,  Mus.,  F, 
Isaac  K.  Knowlton,  F, 
Nicholas  I.  Allen,  F, 
William  Burke,  F, 
Gu.stavus  A.  Dwelly,  F, 
Thomas  A.  Eastman,  F, 
Nicholas  L.  Foster,  F, 
Enoch  L.  Hall,  F, 
Andrew  Jackson,  F, 
Hugh  McGlinchy,  F, 
Alva  E.  Nichols,  F, 
William  A.  Pyor,  F, 
John  A.  Kiucaid,  F, 
Josiah  H.  Smith,  F, 
Charles  H.  Kennison,  F, 
James  E.  Covell,  F,  kd  Sept.  17, G2 
Amaziah  Grant,  F, 
Samuel  R.  Grant,  F, 
George  A.  Dockham,  F, 
Edwin  Record,  F, 
Henry  Stirk,  F, 
Euos  H.  Stevens,  F, 
John  W.  Townsend,  F, 




Military  Affairs. 


Benjamin  A.  Welch,  F,  .  Minot 

J.  Franklin  Raynes,  Serg.,  G,  Auburn 

Sewall  B.  Emery,  G.  Poland 

Charles  W.  Witham,  G,  died  July  24, 

1852,  Minot 

Charles  S.  Emerson,  Capt.,  H,  Auburn 

Elijah  M.  Shaw,  Capt.,  H,  Lewiston 

James  C.  Folsom,  1st  Lieut,  H,  killed 

Aug.  9,  1862,  Auburn 

George  W.  True,  1st  Lieut,  H,  died  of 

wounds,  Sept.  20,  1862, 
Granville  Blake,  1st  Lieut,  H, 
Phineas  W.  Dill,  2d  Lieut,  H, 
Benjamin  M.  Bradbury,  2d  Lieut,  H, 
Horace  Wright,  2d  Lieut,  H, 
Albert  W.  Freeman,  2d  Lieut,  H,  died 

of  wounds  Aug.  25,  1862,  Minot 

Alex  B.  Conant,  Serg.,  H,  Auburn 

Ivory  W.  Emerson,  Serg.,  H,  ,, 

Louville  Smith,  B,  transferred  to  Co.  I, 

Twenty-ninth,  Poland 

Nathaniel  Cash,  B,  transferred  to  Co.  I, 

Twenty-ninth,  ,, 

Charles  R.  Anderson,  Serg.,  H, 
David  A.  Jumper,  Serg.,  H, 
Stephen  R.  Estes,  Corp.,  H, 
Samuel  Webber,  Corp.,  H, 
George  W.  Harradon,  Corp.,  H, 
Benjamin  L.  Given,  Corp.,  H, 
Augustus  White,  Corp.,  H, 
Cyrus  D.  Wood,  Corp.,  H, 
Samuel  L.  Stevens,  Corp.,  H, 
W infield  S.  Wright,  Corp.,  H, 
Isaac  J.  Perry,  Mus.,  H, 
Cyrus  B.  Townsend,  Mus.,  H,  ,, 

Francis  M.  Allen,  H,  '     ,, 

Lewis  Bates,  H,  ,, 

Hugh  M.  Bradbury,  H,  kd  Sept.  17,  62, 
Charles  H.  Davis,  H,  ,, 

William  Dearth,  H,  „ 

Isaac  R.  Dillingham,  H,  ,, 

Robert  B.  Harris,  H,  ,, 

Oliver  Herrick,  H,  ,, 

Alonzo  F.  Morrill,  H,  ,, 

Adolphus  S.  Read,  H,  ,, 

Henry  J.  Ricker,  H,  died  Aug.  17,  1862,        ,, 
David  L.  Stetson,  H,  ,, 

Virgil  True,  H,  ,, 

Daniel  L.  Verrill,  H,  Auburn 

Isaiah  H.  Vickery,  H,  ,, 

Lewis  Warren,  H,  ,, 

John  Warren,  H,  ,, 

William  H.  Wentworth,  H, 
Lyman  H.  Wright,  H, 

Charles  F.  Marden,  H,  Danville 

Greenfield  F.  Libbev,  H,  kd  Aug.  9,  62, 
Greenlief  Sawyer,  H,  ,, 

Aug  M.  Vickery,  H,  ,, 




James  H.  Marston,  H,  Minot 
George  J.  Fuller,  H,  killed  Sept.  17,  1862,      „ 

Nelson  C.  Perry.  H,  „ 

Gilman  Rice,  H,  „ 

Edward  K.  Verrill,  H,  „ 
Edward  P.  Verrill,, H,  killed  Aug.  9,  1862,      ,, 

Charles  A.  Metcalf,  H,  Lisbon 

Isaiah  Kimball,  H,  ,, 

Asaph  H.  Witham,  H,  ,, 

Gladden  Bonney,  H,  Turner 

Charles  O.  Fargo,  H,  „ 

Charles  M.  Keen,  H,  „ 

Ezra  F.  Stevens,  H,  „ 

Joseph  Brooks,  H,  Lewiston 

Silas  Estes,  H,  „ 

Mark  Grover,  H,  ,, 
Azro  C.  Hibbard,  H, 
Dudley  F.  Sanborn,  H, 
Charles  H.  Wentworth,  H,  killed  Sept. 

17,  1862, 

John  Knowles,  H,  Greene 
Gideon  P.  Lowell,  H, 

Charles  Richardson,  H,  ,, 

George  H.  Parker,  H,  Durham 

Henry  A.  Batchelder,  I,  Lewiston 

George  H.  Nye,  Capt.,  K,  ,, 

Albert  E.  Kingsley,  Lieut,  K,  ,, 
Francis  H.   Pratt,  1st  Serg.,   K,  killed 

June  30,  1862, 

Almon  L.  Goss,  1st  Serg.,  K,  Danville 

James  Layden,  Serg.,  K,  Lewiston 

Charles  H.  Jumper,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Jonathan  Nash,  Serg.,  K,  Auburn 

James  E.  Osgood,  Corp.,  K,  Lewiston 

Thomas  A.  Thorn,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Henry  H.  Ash  ton,  Corp.,  K,  „ 
John  A.  Willard,  Corp.,  K, 

John  R.  Morrill,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Martin  Fox,  Corp.,  K,  Auburn 

Albert  E.  Hanson,  Mus.,  K,  Lewiston 

Chester  H.  Thing,  Mus.,  K,  ,, 

Melvin  Woodcock,  K,  „ 

Frank  C.  Adams,  K,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Houghton  Bond,  K,  ,, 

Erasmus  D.  Clark,  K,  ,, 

Emery  E.  Larrabee,  K,  „ 

John  Lee,  K,  died  Oct.  9,  1862,  „ 

John  H.  Merrill,  K,  „ 

George  B.  Morrill,  K,  „ 

Henry  J.  Penney,  K,  ,, 

Benjamin  F.  Pray,  K,  ,, 

James  G.  Preble,  K,  ,, 

James  Guiney,  K,  „ 

William  M.  Hall,  K,  „ 

Ambrose  E.  Hammond,  K,  „ 

Thomas  B.  Hodges,  K,  „ 

Leonard  Jepson,  K,  „ 

Levi  B.  Johnson,  K,  „ 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Marquis  F.  Joy,  K, 
Henry  II.  Smith,  K, 
James  Smith,  K, 
Joseph  B.  Smith,  K, 
Alonzo  Stevens,  K, 
David  D.  Tarr,  K, 
Thomas  Taylor,  K, 
Leroy  II.  Tobie,  K, 
Elias  S.  Webber,  K, 
George  D.  Whittum,  K, 
Ethan  Allen,  K, 
Horace  J.  Coburu,  K, 
John  F.  Quimby,  K, 
Aaron  A.  Simonds,  K, 
Hewitt  C.  Bailey,  K, 
Stephen  C.  Blackstone,  K, 




Charles  S.  Raymond,  K,  died  Mar.  15, 62,  Auburn 

James  E.  Magner,  K,  ,, 

David  J.  Nash,  K,  •  „ 

Benjamin  Hutchinson,  K,  ,, 

George  P.  Wyraan,  K, 

Stillman  Bond.  K, 

Henry  T.  Frost,  K, 

Elmer  Chipman,  K, 

Nathan  Herrick,  K, 

Alonzo  G.  Frost,  K,  died  in  service, 

Asa  Reed,  K,  killed  Sept.  17,  1862, 

Augustus  Royal,  K, 

James  H.  Thurston,  K, 

Samuel  N.  Royal,  K, 

Albert  P.  Hodsdon,  K, 






James  Guiney,  A, 
E.  E.  Larrabee,  A, 
James  G.  Preble,  A, 
Leonard  Jepson,  A, 
Samuel  N.  Royal,  A, 


James  H.  Thurston,  A,  Danville 

Isaiah  H.  Vickery,  Corp.,  B,  Auburn 

William  H.  Gordon,  B,  died  July  27, 

1863,  Livermore 

Dudley  F.  Sanborn,  B,  Lewiston 

Eleventh  Infantry  Eef/imcut.  —  This  regiment  was  organized  October  11, 
1861,  at  Augusta,  where  it  was  mustered  into  United  States  service  November 
12.  John  C.  Caldwell,  of  East  Machias,  was  colonel;  Harris  M.  Plaisted,  of 
Bangor,  lieutenant-colonel;  William  M.  Shaw,  of  Portland,  major.  Colonel 
Caldwell  was  made  brigadier-general  April  28,  1862,  and  left  the  regiment, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Plaisted  becoming  colonel,  and  Major  Shaw  lieutenant- 
colonel.  The  last  named  ofificer  resigned  September  16,1862.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Robert  F.  Cam})bell  resigned  May  23,  1863,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Winslow 
P.  Spofford  died  of  wounds  June  17,  1864.  Colonel  Plaisted  was  brevetted 
brigadier-general  February  21,  1865,  and  was  discharged  March  25,  1865. 
April  16,  1865,  Colonel  Jonathan  A.  Plill*  took  command  of  the  Eleventh,  and 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  P.  Baldwin  and  ^lajor  Henry  C.  Adams  were 
commissioned  to  their  offices  May  1  of  the  same  year. 

This  was  a  fighting  regiment,  took  efficient  part  in  some  of  the  bloodiest 
contests  in  which  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  was  engaged,  and  its  men  displayed 
the  intrepidity  and  firmness  of  veterans.  Lee's  Mills,  Williamsburg,  Chicka- 
hominy.  Fair  Oaks,  White  Oak  Swamp,  Harrison's  Landing,  all  testified  to 
their'gallant  bravery,  while  they  aided  in  many  another  momentous  encounter. 
General  Nagle  gave  them  this  merited  meed  of  praise:  "  Yours  is  the  honor 
of  having  been  the  first  to  pass  and  the  last  to  leave  the  Chickahominy.  And 
while  you  led  the  advance  from  this  memorable  place  near  Richmond,  you  were 
the  last  in  the  retreating  column,  when,  after  seven  days  of  constant  fighting. 

'Later  brevetted  brigadier-general. 

Military  Affairs. 


it  reached  a  place  of  security  and  rest  at  Harrison's  Landing."  Later  at 
Morris  Island,  S.  C,  and  in  the  Army  of  the  James  it  won  added  honors  and 
suffered  great  losses.  In  the  heavy  and  sanguinary  engagements  around 
Bermuda  Hundred,  at  Deep  Bottom  and  Deep  Run,  in  front  of  Petersburg,  at 
Second  Fair  Oaks,  it  performed  deeds  of  valor  and  vras  a  credit  to  the  state. 
November  2,  1864,  12  commissioned  officers  and  130  enlisted  men  returned  to 
Maine  on  expiration  of  time  of  service,  100  more  had  re-enlisted,  and  this  was 
all  that  was  left  of  the  original  number.  After  General  Caldwell  was  assigned 
to  General  Howard's  brigade  he  led  it  in  all  the  battles  of  the  Peninsula  cam- 
paign, after  Fair  Oaks,  never  losing  a  gun,  color,  or  inch  of  ground.  In  the 
retreat  to  Harrison's  Landing  his  command  was  in  six  battles  in  three  days, 
marching  all  night  after  fighting  all  day.  At  Antietam  it  drove  a  much 
superior  force  of  Confederates  and  captured  seven  stands  of  colors  and  300 
prisoners,  a  larger  number  of  both  than  was  taken  by  any  other  brigade  in  the 
army.  The  regimental  organization  was  mustered  out  at  City  Point,  Va, 
February  2,  1866. 


James  A.  Scoulhir,  Corp.,  F,  supposed 

killed  May  31,  18(>2, 


James  Donnovan,  F, 


Harmon  I.  Dill,  F, 


William  H.  Doughty,  F, 


James  Lang,  F,  died  in  service, 


Kenneth  McCanley,  F, 


John  Maloney,  F,  transferred  to  A, 


Harrison  N.  Plaise,  F, 


James  Rutherford,  F, 


William  A.  Smith,  F, 


Samuel  C.  Webber,  F,died  Oct. 

19, 1862,      „ 

John  Barrett,  F, 


B.  Franklin  Morrill,  F,. 

East  Livermore 

M.  P.  Chase,  F,  killed, 


John  Smith,  F, 


Hiram  C.  Cui-tis,  F,  died 

July  1 



Seth  C.  Welch,  F, 


Albion  A.  Drake,  F, 


Edwin  W.  Davis,  F, 


David  T.  Graffam,  F, 

Theron  Kelly,  F, 


Sullivan  H.  Penley,  H, 


Luther  H.  Morgan,  H, 


George  H.  Lord,  H,  died 

May  16 

,  1862, 


George  P.  Moody,  H, 


Nathaniel  Moody,  H, 


Joseph  Doms,  K, 


Joseph  C.  Bray,  F, 


Nathan  P.  Downing,  Serg.,  F, 

Sidney  F.  Downing,  F, 

Charles  F.  Davis,  F, 

Oscar  D.  Wilbur,  Corp.,  C, 

Frank  Bubier,  D,  died  of  wounds  Sept. 





13,  18G4, 
John  Hall,  D,  killed  Aug.  14,  1864 
Leonard  C.  Judkins,  D, 
George  A.  Beals,  E, 
Ellison  Libby,  F, 
Charles  H.  Winter,  F, 
George  H.  Balkam,   Corp.,  F,   died  in 

Enoch  T.  Fish,  F, 
George  A.  Goody,  F,  killed  May  15, 1864,  Lisbon 
Otis  B.  George,  F,  East  Livermore 

Augustus  S.  George,  F,  ,,  ,, 

Charles  B.  Keith,  F,  Auburn 

J.  G.  S.  Littlefield,  F,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Sewell  L.  Chamberlain,  G,  wounded  and 

missing,  June  3,  1864,  ,, 

Ellis  A.  Briggs,  H,  died  Sept.  25,  64, 
Azel  W.  Drake,  H. 
Euseb  Degreeney,  I, 
John  B.  Laroche,  A, 
Abel  Mahomet,  A, 
James  Morrissey,  C, 
Francis  Fylan,  H, 







Twelfth.  Infantry  Regiment.  —  This  regiment  was  mustered  into  United 
States  service  at  Portland,  November  16,  1861,  for  three  years.  It  was 
designed  for  service  in  General  B.  F.  Butler's  expedition  for  the  capture  of  New 
Orleans,  and  occupancy  of  the  Mississippi  Gulf  region.     Tlie  entire  regiment 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

was  enlisted  in  three  weeks'  time.  Its  colonel  was  George  F.  Shepley,  one  of 
the  ablest  and  most  eloquent  lawyers  in  Maine.  Its  lieutenant-colonel  was 
William  K.  Kimball,  of  Paris.  David  R.  Hastings,  of  Lovell,  was  major.  Edwin 
Illsley,  of  Lewiston,  was  adjutant. 

The  Twelfth  commenced  its  course  of  gallantry  at  Manchac  Pass,  where 
six  companies  destroyed  railroad  communication  between  New  Orleans  and 
Jackson,  and  captured  a  large  amount  of  stores  and  ordnance.  Colonel 
Shepley  was  appointed  military  commandant  of  New  Orleans  after  its  capture, 
serving  in  that  office  until  promoted  to  brigadier-general  and  appointed  mili- 
tary governor  of  Louisiana.  In  1864  he  was  transferred  to  Norfolk,  Va,  to 
act  in  the  same  capacity  there.  July  17,  1862,  Major  Hastings  tendered  his 
resignation.  The  lieutenant-colonel  was  soon  commissioned  colonel,  and  held 
the  command  until  mustered  out  December  7,  1864,  at  expiration  of  service. 
He  was  re-commissioned  colonel,  April  10,  1865,  as  was  Major  Gideon  A.  Hast- 
ings, who  had  also  been  mustered  out. 

After  faithful  service  and  participation  in  the  battles  of  Irish  Bend,  Port 
Hudson,  and  Donaldsonville,  the  regiment  troops  were  sent  to  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac,  attached  to  tlie  Army  of  the  James,  and  lost  one-fourth  its  number 
in  tlie  blood}^  battle  of  Winchester.  Later  at  Cedar  Creek  it  lost  nearly  as 
heavily.  The  regiment  has  a  good  record.  It  was  prompt  and  trusty,  never 
wanting  in  courage,  invariably  chosen  for  arduous  and  perilous  service,  and 
complimented  by  every  general  under  whom  it  served.  The  original  members 
who  did  not  re-enlist  were  mustered  out  December  7,  1864,  and  the  veterans 
and  recruits  consolidated  into  a  battalion  of  four  companies  and  retained  in 
service.  Six  new  unassigned  companies  organized  at  Portland  in  February  and 
March,  1865,  to  serve  one,  two,  and  three  years,  were  assigned  to  the  Twelfth, 
which  was  stationed  at  Savannah.  These  companies  were  mustered  out  in 
February  and  March,  1866,  and  the  whole  organization  April  18,  1866. 


Edwin  Illsley,  Adjt,  pro  Lieut-Col,        Lewiston 

Almon  L.  Gilpatrick,  Corp.,  A,  trans- 
ferred Bat.  12  Me,  Lisbon 

Franklin  Martin,  Corp.,  A,  Danville 

Silas  E.  Field,  B,  trans  Bat.  12  Me, 

Frederic  D.  Daggett,  C,  transferred  Bat. 

l-'5  Me,  Auburn 

William  D.  Edwards,  C,  transferred  Bat. 

12  Me,  Lewiston 

Henry  W.  Carvill,  D, 

Charles  Kimball,  F,  Lisbon 

Stephen  B.  Packard,  Lieut,  G,  pro- 
moted Capt.,  B,  Auburn 

William  A.  Bcarce,  1st  Serg.,  G,  pro- 
moted 1st  Lieut, 

Samuel  L.  Brown,  G,  Minot 

Darius  Holt,  G, 

James  R.  Holt,  G,  Minot 

John  R.  Anderson,  K,  died  Feb.  8,  62,    Durham 
Eleazer  W.  Jordan,  K,  ,, 

Blaney  C.  Allen,  K,  ,, 

W.  H.  H.  Roberts.  K, 
George  B.  Hasey,  K,  transferred  to  First 

Maine  Bat.,  Lisbon 

Royal  A.  Bray,  G,  trans  to  K,  pro  Lieut,    Turner 
Artemas  Bubier,  A,  Webster 

Thomas  Daroll,  B,  died  Sept.  21,  1864,  Lewiston 
Charles  Patnawd,  B,  died  July  11,  1864,      „ 
Calvin  L.  Edwards,  C,  trans  12  Me, 
Octavius  Forge,  C,  trans  to  Bat.  12  Me,  ,, 

Thomas  Odee,  C,  trans  to  Bat.  12  Me,  ,, 

Peter  Dagle,  K,  trans  to  Bat.  12  Me,  ,, 

Louis  Dubar,  K,  trans  to  Bat.  12  Me,  „ 

Robert  Swett,  K,  ,, 

Military  Affairs. 



Almon  L.  Gilpatrick,  A,  Lisbon 

Artemas  Bubier,  A,  Webster 

William  D.  Edwards,  C,  Lewiston 

Calvin  L.  Edwards,  C, 

Octavius  Forge,  C, 

Thomas  Odee,  C, 

Peter  Dagle,  D, 

Louis  Dubar,  D, 

Silas  E.  Fields,  Corp.,  D,  Danville 

Liicien  P.  Gould,  D, 

Robert  Swett,  D,  Lewiston 

Alexis  Adams,  D,  Auburn 

Henry  O.  Childs,  D,  '  Livermore 

William  Karvin,  A,  Minot 

Frank  McKenley,  B,  Turner 

John  C.  Mower,  C,  Greene 

Sylvester  F.  Jordan,  Lieut,  E,  Lisbon 

Elbridge  W.  Oakes,  1st  Serg.,  E,  Auburn 

Benjamin  D.  Bryent,  F,  Webster 

Kendall  Pollard,  Lieut,  G,  Lewiston 

Joseph  Brierly,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Raphael  Gay,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

George  H.  Stinchfield,  G,  ,, 

Jefferson  S.  Bailey,  G,  ,, 

Robert  J.  Bailey,  G,  ,, 

Charles  F.  Churchill,  G, 

Charles  D.  Cates,  G,  ,, 

William  P.  Douglass,  G,  ,, 

William  E.  Elder,  G,  „ 

Eben  W.  Elder,  G, 

Henry  Fellows,  G,  „ 

Russell  S.  Foss,  G, 

Eben  Goodridge,  Jr,  G,  East  Livermore 

Elisha  B.  Lovejoy,  G,  East  Livermore 

William  Beal,  G,  Greene 

El  wood  S.  Dailey,  G, 

George  W.  Kalner,  G,  Poland 

Ripley  T.  McCully,  G,  Auburn 

Charles  H.  Piper,  G,  Turner 

William  F.  Jordan,  G,  Lewiston 

Elliot  King,  G, 

Abram  A.  Larrabee,  G,  died  in  service,      ,, 

John  Loring,  G,  ,, 

Joseph  Nelson,  G,  „ 

Charles  E.  Roberts,  G,  „ 

Frank  J.  Thompson,  G,  ,, 

George  Vosmus,  G,  Lewiston 

John  H.  Wing,  G,  died  in  service,  ,, 

William  H.  Larrabee,  2d  Lieut,  H,  ,, 

William  H.  Sawyer,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

John  R.  Allen,  H,  „ 

William  Gilpatrick.  H,  ,, 

Louville  G.  Lord,  H,  ,, 

John  B.  Sanders,  H,  ,, 

Albert  B.  Trollop,  H, 

Lorenzo  Buck,  H, 

A.  K.  P.  Dixon,  H, 

John  McFarland,  H, 

Jacob  A.  Field,  1st  Lieut,  K, 

Robert  A.  Field,  Serg.,  K, 

Herbert  N.  Adams,  K, 

Charles  W.  Campbell,  K, 

John  Q.  Mason,  K, 

George  A.  Pray,  K,                           ,,  ,, 

James  S.  Small,  K,  Minot 

Frank  White,  K,  Leeds 



East  Livermore 

Thirteenth  Infantr//  .Re;/tment.  —  According  to  tlie  official  United  States 
Army  Register  this  regiment  was  mustered  into  United  States  service  at 
Augusta,  December  13,  1861.  It  was  commanded  by  the  eminent  Neal  Dow 
as  colonel;  Henry  Rust,  Jr,  of  Norway,  lieutenant-colonel;  Frank  S.  Hesseltine, 
of  Waterville,  major.  Wayne  W.  Blossom,  of  Turner,  was  quartermaster- 
sergeant,  John  S.  C.  Ham,  of  Lewiston,  second  lieutenant  of  Company  C,  and 
Waldo  A.  Blossom,  of  Turner,  first  lieutenant  of  Company  F.^  February  18, 
1861,  the  regiment  left  for  Ship  Island,  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  where  it  did 
guard  duty  until  July  5,  and  although  suffering  in  the  meantime  terribly  from 
disease,  damaged  stores  and  provisions.  General  Weitzel  said  he  had  never  seen 
better  soldiers.  April  28,  1862,  Colonel  Dow  was  promoted  to  brigadier- 
general,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Rust  to  colonel.  Major  Hesseltine  to  the  lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy, and  Captain  Abernethy  Grover  to  major.  The  Thirteenth 
remained  in  the  department  of  the  Gulf,  winning  honorable  mention  in  many 
places,  notably  the    captures  of  Point  Isabel,  Mustang  Island,  Aranzas  Pass, 

1  Resigned  April  12, 1862. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

and  Fort  Esperanza,  at  Matagorda  Peninsula,  Pleasant  Hill,  etc.  For  some 
time  Colonel  Rust  was  president  of  the  enrolling  board,  and  provost  marshal  of 
the  second  congressional  district  of  Louisiana.  July  1, 1864,  the  regiment  was 
ordered  to  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  its  service  was  passed  in  garrison 
and  picket  duty  at  Martinsburg,  Va,  the  base  of  supplies  for  General 
Sheridan's  army.  155  enlisted  men  were  mustered  out  at  Augusta,  January  6, 
1865,  and  282  re-enlisted  men  and  82  recruits  were  soon  organized  into  a 
battalion  and  transferred  to  the  Thirtieth  Maine.  Colonel  Dow,  after  becoming 
general,  held  important  commands,  was  taken  prisoner  in  Louisiana,  and 
suffered  severely  in  confinement  at  Richmond  and  elsewhere  during  his  long 
captivity.     He  acquitted  himself  in  all  his  duties  with  eminent  ability. 


David  S.  Stinson,  Q.  M.,  died  July  8,  62,  Auburn 
Wayne  W.  Blossom,  Q.  M.  Serg.,  Turner 

Alfred    E.   Buck,   Capt.,   C,    promoted 

Lieut-Col  colored  troops,  Lewiston 

John  S.  P.  Ham,  Lieut,  C, 
Daniel   F.   Smith,    Serg.,   C,   promoted 

Capt.  colored  troops,  Turner 

Henry  H.  Dudley,  Serg.,   C,   promoted 

2d  Lieut  colored  troops,  Lewiston 

Albert  N.  Ames,  Serg.,  C,  pro  1st  Serg.,      ,, 
Charles  E.  Hanson,  Mus.,  C,  died  May 

19,  1864, 
Wesley  Carvill,  C,  „ 

Robert  England,  C,  ,, 

Albert  Foss,  C,  „ 

William  H.  Graffam,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

Maurice  S.  Hussey,  C,  „ 

Daniel  M.  Johnson,  C,  ,, 

Charles  A.  Litchfield,  C,  died  July  6, 64,      ,, 
Anthony  Morgan,  C,  ,, 

Tobias  Meader,  C,  ,, 

George  T.  Storer,  C, 
Augustus  O.  Fish,  C,  trans  from  G, 
John  C.  Steele,  C, 
Almon  L.  Crooker,  C,  died  Au}2 
Samuel  Cotton,  C, 
Gideon  Hammond,  C, 
Josiah  Jones,  C, 
William  B.  Webber,  C, 
Jeremiah  Osgood,  E, 
Waldo  A.  Blcssom,  Lieut,  F, 
Andrew  C.  Pettingill,  Serg.,  F, 
Lucius  Harlow,  Corp.,  F, 
Benjamin  A.  Elwell,  Corp.,  F,  promoted 

Serg.,  died  Apr.  20,  1863, 
Auburn  Merrill,  Corp.,  F,  prQ  Serg., 
Joseph  O.  Nichols,  Corp.,  F.,  ])ro  Serg., 
William  Anderson,  F, 
William  F.  Bird,  F,  died  Aug.  20,  1862, 
Win.slow  Conant,  F,  died  in  service, 




20,  1862,  Miuot 





Henry  S.  Drake,  F,  Auburn 

Asbury   W.    Foss,    F,   promoted    Com. 

Serg.,  U.  S.  C.  T., 
Enoch  Grant,  F,  died  July  3,  1863,  ,, 

George  W.  Pierce,  F,  ,, 

Jonathan  E.  Piper,  F,  ,, 

John  O.  Smith,  F, 

Charles  L.  Connor,  Mus.,  F,  Lewiston 

Joseph  Andrews,  Serg.,  F,  ,, 

Charles  Arris,  F,  ,, 

James  Gilpatrick,  F,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Hilton,  F,  ,, 

John  McNulty.  F,  „ 

John  O'Brion,  F,  ,, 

John  Plunket,  F, 
William  P.  Arris,  F, 
Lewis  Beals,  Corp.,  F, 
Daniel  J.  Linscott,  Corp.,  F, 
Rufus  P.  Hackett,  F, 
Cyrus  A.  Stinchfield,  F, 
Henry  Records,  F, 
C.  Winthrop  Jordan,  F, 
John  S.  Brown,  F, 
Harrison  D.  Lowell,  F, 
James  R.  Lowell,  Corp.,  C,  died  Sept. 

12,  1863, 
Leonard  H.  Beal,  F, 
Charles  H.  Dyer,  F, 
Albert  G.  Dunham,  F, 
George  F.  Jordan,  F,  died  in  service, 
Bennett  B.  Fuller,  F, 
James  F.  Ayer,  F,  ,, 

Charles  Hodsdon,  F,  Wales 

Isaac  G.  Rackley,  G,  died  Dec.  25,  1863,  Greene 
Isaac  Johnson,  K,  died  Oct.  12,  1864,  Turner 
William  F.  Sawyer,  K,  Minot 

Amos  Maines,  C,  Webster 

James  N.  Dunn,  A,  transferred  from  I,  Lewiston 
Joseph  Blackstone,  F,  Auburn 

W.  F.  Haradon,  F,  died  in  service,  ,, 





East  Livermore 



Military  Affairs. 


Charles  E.  Haradon,  F,    ,  Auburn 

James  M.  Ramsdell,  F,  ,, 

Freeman  L.  Jackson,  F,    .  ,, 

Joshua  Harmon,  F,  Wehster 

Adelbert  I.  Clark,  G,  Greene 
George  R.  Sleeper,  I,  transferred  to  H,  Lewiston 

George  H.  Clark,  Mus.,  I,  ,, 

Luther  Litchfield,  C,  ,, 

John  P.  Murphy,  C,  ,, 

Charles  L.  Newton,  C, 
Osgood  Ramsdell,  C, 
Jesse  F.  Sweat,  C, 
Daniel  Severance,  C, 
Isaac  D.  Tarr,  C, 
Mark  Ham,  H, 
Edwin  Moulton,  Corp., 


Benjamin  Harrington,  G, 



Fourteenth  Infantry  Reii'tinent. — The  Fourteenth  was  organized  at  Augusta, 
in  December,  1861,  to  serve  three  years.  Frank  S.  Nickerson,  of  Searsport, 
was  colonel;  Elias  Milliken,  of  Burnham,  lieutenant-colonel;  Thomas  W. 
Porter,  of  Bangor,  major.  In  February,  18()2,  the  regiment  started  for  the 
Department  of  the  Gulf,  where  it  won  laurels  at  Baton  Rouge,  St  Charles 
Court  House,  Civiquis  Ferry,  Port  Hudson,  and  in  other  service.  From  the 
investment  of  Port  Hudson  until  its  surrender  there  was  not  a  night  in  which 
the  regiment  was  not  represented  in  active  duty  in  the  trenches,  as  skirmishers, 
pickets,  or  sharpshooters.  Colonel  Nickerson  was  appointed  brigadier-general 
November  29,  1862,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Porter,  who  was  advanced  from 
major  on  the  resignation  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Milliken,  June  2,  1862,  became 
colonel,  and  Major  Charles  S.  Bickmore  succeeded  to  his  office,  Captain  Albion  K. 
Bolan,  of  Company  F,  rising  to  the  majority.  January  1,  1864,  all  of  the  available 
men  but  forty  re-enlisted,  and  February  10  the  Fourteenth  sailed  for  New 
York  and  was  furloughed.  Rendezvousing  again  at  New  Orleans,  March  26,  it 
was  soon  sent  to  Bermuda  Hundred,  Va,  wliere  it  joined  the  Army  of  the 
James,  and  later  was  sent  to  the  Shenandoah  Valley.  Here,  in  General  Sheri- 
dan's campaign,  it  lost  one-third  its  numbers  in  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners, 
many  men  falling  at  Winchester,  Fisher's  Hill,  Opequan,  and  Cedar  Creek, 
among  them  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bickmore.  December  23  those  whose  term  of 
service  had  expired  were  ordered  to  Maine,  and  the  re-enlisted  men  and 
recruits,  numbering  over  300  men,  were  consolidated  into  four  companies. 
The  old  organization  of  the  Fourteenth  was  mustered  out  Januarj'  13,  1865. 
Six  unassigned  com[)anies  from  Maine  were  united  with  the  veterans  in  April, 
1865,  and  the  whole  retained  the  name  of  Fourteenth  until  mustered  out 
August  28,  1865.  The  last  field  officers  were  Albion  K.  Bolan,  colonel ;  John 
K.  Laing,  lieutenant-colonel ;  Joseph  M.  Wiswell,  major. 

Abbott  says  in  his  "History  of  Maine":  "There  seems  to  have  been  but 
little  rest  for  this  regiment  by  day  or  night.  Marchings  and  battles  were 
incessant.  From  May  to  August  they  were  without  tents.  However  severe 
the  storm  they  had  no  shelter.  Their  only  camp  equipage  was  their  camp- 
kettles  carried  in  their  hands.  It  seems  strange  that  men  could  endure 
such  hardships  and  live."  General  Weitzel  wrote  in  high  commendation  of 
its  valor. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

William  S.  Brown,  B,  Livermore 

Charles  H.  Sawyer,  F,  Lewiston 

William  M.  Perkins,  Serg.,  G,  Poland 

Joseph  T.  Jordan,  '2d,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Jonathan  Crooker,  G,  died  Sept.  26,  (52,         ,, 
Chipman  Cobb,  G,  ,. 

Marshall  C.  Cobb,  G,  died  Nov.,  1862, 
George  W.  Herrick,  G,  ,, 

Bloomfield  Herrick,  G,  ,, 

Freeland  M.  Herrick,  G,  promoted  Serg., 

died  Sept.  8.  1862, 
Lewis  J.   Morton,  G,   promoted   Serg., 

promoted  Lieut,  B,  ,, 

Newton  E.  Stowe,  Corp.,  G,  trans  to  B,         ,, 
Charles  E.  Stront,  G,  ,, 

Augustine  Wallace,  G,  died  Jan.  20,  62,        ,, 
Charles  H.  Moody,  G,  Minot 

Adna    T.   Cushman,   G,   transferred  to 

14th  Maine  Bat.,  Auburn 

Ebenezer    A.   Libbey,    Corp.,    H,   died 

May  25,  1862,  Leeds 

Daniel  Brown,  H,  Livermore 

Eliphalet  C.  Morse,  Corp.,  H,    died  of 

wounds  Nov.  5,  1864,  ,, 

John  Timberlake,  H,  ,, 

Edward  F.  Chase,  H,  East  Livermore 

Clarence  G.  Haskell,  H,  killed,      ,,  ,, 

Charles  Walker,  H,  Turner 

John  F.  Pinkham,  K,  Lewiston 

Alfred  B.  Ridlon,  Corp.,  K, 
George  W.  Knight,  Serg.,  F,  promoted 

2d  Lieut  in  U.  S.  C.  T.,  Lewiston 

Henry  O.  Trafton,  F,  „ 

Charles  B.  Davis,  G,  Minot 

Joseph  Davis.  G,  died  March,  18()3,  „ 

Barton  H.  Ross,  K,  Lewiston 

Frank  Smith,  F,  ,, 

Wilmot  P.  S^ordan,  H, 


Frank  Smith,  A,  Lewiston 
Lewis  J.  Morton.  Serg.,  B,  pro  2d  Lieut,  Poland 
Jo.seph  H.  Rounds,  Capt.,  A,  tr  from  H,  Danville 

Newton  E.  Stowe,  B,  Poland 

Alfred  B.  Ridlon,  C,  Lewiston 

Joseph  Bertram,  C,  Auburn 

John  Harris,  C,  ,, 

John  McHugh,  C,  ,, 

Charles  Napier,  C,  ,, 

John  Osborn,  C,  ,, 

Jeremiah  Murphy,  D,  ,, 

Wilmot  P.  Jordan,  A,  Lewiston 

Edwin  E.  Emery,  D,  ,, 
Andrew  Jackson,  D,                      East  Livermore 

Patrick  Smith,  D,  Lewiston 

George  E.  Bordwell,  Corp.,  F,  Greene 
Daniel  P.  Eaton,  F, 

James  D.  Towle,  F,  Leeds 

Joseph  H.  Freeman,  Capt.,  H,  Minot 

John  C.  Murdough,  Serg.,  H,     -  ,, 

Samuel  O.  Partridge,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

Charles  Arris,  H,  ,, 

Joseph  H.  Bowker,  H,  ,, 

John  Starbird,  H,  „ 
Charles  A.  True,  H, 

Jordan  G.  Carvill,  1st  Lieut,  H,  Leeds 

Azel  A.  Burnhauj,  H,  ,, 

Alfred  C.  Webber,  Serg.,  H,  Lisbon 

John  A.  Douglass,  H,  killed,  ,, 

George  W.  Jordan,  H,  ,, 
Charles  W.  Shea,  H, 

Charles  Richardson,  Serg.,  H,  Lewiston 

Henry  Bonney,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 
John  Butler,  H, 

Calvin  Carvill,  H,  Lewiston 

David  S.  Davis,  H,  „ 

Albion  G.  Hayford,  H, 

Henry  Hutchings,  H,  ,, 

Floran  Jordan,  H,  ,, 

Flavel  R.  Jordan,  H,  ,, 

Ephraim  S.  Litchfield,  H, 

Charles  W.  Leslie,  H,  ,, 

Fifield  A.  Luce,  H, 

Francis  Niles,  H,  ,, 

John  Ranks,  Jr,  H,  ,, 

Rufus  Wright,  H, 

Joseph  Rounds,  Lieut,  H,  pro  Capt.,  A,   Poland 

George  W.  Berry,  H,  died  July  18,  1865, 

Isaac  Cole,  H,  died  June  10,  1864,  „ 

Hanson  S.  Cousens,  H,  ,, 

Norris  Greenwood,  H,  ,, 

John  B.  Hunnewell,  H,  „ 

Albert  W.  Harris,  H, 

Edwin  D.  Jewell,  H,  „ 

Silas  E.  Libby,  H,  „ 

Alex  W.  Lunt,  H, 

William  H.  Merrill,  H, 

Francis  E.  Mayberry,  H,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Par.sons,  H,  pro  Hsp.  Steward,     ,, 

Thomas  Verrill,  H, 

Jona.  L.  Tobie,  H,  ,, 

Daniel  McKay,  H,  ,, 

John  C.  Pendexter,  H,  ,, 

William  Corbett,  I,  Turner 

Thomas  Roustin,  I,  ,, 

George  A.  Roberts,  I,  Lewiston 

Peter  McGuire,  I,  ,, 

James  W.  Libby,  Capt.,  K,  Leeds 

Military  Affairs. 


James  Carver,  K, 
Stephen  W.  Grant,  K, 
George  E.  Gilbert,  K, 
Lloyd  A.  Gilbert,  K, 


David  Morse,  K, 
Herbert  Hunton,  Serg.,  K, 
John  P.  R.  Sleeper,  K, 
Charles  C.  Durgin,  Serg.,  K, 



Fifteenth  Infaiitry  Regiment.  —  The  material  of  tliis  very  effective  regiment 
was  taken  largely  from  Aroostook,  Washington,  and  Penobscot  counties.  It 
was  organized  at  Augusta  in  December,  1861,  and  mustered  into  United  States 
service  January  23,  18()2,  for  three  years,  with  John  McCluskey  of  Houlton, 
colonel;  Isaac  Dyer  of  Skowhegan,  lieutenant-colonel;  and  Benjamin  Hawes  of 
Ashland,  major. 

March  (3  the  Fifteenth  left  Portland  to  join  the  Department  of  the  Gulf  at 
Ship  Island,  and  was  there,  at  New  Orleans  and  Carrollton  until  September  8. 
August  25  Colonel  McClusky  resigned,  and  Major  Hawes  also  resigned  Sep- 
tember 9.  The  field  officers  were  now  Colonel  Isaac  Dyer,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Benjamin  B.  Murray  (originally  captain  of  Company  A),  Major*  Franklin  M. 
Drew  (originally  captain  of  Company  G).  From  Carrollton  the  regiment  went 
to  Pensacola,  where,  until  June,  18(>3,  it  was  encamped,  Colonel  Dyer  being  in 
command  of  the  troops  in  West  Florida,  Forts  Pickens  and  Barrancas  being 
included.  In  its  first  year  of  service  out  of  962  enlisted  men  it  lost  329  by  deser- 
tion, discharge,  and  death,  and  had  never  been  in  battle.  June  21  it  was  ordered 
to  New  Orleans,  joined  the  Texas  expedition  of  General  Banks  in  October,  and 
its  flag  was  the  first  unfurled  on  Texas  soil.  General  Ransom  selected  the 
Fifteenth  and  Thirteenth  Maine  to  lead  the  advance  of  his  expedition  against 
the  rebels  at  Mustang  Island  and  Forts  Semines  and  Esperanza.  Here  the 
Fifteenth  rendered  gallant  service  and  was  complimented  by  the  general  com- 
manding. It  was  a  part  of  the  army  of  occupation  of  Texas  until  February 
28,  marching  the  whole  length  of  the  sea-coast  of  the  state,  and  suffering 
severely  from  exposure.  It  was  then  made  a  part  of  General  Banks's  Red 
River  expedition  in  which  it  marched  over  700  miles  in  two  months,  taking 
conspicuous  part  in  the  heavy  battles  of  Sabine  Cross  Roads  and  Pleasant  Hill, 
and  participating  in  actions  at  Cane  River  Crossing  and  Mansura  Plains. 

In  June  it  was  ordered  to  New  Orleans,  in  July  went  to  Fortress  Monroe, 
where  six  companies  were  sent  to  Bermuda  Hundred,  while  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Murray  and  Major  Drew,  in  command  of  the  other  four  companies,  participated 
in  the  campaign  against  Early's  raiders.  The  regiment  (reunited  at  Monocacy 
Junction,  August  4,)  was  furloughed  August  10  for  thirty-five  days.  The 
Fifteenth  served  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  until  after  Lee's  surrender,  when 
it  was  stationed  in  different  parts  of  South  Carolina.  Here  its  officers  were 
largely  employed  as  provost-marshals,  provost-judges,  members  of  courts-mar- 
tial and  military  commissions,  and  agents  of  the  Freedmen's  Bureau.  This 
regiment  was  in  service  longer  than  other  Maine  regiments,  not  being  mustered 
out  until  July  5,  1866.     Majors  Drew  and  Whittemore  were  discharged  in 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

1865.     The  field  officers  at  close  of  service  were  Lieutenant-Colonel  Benjamin 
B.  Murray  and  Major  John  R.  Coates. 


Charles  Dennett,  Serg.,  B,  Lewiston 

Alonzo  Rogers,  Mus.,  B,  Lisbon 

N.  A.  Beal,  B,  ,, 

Leeman  H.  Bard,  B,  ,, 

B.  Franklin  Hisgins,  Corp.,  B,  Webster 

Andrew  Bubier,  B,  promoted  Serg.,  ,, 

Mariner  T.  Green,  B,  drowned  Mar.  (i, 

1803,  Lisbon 

John  L.  Higgins,  B,  "Webster 

James  S.  Metcalf,  B,  died  Jan.  26,  1864,        „ 
William  H.  Metcalf,  B, 

Josiah  Bragdon,  D,  died  Jan.  27,  1862,      Poland 
William  Berry,  D,  died  July  13,  1863, 
James  W.  Duran,  D,  died  Dec.  27,  1861,        ,, 
Humphrey  S.  Edwards,  D,  died  Apr.  1, 

Luke  Jillson,  D,  died  Jan.  14,  1803, 
Daniel  Orr,  D,  ,, 

Joshua  Edwards,  D,  died  Aug.  17,  1802,        ,, 
George  Storer,  H,  died  Aug.  3, 1862,        Auburn 
Joseph  Brimijoin,  Lisbon 

Otis  H.  Douglass,  B,  died  June  6,  1862,         „ 
Edwin  C.  Douglass,  B,  ,, 

Michael  Tobin,  I, 
Nelson  W.  Edwards.  D, 
Richard  Edwards,  D, 
Alexander  Brown,  D, 
Henry  F.  Brickett,  A, 
Edward  Pearsons,  D, 
Benjamin  F.  Brown,  Lieut,  G,  ,, 

George  Anderson,  A,  Turner 



Albert  C.  Currier,  A, 
James  Smith,  K, 
Jesse  B.  Austin,  D, 
Thomas  Cunningham,  C, 
Patrick  Deehan,  C, 
Chase  M.  Harris,  C, 
Henry  Lane,  C, 
Martin  McNilf,  C, 
George  P.  McCarty,  C, 
Daniel  Patterson,  C, 
James  Sullivan,  C, 
Hira  A.  Archibald,  D,  died 
William  Bunnell,  D, 
Edward  H.  Gilson,  D,  died 
Alonzo  Impy,  D, 
Lendall  Knight,  D, 
Frank  Silvia,  E, 
Michael  Barnes,  F, 
John  Sullivan,  F, 
William  Fitzgerald,  F, 
John  Iveson,  Corp.,  G, 
George  L.  Fogg,  K, 
William  H.  Babb,  G,  died, 
John  Colbert,  G, 
Thomas  Fisher,  G, 
Harper  C.  McKeen,  G, 
Oliver  Forney,  G, 
Patrick  Kelly,  G, 
Charles  E.  Shirley,  G, 
Lewis  Morrin,  H, 
John  Williams,  H, 









in  service,     Poland 


in  service. 








East  Livermore 






Sixteenth  Infantry  Rcjihiietit.  —  In  May,  18(i2,  recruiting  was  commenced  for 
this  organization,  whicli  was  mustered  into  United  States  service  at  Augusta, 
August  14, 1862.  The  men  came  from  all  parts  of  the  state.  The  field  officers 
were  Asa  W.  Wildes,  colonel;  Charles  W.  Tilden,  lieutenant-colonel;  Augustus 
B.  Farnham,  major.  Marshall  S.  Smith,  of  East  Livermore,  was  second  lieu- 
tenant of  Company  C;  Archibald  D.  Leavitt,  of  Turner,  captain  of  Company  E. 
Company  1  was  in  command  of  William  H.  Waldron,  of  Lewiston,  captain; 
William  Bray,  of  Turner,  first  lieutenant ;  Charles  C.  Garcelon,  of  Lewiston, 
second  lieutenant. 

August  19  the  Sixteenth  left  Augusta  for  Washington,  went  into  camp  at 
Arlington  Heights  on  arriving  there,  and  received  drill  in  heavy  artillery 
tactics  as  well  as  light  infantry,  but  the  exigencies  of  the  war  soon  caused  it  to 
be  ordered  into  the  field  in  light  marching  order  to  resist  the  invasion  of 
Pennsylvania.  The  knapsacks  and  overcoats  were  left  behind  and  later  sent 
to  Washington.     For   nearly  three  months   the   regiment   marched,   counter- 

Military  Affairs. 


marched,  and  did  duty  without  a  tent  to  protect  the  men  from  cold  or  storm, 
and  the  only  covering  they  had  was  the  boughs  of  trees  and  an  occasional 
bunch  of  corn-stalks,  while  for  eleven  weeks  they  had  no  change  of  undercloth- 
ing. The  death-roll  and  casualities  reduced  the  number  to  less  than  700,  while 
of  these  250  were  on  the  sick  list.  This  was  the  more  unbearable  as  all  sur- 
rounding regiments  were  supplied  with  everything  needed  for  comfort.  At 
last  the  men  were  properly  equipped  and  called  to  demonstrate  their  valor  on 
the  battlefield.  How  well  that  was  done,  official  records  testify.  The  roll  of 
honor  numbers  among  others  the  battles  of  South  Mountain,  Antietam,  Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville,  Gettysburg,  Rappahannock,  Mine  Run,  Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania,  Laurel  Hill,  North  Anna,  Tolopotomoy,  Bethesda  Church, 
Petersburg,  Weldon  Railroad,  Hatcher's  Run,  Gravelly  Run,  and  South  Side 
Railroad.  In  some  of  these  its  loss  was  nearly  fifty  per  cent,  of  its  numbers, 
while  at  Gettysburg  in  three  days,  out  of  248  who  were  counted  for  duty,  all 
were  lost  except  seventeen.  Colonel  Wildes  resigned  January  7,  1863.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Colonel  Tilden  who  was  taken  prisoner,  and  escaped  from  a 
nine-months'  captivity  through  the  famous  tunnel  of  Libby  Prison.  Major 
Farnham  became  lieutenant-colonel  Februarj'-  14,  18(33,  and  was  brevetted 
colonel  April  1,  1865.  Major  Leavitt  died  May  31,  1864,  from  wounds  received 
at  Laurel  Hill,  and  Major  Abner  R.  Small  succeeded  him  in  office.  The  regi- 
ment was  mustered  out  June  5,  1865,  and  the  recruits  transferred  to  the 


Uriah  Balkam,  Chaiilain,  Lewiston 

Hosea  D.  Manley,  Serg.-Maj.,  Auburn 

Luther  E.  Burgess,  Wag.,  B,  Turner 

Everett  G.  Ford,  B, 

Charles  A.  Adkins,  B,  died  Dec.  5,  62,  ,, 

Joseph  W.  Richardson,  B,  ,, 

Benj.  F.  Hutchinson,  B,  kd  Feb.  7,  6.5,  Lewiston 
Marshall  S.  Smith,  1st  Lieut,  C,  East  Livermore 
Columbus  A.  Whitney,  C,  Turner 

Nathan  Bartlett,   Jr,  C,  died   Dec.   10, 

1863,  East  Livermore 

Orville  Brown,  C,  ,,  ,, 

Calvin  Beals,  C,  ,,  ,, 

David  H.  Hinds,  C,  died,  ,,  ,, 

Dorillus  Hobbs,  Corp.,  C,  died,      ,,  ,, 

N.  J.  Sanford,  C, 

James  Ridley,  C, 

,,             ,, 

James  N.  Brown,  Corp.,  C, 

»»                           M 

Smith  Hilton,  D, 


Thomas  Mason,  D, 


Lorenzo  Rourke,  D, 


Nelson  A.  Lane,  I), 


Adrian  (J.  Roberts,  I>, 


Arch  D.  Leavitt,  Capt.,  E,  pro  Maj.,  died 

May  31,  1864,  of  wds.  Turner 

Aubrey  Leavitt,  Serg.,  E,  pro  1st  Lt,  B,       ,, 

Jones    Whitman,   Corp.,    E,  pro  Serg., 

pro  1st  Lieut,  Turner 

Otis  Hood,  Wag.,  E, 
Seth  H.  Alden,  E, 
Sidney  A.  Allen,  E, 
Luther  Bradford,  Serg.,  E, 
Curtis  V.  Fales,  E,  died  Oct.  12,  63, 
f4eorge  C.  Harmond,  E, 
Calvin  M.  Heywood,  E, 
Frank  M.  Merrill,  Mus.,  E,  died  Dec. 

21,  1862, 
Isaac  J.  Monk,  E, 
Sarson  C.  Pratt,  E, 
Sampson  A.  Thomas,  E, 
Charles  P.  Winship,  E, 
Joseph  G.  Lamb,  Corp.,  E,  pro  Serg.,  Leeds 

Charles  R.  Berry,  E,  died  of  wds  Dec. 

25,  1862, 
John  A.  Buruhara,  E,  ,, 

Ebenezer  Curtis,  2d,  E,  ,, 

Francis  George,  E,  ,, 

George  G.  Hussey,  E,  ,, 

RoUin  F.  Jennings,  E,  trans  to  .5  Me  Bat.,        ,, 
(ieorge  H.  Peare,  E,  ,, 

Samuel  W.  Pettengill,  E,  trans  to  V.  R.  C,      ,, 
Granville  Richmond,  E,  ,, 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

William  W.  Wheeler,  E,  Leeds 
Frank  Wiggin,  Serg.,  H,  Lewiston 
Wm  H.  Waldron,   Capt.,  I,  pro  Capt. 

andA.  Q.  M., 

Charles  A.  Garcolon,  Lieut,  I,  ,, 
Kdwin  K.  Hall,  Serg.,  I, 

E.  Freeman  Higgins,  1st  Sgt,  I,  died,  ,, 

Charles  R.  Anderson,  I,  ,, 

Edward  Hayes,  I,  ,, 

John  r.alvin,  I,  trans  Vet  Kes  Corps,  „ 

Hiram  W.  Loring,  1,  ,. 

Amos  Nevins,  I,  ,, 

Patrick  O'Neil,  I,  ,, 

Josejih  W.  I'armenter,  I,  ,, 

iMathew  Roberts,  I,  trans  5  JSIe.  Bat,  ,, 

Sebastian  S.  Vose,  I,  ,, 

William  Bray,  l,st  Lieut,  I,  Turner 

Freeman  H.  Farris,  I,  ,, 

Stewart  Holmes,  I,  ,, 
Orlando  A.  Jones,  I,  miss  in  act  at  Fred'b'g,    ,, 

George  T.  Piper,  I,  ,, 

Thomas  L,  Roberts,  I,  ,, 

William  B.  Staples,  I,  ,, 
Albert  Potter,  Serg.,  I,                               Webster 

George  W.  Jordan,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

George  B.  Haskell,  Serg.,  I,  ,, 

Octavius  K.  Cloudman,  I,  ,, 

Benj.  B.  Crockett,  I,  trans  to  V.  R.  C,  ,, 

Benj.  F.  Garcelon,  I,  died  a  rebel  pris,  ,, 

Ephraim  L.  Jordan,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

Francis  A.  McKinney,  I,  ,, 
Aden  A.  Niles,  I,  died  Dec.  2(),  03, 

Oliver  Stover,  I,  died  a  rebel  prisoner,  ,, 

R.  N.  Waterman,  I,  ,, 
Zelotus  Rowe,  Serg.,  I,  died  in   Libby 

Prison,  Lisbon 

Africa  P.  Cotton,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 
Nath  Gilpatrick,  Corji.,  I,  kd  Fred'b'g, 

Dec.  13,  62,  „ 
Isaac  A.  Blake,  I,  kd  Fred'b'g,  Dec  lo,  (52,      ,, 

Andrew  A.  Cotton,  I,  trans  V.  R.  C,  ,, 

Blanchard  ('otton,  I,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Benj.  F.  Farrar,  I,  trans  Vet  Res  Corps,  „ 

Thomas  J.  Gould,  Serg.,  I,  ,, 

Silas  C.  Gould,  I,  kd  Dec.  13,  18(i2,  ,, 

Daniel  Small,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

Nelson  H.  Wade,  1 ,  trans  Vet  Res  Corps,  ,, 
Charles  Wescott,  I, 

Hosea  D.  Manley,  I,  pro  Serg.-Maj.,        Auburn 

Geo.  S.  Boutelle,  I,  died  in  service,  ,, 

George  D.  Marston,  Corp.,  I,  pro  Serg.,  ,, 
Noah  Jordan,  Mus.,  I, 
John  F.  Lewis,  I, 

Wilbur  F.  Mower,  Serg.,  I,  pro  2d  Lt,  Greene 

Jabez  P.  Pratt,  Serg.,  I,  pro  1st  Lt,  K,      Greene 

Araunah   H.    Briggs,  Corp.,  I,   died  in 

rebel  prison,  ,, 

Edward  P.  Dyer,  I,  ,, 

George  W.  Frost,  I,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Orison  W.  Hackett,  I,  ,, 

William  Johnson,  I,  died  Oct.  23,  62,  ,, 
William  H.  Michaels,  I,  died  Feb.  18,  63,       ,, 

Lora  S   Patten,  I,  died  Mar.  2,  65,  ,, 

Pilugene  S.  Mower,  I,  „ 

Edwin  H.  Nason,  I,  ,, 

Charles  W.  Allen,  I,  Livermore 

James  P.  Beals,  I,  Durham 

William  Davis,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

Jeremiah  Estes,  I,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Henry  Hackett,  I,  ,, 

George  G.  Leavens,  I,  ,, 

Daniel  Perry,  I,  died  Mar,  28,  63,  Minot 

William  H.  Miller,  C ,  Lewiston 

Charles  D.  Ryder,  D,  Danville 

George  Bryan,  D,  Lewiston 

Michael  J.  Barrett,  D,  ,, 
Sylvanus  G.  Glover,  D,  miss  in  act  June 

6,  1864, 
James  H.  Houlahan,  D,  trans  to  20  Me,       ,, 

George  T.  Davis,  E,  trans  to  20  Me,  Turner 

John  Ellis,  E,  Lewiston 
Daniel  Witherell,  E,  trans  V.  R.  C, 

Edwin  M.  Jewell,  E,  Wales 

Timothy  Coharn,  G,  trans  to  20  Me,  Lewiston 
Augustus  A.  Sutherland,  G,  tr  20  Me,       Lisbon 

John  Clark,  H,  Lewiston 

Charles  Fisher.  H,  ,, 

William  J.  Linscomb,  H,  ,, 

John  Boyd,  I,  ,, 
William  Brown,  I,  died  in  Andersonville,     ,, 

Roscoe  Chandler,  I,  died  Apr.  7,  64,  ,, 

Charles  McGowan,  I,  ,, 
Charles   H.   Thompson,   I,   died  a  pris 

Nov.  30,  65, 
Fred  W.  West,  I,  died  Dec.  22,  63, 

George  R.  Grover,  K,  ,, 

David  H.  Stevens,  K,  ,, 

Frank  Manley,  A,  trans  from  K,  Auburn 

Thomas  Stewart,  A,  trans  to  F,  ,, 

Charles  C.  Getchell,  A,  Durham 

John  Kelley,  B,  trans  to  20  Me,  Auburn 

Richard  Libby,  B,  died  Jan.  29,  65,  ,, 

Jonathan  Allen,  C,  trans  to  20  Me,  Livermore 

John  Driscoll,  C,  trans  to  20  Me,  Auburn 

Charles  W.  Wright,  C,  Danville 

William  Tendall,  D,  Auburn 

George  H.  Gould,  H,  trans  from  A,  Lewiston 

William  C.  Hall,  Minot 

Seventeenth  Infantry  /iff/inwnt.  — This  body  was  enlisted  from  Andros- 
coggin, Cumberland,  Oxford,  and  York  counties,  and  was  mustered  into 
United  States  service,  August  18,  1862.     It  left  Maine  August  21  for  Wash- 

Military  Affairs. 


ington,  and  was  engaged  in  garrison  duty,  in  perfecting  its  drill,  and  in 
various  camps  until  the  winter  campaign  of  18()2-3.  Thomas  A.  Roberts, 
of  Portland,  was  colonel;  Charles  B.  Merrill,  of  Portland,  lieutenant-colonel; 
and  George  W.  West,  of  Fort  Kent,  major.  Company  C  was  officered  by 
Captain  Augustus  Golderman,  of  Minot;  Otho  W.  Burnham,  of  Poland,  first 
lieutenant ;  Joseph  A.  Perry,  of  Portland,  second  lieutenant.  The  captain  and 
first  lieutenant  of  Company  D  were  Captain  Isaac  S.  Faunce  and  Lieutenant 
Milton  M.  Young,  both  of  Lewiston.  The  Seventeenth  first  engaged  in  battle 
at  Fredericksburg,  where  it  drove  the  charging  Confederates  back  to  their 
intrenchments  in  such  a  manner  as  to  elicit  compliments  from  General  Berry 
for  its  steadiness  under  fire.  It  would  be  pleasurable  to  linger  over  the 
brilliant  record  of  this  gallant  organization.  It  was  in  the  hottest  of  the 
historic  engagements  of  Fredericksburg,  Chancellorsville,  the  Cedars,  Gettys- 
burg, Orange  Grove,  Auburn,  Mine  Run,  Wilderness,  Po  River,  Spottsylvania, 
North  Anna,  Tolopotomoy,  Coal  Harbor,  and  at  and  arouiul  Petersburg, 
Weldon  Railroad,  Hatcher's  Run,  etc.  Ill  health  caused  tlie  resignation  of 
Colonel  Roberts,  June  2, 1863.  Major  West  was  mustered  as  colonel,  November 
26,  wounded  at  the  Wilderness  May  0,  brevetted  brigadier-general  December 
2,  1864,  and  discharged  April  17,  1865.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Merrill  was 
mustered  out  October  7,  1864.  The  recruits  of  the  Third  Maine  were  trans- 
ferred to  the  Seventeenth,  June  4,  1864.  February  18,  18(55,  Company  D, 
Second  United  States  Sharpshooters,  was  transferred  to  this  regiment,  and 
consolidated  with  its  several  companies.  The  members  of  the  Seventeenth, 
whose  terms  of  service  expired  previous  to  October,  1865,  were  mustered  out 
June  4,  1865,  and  the  others  consolidated  with  the  First  Maine  Heavy 
Artillery.  At  this  time  the  field  officers  were  Colonel  Charles  P.  Mattocks 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  William  Hobson. 


Henry  L.  K.  "Wiggin,  Surgeon,  Auburn 

Augustus  Goldermann,  Capt.,  C,  Minot 

Asa  L.  Downs,  Serg.,  C,  ,, 

George  E.  Perry,  Corp.,C,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Edwin  G.  Parsons,  Mus.,  C,  ,, 

Alexander  Campbell,  C,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Samuel  Davis,  Jr,  G,                        ■  ,, 

Setb  B.  Day,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

George  A.  Durgin,  Corp.,  C,  pro  Sgt,  ,, 

James  L.  Fuller,  Corp.,  C,  kd  in  action,  ,, 

Elmer  D.  Hackett,  C,  „ 

William  H.  Hersey,  C,  ,, 

Hosea  Knowlton,  C,  ,, 

George  F.  Perkins,  C,  ,, 

Addison  B.  Pratt,  C,  ,, 

George  F.  Sawyer,  C,  ,, 

Chas.  W.  Strout,  C,  tr  Vet.  Res.  Corps,  ,, 

Orin  Wbittemore,  C,  ,, 

Otho  W.  Burnham,  Lieut,  C,  Poland 

Edward  H.  Fuller,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

Cyrus  T.  Pratt,  Corp.,  C,  kd  in  action,  ,, 

Stephen  W.  Gammon,  Mus.,  C,  ,, 

George  G.  Bridgham,  (",  ,, 

Horace  J.  Brown,  C,  tr  to  1st  H.  A.,  ,, 

Edward  S.  Chipman,  C,  ,, 
Allen  M.  Churchill,  C,  tr  Vet  Res  Corps, 
Cephas  B.  Cobb,  C,  died  Aug.  22,  G2, 
Chas.  Daisey,  C,  kd  May  23,  (J3, 

Chas.  M.  Dockham,  C,  tr  to  1st  H.  A.,  ,, 

James  T.  Donald,  C,  died  Mar.  12,  (13,  ,, 
George  B.  Dunn,  Sgt,C,  pro  2d  Lt,  Co.  B,     „ 

Josiah  Duran,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 
Albert  W.  Harris,  C, 

Samuel  F.  Haskell,  Serg.,  C,  ,, 

George  W.  Jackson,  C,  „ 

James  M.  Mills,  C,  ,, 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

John  Noyes,  C,  Poland 

Andrew  J.   Pattee,  C,  kd   Gettysburg, 

July  2,  ()3, 

Elhanan  W.  Record,  C,  „ 

Wentworth  P.  Ricker,  C,  i. 

Tillson  Waterman,  Jr,  C,  tr  V.  R.  C,  ,, 

William  H.  Woodward,  C,  >. 
William  F.  Morrill,  Serg.,  C,                     Durham 
Jonathan  R.  Ryerson,  C,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,   Danville 

Edwin  P.  Gurney,  C,  .. 
Edward  R.  Allen,  C  (Danville),              Lewiston 

Isaac  S.  Faunce,  Capt.,  D,  tr  to  A,  ,, 

Milton  M.  Young,  Lt,  D,  pro  Capt.,  K,  ,, 
AVilliam  C.  Winter,  Sgt,  D,  pro  Lieut, 

died  Jan.  25,  US,  „ 

Dan'l  J.  Chandler,  1st  Sgt,  D,  pro  Lt,  B,  „ 

John  F.  Putnam,  Sgt,  D,  pro  Com.  Sgt,  ,, 

Levi  Willard,  Jr,  Serg.,  D,  ,, 

Artson  K.  Dennison,  Sgt,  D,  tr  V.  R.  C,  ,, 
Bernard    Hogan,    Corp.,    D,    mort    wd 

Gettysburg,  ,, 
Newton  W.  Parker,  Sgt,  D,  pro  1st  Lt, 

kd  in  act,  ,, 

Oliver  D.  Smith.  Corp.,  D,  „ 

George  Lothrop,  Serg.,  D,  ,, 

Frank  C.  Houghton,  Wag.,  D,  ,, 

Joseph  Austin,  D,  ,, 

Edwin  G.  Baker,  D,  tr  to  V.  II.  C,  ,, 

Nath  G.  Bickford,  D,  „ 

William  Bodge,  D,  „ 

Edward  Brackett,  D,  ,, 

Warren  S.  Butler,  D,  tr  to  V.  R.  C,  ,, 

Joseph  Chadderton,  D,  kd  June  IG,  CA,  ,, 

George  O.  Currier,  D,  ,, 

Richard  L.  Dalton,  1),  ,, 

Melvin  Davis,  Serg.,  D,  ,, 

Charles  A.  DeWitt,  Corp.,  I),  ,, 
Samuel  L.  Dwelly,  D,  died  from  wds 

July  9,  6.-?, 

Albert  Diinlai),  D,  ,, 
Aaron  Dunn,  D,  tr  to  V.  R.  C, 

Oilman  Faunce,  D,  ,, 

Levi  Fowler,  D,  kd  Gettysb'g,  July  2,  6.3,  ,, 
W.  P.  Gatchell,  D, 

Isaac  S.  Golden,  D,  „ 

Charles  H.  Groves,  D,  ,, 

LaForest  Groves,  D,  ,, 
Thomas  C.  Haley,  D, 

Elijali  P.  Harmon,  D,  ,, 

John  Hogan,  D,  ,, 

John  Holt,  D,  „ 

James  Hulrae,  D,  ,, 

Lemuel  Jackson,  I),  „ 

William  H.  Lane,  I),  „ 

CJeorge  H.  Maloon,  I),  ,, 

Isaiah  G.  j\Iason,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Thomas  McCarty,  1),  ,, 

Frank  A.  McDonald,  D,  kd  in  action,  „ 

Michael  McDonald,  D,  Lewiston 

Martin  McNulty,  D,  .  ,, 

George  A.   Parker,  D,   pro   Serg.-Maj., 

Lt  F,  and  Adjt, 
Geo.  I.  Parker,  D,  pro  Sgt  and  1st  Sgt, 
Charles  W.  Peasley,  D, 
Henry  H.  Penley,  Corp.,  D, 
John  A.  Reed,  D, 
Joshua  G.  Richardson,  D, 
Ezra  P.  Rogers,  D,  died  of  wds  in  service, 
Isaac  Rounds,  D  (Danville), 
John  N.  Smith,  D,  tr  to  V.  R.  C, 
Bradford  Stevens,  D, 
William  Stewart,  D, 
Michael  Sweeney,  Corp.,  D,  kd  in  action, 
Wm.  Tindall,  D,  tr  to  V.  R.  C, 
Thomas  Toole,  D,  kd  in  action, 
Waterman  Trafton,  D,  tr  V.  R.  C, 
Amos  G.  Winter,  D, 
Thomas  W.  Lord,  Sgt,  K,  pro  2d  Lt,        Auburn 
Charles  A.  Beal,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Adolplius  P.  Wilson,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Andrew  J.  Miller,  K,  kd  Apr.  (J,  05,  ,, 

Alfred  Ring,  Corp.,  K  (Danville), 
Pliny  L.  Wyman,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Wm.    H.    Wyman,   Wag.,    K,   died  in 

service,  ,, 

Hiram  Andrews,  K,  ,, 

M.  M.  Andrews,  K,  ,, 

Alfred  E.  Atwood,  K,  died  Jan.  11,  63, 
Hiram  Atwood,  K,  ,, 

James  A.  Bennett,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Almon  E.  Brown  (Danville),  ,, 

John  H.  Conley,  K, 

John  H.  Cotton,  K,  „ 

John  McCrocker,  K,  „ 

Rufus  Danforth,  K,  „ 

William  J.  Golden,  K, 
Elisha  Hall,  Corp.,  K, 

Samuel  R.  Harris,  K  (Danville),  ,, 

Samuel  O.  Hatch,  K,  kd  at  Gettysb'g,  ,, 

John  F.  Hewey,  K,  ,, 

Aug.  A.  Keith,  Corp.,  K,  kd  in  action,  ,, 

Abraham  Libby,  K,  tr  to  V.  R.  C,  ,, 

George  W.  Lord,  K,  ,, 

Wm  H.  Lyon,  K,  kd  in  action,  G.3,  ,, 

Wallace  Maxfield,  K,  „ 

Addison  A.  Miller,  K  (Danville), 
Francis  D.  Morey,  K,  ,, 

Chandler  Nason,  K,  tr  to  1st  H.  A.,  ,, 

Nahum  Niles,  K,  died  Feb.  9,  63,  „ 

Leonard  R.  Penny,  K,  died  Nov.  7,  62, 
Weston  S.  Rand,  K,  ,, 

(Jeorge  F.  Read,  K,  ,, 

F'rederick  D.  Read,  K,  ,, 

Dana  Rounds,  K,  died  June  5,  63,  ,, 

David  Small,  K,  ,, 

Thomas  Storah,  K,  tr  to  V.  R.  C,  „ 

Military  Affairs. 


Geo.  J.  Strout,  Corp.,  K,  kd  Apr.  11,  64,   Auburn 
Edwin  Verrill,  K,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Augustine  Voung,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Greenleaf  D.  Willard,  K,  ,, 

Joseph  J.  Jackson.  K,  Danville 

William  Doyle,  K,  Leeds 

Oliver  E.  Randall,  K,  Lewiston 

Charles  H.  Wright,  K, 
Milton  M.  Young,  K,  wd  July  2,  G.^i,  died 

Aug.  13,  ,) 

Charles  W.  Brown,  C,  ,, 

William  H.  Courson,  C,  ,, 

Silas  McCallister,  C,  ,, 

John  Stanley,  C,  ,, 

Tallman  L.  ^Iclntire,  D,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 
Henry  Hall,  E, 

John  McDonald,  E,  tr  to  V.  R.  C, 
John  r.  Barrows,  P,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,  Minot 

John  Taylor,  F,  Lewiston 

Patrick  Kelly,  H, 

James  Shannon,  H,  ,, 

Patrick  Sullivan,  H,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 
John  Sullivan,  H,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,  ,, 

Samuel  Parker,  A,  kd  in  service,  ,, 

Isaiah  Bonney,  A,  tr  f r  .3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A,     ,, 
Francis  H.  Barnes,  A,  tr  from  3  Me,  ,, 

Amos  G.  Bean,  A,  tr  from  3  Me,  ,, 

AnselH.  Cram,  A,trfr3Me,trto]  H.A.,   ,, 
Daniel  Cohan,  A,  tr  from  3  Me,  ,, 

Marcellus  Cram,  A,  tr  from  3  Me,  ,, 

Josephus  C.  Colby,  A,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to 

1  H.  A., 
Josiah  Dill,  A,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 
Isaac  S.  Faunce,  Capt.,  A,  tr  to  1  H.  A,       ,, 
S.  W.  G.  Gonyea,  A,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 
Lafayette  Plaisted,  A,  tr  to  Co.  G,  ,, 

Stephen  P.  Cutler,  B,  tr  fr  1  Me,  tr  to 

1  H.  A.,  Poland 

Julius  G.  Chipman,  B,  ,, 

George  B.  Dunn,  Lt,  B,  pro  1  Lt,  G,  ,, 

Arthur  L.  Coombs  B,  tr  fr  3  Me,  Lewiston 

Daniel  J.  Chandler,  Lieut,  B,  ,, 

Patrick  Dolan,  B,  tr  fr  3  Me,  trto  1  H.  A.,  „ 
John  O.  Sullivan,  B,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 
John  Fuller,  C,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,     ,, 
H.  H.  Garcelon,  C,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  V.  R.  C,  „ 
E.  T.  Getchell,  C,  tr  fr  3  Me,  „ 

Wm  Galoin,  C,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,      ,, 
Dexter  W.  Howard,  C,  pro  2d  Lt,  E,  *  Leeds 

Elisha  K.  Mann,  1st  Sgt,  C,  tr  fr  3  Me, 

tr  to  1  H.  A.,  Wales 

Jas.  A.  Cummings,  F,  died  Apr.  19,  05,  Auburn 
Thos.  Hayes,  D,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  H.  A.,  Lewiston 
Granville  Holt,  D,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  H.  A.,    „ 
Geo.  W.  Hatch,  D,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  H.  A.,   ,, 
Geo.  Hourd,  D,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  H.  A.,        ,, 

Jona  Hutchinson,  Jr,  D,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to 

H.  A.,  Minot 

James  Britten,  E,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  H.  A.,  Lewiston 
Chas.  McCarroll,  E,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  H.  A.,     ,, 
John  J.  O'Connell,  E,  tr  fr  3  Me,  kd  Oct. 

17,  04, 
Dexter  W.  Howard,  E,  joined  as  Lt  fr  C,    Leeds 
Edward  E.  Jones,  E,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1 

H.  A.,  Minot 

Josiah  Winslow,  F,  ,, 

Bartholomew  Cuff,  F,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1 

H.  A.,  Lewiston 

Patrick  Lyons,  F,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,     ,, 
M.  N.  Shephard,  F,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,    „ 
Rufus  F.  Dexter,  G,  died  of  wds  in  service,  „ 
Geo.  B.  Dunn,  1st  Lt,  G,  pro  Capt.,  K,     Poland 
John  Fallen,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  Lewiston 

Calvin  Kneeland,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  ,, 

Geo.  H.  Leighton,  G,  tr  fr  2  U.  S.  S.  S.,  „ 
L.  F.  Miller,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  died  July  4,  (54,  ,, 
Michael  A.  Murphy,  G,  tr  fr  2  U.  S.  S.  S.,  ,, 
Geo.  W.  Ryerson,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1 

H.  A., 
Michael  Riley,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,    ,, 
Orrin  Rogers,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me, 
Samuel  A.  Seeley,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to 

IH.  A., 
Chas.  Stewart,  G,  tr  fr  3  Me,  d  in  serv, 
Joseph  Newell,  G,  never  joined  company,  „ 
Chas.  H.  Lewis,  Corp.,  H,  tr  fr  3d  Me,  tr 

to  1  H.  A., 
John  Primrose,  H,tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,  ,, 
Roscoe  Smith,  H,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A..  „ 
James  P.  Thompson,  H,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to 

IH.  A., 
Melville  A.  I'erkins,  H,  died  May  3,  05,  Auburn 
Edward  L.  Stevens,  H,  tr  fr  3  Me,  Turner 

Newton  W.  Parker,  Lieut,  I,  killed,   Lewiston 
Charles  Lisbon,  I,  " 

Martin  McElroy,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me, 
Wm.  C.  Thompson,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me,  died,         ,, 
Henry  H.  Thompson,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me, 
Mark  Tripp,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 
John  L.  Tubbs,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,     „ 
Chas.  Wellman,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me, 
Wm.  A.  Ward,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me, 
James  C.  Smith,  I,  tr  fr  3  Me,  killed,  Livermore 
Orville  Swett,  I,  never  joined  Co.,  Durham 

Lloyd  B.  Caswell,  K,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to 

1  H.  A.,  Leeds 

Robert  W.  Austin,  K,  Danville 

John  Nixon,  K,  Lewiston 

Acton  Wheeler,   K,   tr  fr  3  Me,   tr  to 

IH.  A., 
John  Warner,  K,  tr  fr  3  Me,  tr  to  1  H.  A.,  „ 
Orville  Young,  K,  tr  fr  3  Me,  „ 

For  Eiiihteenth  Regiment  see  First  Regiment  Heavy  Artillery. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Nineteenth  Infantry  Regiment.  — T\\\s  regiment  enlisted  mostly  in  Knox, 
Kennebec,  Waldo,  and  Sagadahoc  counties,  was  organized  at  Bath,  August  25, 
1862,  for  three  years.  The  field  officers  were  Colonel  Frederick  D.  Sewall, 
who  had  served  as  assistant  adjutant-general  on  the  staff  of  General  Howard; 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Francis  E.  Heath,  who  had  been  a  captain  in  the  Third 
from  organization  ;  ^lajor  Henry  W.  Cunningham,  a  former  captain  of  the 
Fourth.  The  original  members  whose  terms  of  service  expired  before  October, 
1865,  were  mustered  out  of  service  jNIay  31,  1865,  and  the  others  united  with 
the  First  JNlaine  Heavy  Artillery. 

Leaving  Bath  August  27, 1862  (having  been  raised,  organized,  and  equipped 
in  less  than  four  weeks),  it  arrived  at  Washington  August  29,  and  was  ordered 
to  the  defenses  of  the  city.  In  October  it  operated  in  the  Shenandoah  valley, 
and  at  Charleston,  October  16,  first  came  under  fire,  wliere  it  behaved  with  the 
same  coolness  and  steadiness  that  characterized  the  regiment  in  every  subse- 
quent engagement.  November  17  it  took  position  at  Falmouth  in  front  of 
Fredericksburg,  and  participated  in  the  five-days'  battle  in  December.  It  was 
classed  among  the  first  regiments  of  the  corps  for  discipline,  bravery,  and 
efficiency.  At  Fredericksburg,  Chancellorsville,  Bristow  Station,  Gettysburg, 
Wilderness,  Mine  Run,  Spottsylvania,  Po  River,  Tolopotomoy,  North  Anna, 
Coal  Harbor,  Petersburg,  Deep  Bottom,  Ream's  Station,  Strawberry  Plains, 
Boydton  Road,  and  in  otlier  actions  did  this  grand  regiment  conduct  itself 
most  gallantly,  taking  prisoners,  capturing  colors,  and  winning  commendation. 
Over  one-half  its  number  were  killed  and  wounded  at  Gettysburg.  Colonel 
Sewall  resigned  February  19,  1863 ;  Colonel  Heath,  November  1,  1863. 
Colonel  Selden  Connor  was  promoted  to  brigadier-general  July  1,  1864,  and 
Colonel  James  W.  Welch  resigned  October  21,  1864.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cunningham  was  mustered  out  June  11,  1864.  The  regimental  commanding 
officers  in  its  later  service  were  Colonel  Isaac  W.  Starbird,  commissioned 
November  16,  1864;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Joseph  W.  Spaulding,  December  2, 
1864;  and  Major  David  E.  Parsons,  November  1(),  1864. 


Benjamin  F.  Sturgis,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

Henry  A.  Ham,  Corp.,  F, 


George  W.  Hodgman,  F, 


Wm  S.  Small,  F, 


Thomas  L.  Bubier,  F,  tr  V.  R.  C, 


Addison  D.  Gilbert,  F, 


Calvin  B.  Keen,  F, 


Moses  S.  Dennett,  1st  Serg.,  F, 


Henry  H.  Lake,  F,  tr  4  U.  S.  Art., 


Thomas  S.  Rose,  F, 


Jeremiah  Sullivan,  K,  tr  V.  R.  C, 


John  G.  Curtis,  A, 


John  Carter,  A,  tr  fr  4  Me,  tr  1  H.  A., 

Benjamin  C.  Hatch,  B,  Lewiston 

Narcisse  Lamare,  B,  ,, 
Wm  H.  H.  Small,  Corp.,  B,  tr  1  H.  A., 

John  J.  Dalmage,  C,  ,, 

Rufus  Richardson,  C,  tr  1  H.  A.,  ,, 

Martin  V.  B.  Richardson,  C,  ,, 

Charles  Ludes,  D,  tr  1  H.  A.,  ,, 

Joseph  W.  Wilbur,  D,  ,, 

Orrin  I.  Peterson,  D,  tr  V.  R.  C,  Poland 
Augustus  Campbell,  E,  trto  1  H.  A.,  Livermore 

William  Farr,  E,  killed  May  G,  64,  Lewiston 
Lora  H.  Collins,  F, 

Walter  Jerald,  Serg.,  F,  tr  1  H.  A.,  „ 

Military  Affairs. 


George  Morris,  F,  Lewiston 

Marcus  M.  Stone,  F,  tr  1  H.  A..  ,, 
Patrick  Sweeney,  F,  d  in  rebel  prison 

Aug.  27,  64, 

James  H.  Durgan,  G,  ,, 

Rinaldo  A.  Labree,  G,  tr  to  V.  R.  C,  ,, 
William  H.  H.  Small,  G, 

Adolphus  P.  Wilson,  G,  ,, 

Edward  Bogue,  I,  ,, 

Joseph  Baker,  I,  ,, 

John  Curran,  I,  ,, 

Patrick  Harrigan,  I,  died  June  10,  Gi,  „ 

George  Bixby,  K,  ,, 

William  Greenwood,  K,  tr  1  H.  A.,  ,, 
James  W.  Hicks,  K,  tr  to  1  H.  A., 

Loring  McKeen,  K,  ,, 

Norman  McKinsey,  K,  ,, 
John  L.  Thompson,  K,  died  from  wnds 

at  Wilderness,  ,, 
John  H.  Williams,  K,  tr  1  H.  A., 
Daniel  Dana,  B,  tr  fr.  4  Me,  d  Nov.  3,  fi4,       „ 

James  H.  Hutchinson,  B,  ,, 
Joseph  Jordan,  B,                                       Webster 

John  L.  Higgins.C,  tr  f r.  4 Me,  tr  1 H.  A.,  Webster 
Nathan  B.  Harlow,  C,  tr  from  4  Me,  tr  1 

H.  A.,  Auburn 

George  M.  Hatch,  C,  Lewiston 

Seth  W.  Jackson,  C,  tr  from  4  Me,  died 

Oct.  4,  64, 
Frank  Larvin,  C,  tr  fr.  4  Me,  tr  1  H.  A.,       ,, 
Charles  W.  Merrill,  C,  tr  from  4  Me,  tr 

1  H.  A.,  Lisbon 

Patrick  Bray,  F,  tr  fr.  4  Me,  tr  1  H.  A.,  Lewiston 
Michael  King,  F,  „ 

Maxim  Layois,  F,  tr  1  H.  A.,  „ 

Justus  C.  Briggs,  F,  died  in  rebel  prison 

Aug.  10,  ()4,  Turner 

Hezekiah  D,  Morse,  F,  tr  from  4  Me,  tr 

1  H.  A.,  Poland 

James  B.  Davis,  G,  tr  1  H.  A.,  Lewiston 

William  B.  Ellis,  G,  tr  1  H.  A., 
Hugh  Hunter,  G,  tr  1  H,  A.,  „ 

Peter  Lee,  G,  tr  1  H.  A., 
George  Wilbur,  G,  ,, 

Edwin  F.  Carter,  K,  died  April  14,  (54,  ,, 

Samuel  E.  Kenniston,  K,  tr  1  H.  A.,  ,, 

Twenfieth  Infantri/  Bc(/imenf. —  This  was  organized  at  Portland,  August 
29,  1862,  to  serve  three  years.  It  was  extremely  well  organized,  and  the 
personnel  of  its  officers  bespoke  for  it  a  brilliant  service,  which  the  regiment 
fully  maintained.  Professor  Joshua  L.  Chamberlain,  of  Bowdoin  College, 
availed  himself  of  a  leave  of  absence  granted  him  to  visit  Enrope  to  offer 
himself  to  Governor  Washburn  for  military  service,  and  was  appointed  lieu- 
tenant-colonel of  this  regiment,  and  took  command  of  the  rendezvous  until  the 
organization  and  the  arrival  of  Colonel  Adelbert  Ames,  who  had  been  educated 
at  West  Point.  From  graduation  in  1861  he  was  in  active  service  as  captain, 
and  for  gallantry  at  jMalvern  Hill  was  recommended  for  two  brevets,  and 
commissioned  colonel  of  the  Twentieth.  Major  Charles  D.  Gilmore  was  of 
Bangor,  Lieutenants  Augustus  H.  Strickland,  Company  I,  and  William  W. 
Morrill,  Company  K,  were  of  Livermore.  September  3,  1862,  the  regiment 
left  the  state  for  the  Potomac,  and  immediately  entered  upon  the  severe  duties 
of  the  Maryland  campaign  ;  it  took  part  in  Antietam,  Fredericksburg,  and 
many  reconnoissances,  skirmishes,  and  expeditions  during  the  winter.  In  the 
movements  preceding  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  the  regiment  was  left  in 
camp,  the  men  having  been  inoculated  with  small-pox  through  mistake,  and 
Colonel  Ames  secured  detached  service  on  General  Meade's  staff.  At  the 
sound  of  the  first  gun  of  the  battle  Lieutenant-Colonel  Chamberlain  solicited 
the  privilege  of  taking  the  regiment  somewliere  on  the  line,  saying  that  "  we 
would  give  the  rebels  the  small-pox  if  nothing  else,"  and  was  soon  put  in 
charge  of  the  signal  and  telegraph  lines  from  headquarters  to  the  several 
stations  on  the  battlefield.  May  20  he  was  commissioned  colonel.  July  2, 
1863,  the  Twentieth  had  to  hold  the  extreme  left  of  the  Union  line,  and  with- 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

stood  an  attack  of  an  entire  rebel  brigade  for  two  hours  in  front,  flank,  and 
rear.  Holding  the  position  with  the  loss  of  half  its  men,  it  drove  the  remnants 
of  Hood's  division  before  it,  and  captured  and  held  all  night  the  heights  of 
Round  Top,  taking  more  than  double  its  own  number  in  prisoners.  The  credit 
of  capturing  Hound  Top  is  entirely  due  to  the  Twentieth,  and  for  it  they  were 
officially  thanked  by  brigade,  division,  and  corps  commanders,  and  Colonel 
Chamberlain  recommended  by  all  for  promotion.  He  was  dangerously  wounded 
at  Petersburg,  June  18,  and  "for  meritorious  and  efficient  service  on  the  held 
of  battle,  and  especially  for  gallant  conduct,"  he  was  appointed  brigadier- 
general  by  General  Grant  on  the  field  —  the  only  instance  of  the  kind  in  the 
history  of  the  army.  The  Twentieth  passed  the  winter  of  1863-4  at  Rappa- 
hannock Station,  which  it  had  aided  in  capturing,  and  joined  the  campaign  of 
brilliant  service  which  embraced  the  battles  of  Locust  Grove,  Spottsylvania, 
Laurel  Hill,  North  Anna,  Petersburg,  Weldon  Railroad,  Peeble's  Farm, 
Hatcher's  Run.  It  also  did  gallant  duty  during  its  service  at  Mine  Run,  Wil- 
derness, Five  Forks,  was  skirmishing  with  the  enemy  at  Appomattox  when  Lee 
surrendered,  and  was  one  of  the  regiments  designated  to  receive  the  Confed- 
erate arms.  Major  Gilmore  had  risen  to  be  colonel,  and  resigned  May  29, 
1865,  and  was  succeeded  by  Colonel  Spear.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Walter  G. 
Morrill  and  Major  Atherton  W.  Clark  were  discharged  June  4,  1865,  and 
Colonel  Ellis  Spear,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas  D.  Chamberlain  and  Major 
George  R.  Abbott  were  in  command  until  the  final  muster-out,  July  16,  1865. 
The  original  members  whose  service  expired  before  October,  1865,  had  been 
mustered  out  in  June,  when  the  men  of  the  Sixteenth  Regiment  and  First 
Sharpshooters  were  transferred  to  the  Twentieth. 


Aug.  H.  Strickland,  Lieut,  C,  Livermore 

Daniel  If.  Kilbreth,  Serg.,  C,  ,, 

Sereah  M.  Pratt,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 
Albert  C.    Pray,    Corp.,    C,    promoted 

Serg. -Major,  ,, 

Edward  R.  Brown,  C,  ,, 
Elisha  ().  Drake,  C, 

Lucius  M.  Joslin,  C,  ,, 

Davi.s  Jjarrabee,  C,  ,, 
William  Libby,  C, 

George  D.  Neal,  Serg.,  C,  ,, 

Albert  Roberts,  C,  ,, 

Seba  Smith,  C,  trans  to  V.  11.  C,  ,, 
Oliver  L.  Stevens,   C,  died  of  wounds 

July  11,  6:5, 
Alexis  C.  Taylor,  C, 

Arad  Thompson,  Serg.,  C,  pro  Capt.,  K,  ,, 

Philip  Williams,  C,  trans  to  V.  R.  C,  „ 
Henry  C.  Simmons,  C,  died  Dec.  13,  ()2,    Turner 

"Winslow  Turner,  C,  Leeds 
George  F.  .Toy,  Corp.,  K,                           Durham 

James  H.  Miller,  Corp.,  K,  tr  V.  R.  C,  Durham 
Irving  Tyler,  Mus.,  K,  ,, 

Wm  H.  Pollister,  K,  trans  to  V.  R.  C,  „ 
James  R.  Merrill,  K,  kd  at  Gettysburg,  ,, 
.lohn  F.  Bickford,  K,  Danville 

George  W.  Carleton,  K,  Lewiston 

Frank  Clark,  Serg. -Major,  pro  from  K,   Auburn 
Josei)li  Tyler,  Mus.,  Durham 

Louis  Benoit,  A,  Lewiston 

Wm.  W.  Morrill,  Capt.,  A,  killed  May 

8, 64,  Livermore 

Melvin  W.  Marston,  D,  Durham 

Geo.  Bryan,  D,  trans  fr  16tli  Me,  Lewiston 

Reuben  H.  Estes,  D.,  trans  fr  1st  S.  S.,  ,, 
James  Houlahan,  D,  tr  fr  16th  Me,  ,, 

Eugene  Hinkley,  E,  tr  fr  1st  S.  S.,trtoI,  ,, 
George  T.  Davis,  D,  tr  fr  16tb  Me,  Turner 

George  R.  Grover,  G,  tr  fr  16  Me,  Lewiston 

Francis  H.  Reed,  G,  Minot 

Joseph  Macomber,  H,  died  in  rebel  pri.,  Durham 
Alonzo  G.  Turner,  H,  „ 

Military  Affairs.  139 

John  Sullivan,  H,  Minot 

Otis  Thompson,  H,  Poland 

Jolin  Whittinghaui,  H,  Lewiston 

Micliael  Mot4ooty,  I,  Auburn 

John  Newbury,  I,  Lewiston 

Samuel  B.  Libby,  K,  Durham 

Enoch  F.  Newell,  K,  Sgt.,  Durham 

Enoch  M.  Billington,  K,  tr  £r  10  Me,  Auburn 

Timothy  Cahan,  K,  tr  fr  KJ  Me,  Lewiston 

William  Day,  K,  Auburn 

Lawrence  Doyle,  K,  Lewiston 
William  T.  Rowe,  K,  tr  fr  1(1  Me, 

Twenty-First  Infantry  Bcyiment .—T\\\&  was  a  nine-months'  regiment,  organ- 
ized at  Augusta  in  September,  and  mustered  October  14,  1862.  Elijah  D. 
Johnson,  of  Lewiston,  was  colonel ;  Nathan  Stanley,  of  Vassalboro,  lieutenant- 
colonel  ;  Benjamin  G.  Merry,  of  Bath,  major.  It  joined  General  Banks  at  New 
York,  where  he  was  organizing  his  expedition  for  opening  the  Mississippi,  and 
on  arrival  in  Louisiana  was  stationed  at  Baton  Rouge,  where  miasma  soon  caused 
great  suffering  from  disease.  It  did  good  service  in  the  various  attacks  on 
Port  Hudson,  was  one  of  the  first  regiments  to  approach  the  works,  fought 
against  superior  numbers  with  the  courage  of  veterans,  and  in  the  terrible 
encounters  of  May  27  and  June  14,  LS63,  did  well  its  part,  although  suffering 
great  loss.  Its  term  of  service  expired  during  the  siege,  but  the  men 
volunteered  to  serve  until  the  capture  of  the  city,  which  was  accomplished 
July  9, 1863.  They  received  compliments  from  General  Banks  for  the  efficient 
service  they  had  rendered.  July  25  the  regiment  started  for  Maine,  where  it 
was  mustered  out  August  25,  1863,  after  nearly  a  year's  service,  during  which 
it  traveled  over  4,000  miles. 

Twenty-Sfcond  Infantry  Regiment. — Another  nine-months'  regiment  mus- 
tered into  United  States  service  at  Bangor,  October  18,  1862.  Simon  G. 
Jerrard,  of  Levant,  was  commissioned  colonel;  Olonzo  G.  Putnam,  of  Dover, 
lieutenant-colonel.  Its  service  was  principally  on  the  lower  Mississippi.  It 
was  the  first  regiment  to  occupy  Baton  Kouge,  drove  the  enemy  at  Franklin, 
La,  did  constant  duty  during  the  siege  of  Port  Hudson,  and  was  quartered 
inside  the  works  after  the  surrender.  It  was  mustered  out  at  Bangor,  August 
14,  1863,  its  term  of  enlistment  having  expired.  Androscoggin  county  was 
represented  in  Company  E  by  Edward  W.  Weymouth  of  Webster. 

Tiventy-Third  Infantry  Regiment.  —  This  organization  was  made  up  almost 
entirely  by  men  of  Androscoggin  and  Oxford  counties,  and  was  mustered  into 
United  States  service  at  Portland,  September  29,  1862,  to  serve  nine  months. 
"It  is  believed  that  in  moral  and  intellectual  qualities  the  men  of  this  regiment 
have  not  been  exceeded  by  any  sent  from  the  state.  A  large  number  of  our 
most  intelligent  citizens,  graduates  of  seminaries  and  colleges,  men  of  culture 
and  wealth,  were  found  in  its  ranks,  and  the  number  of  men  of  foreign  birth 
would  scarcely  exceed  a  dozen  in  the  entire  regiment."^  The  commissioned 
regimental  officers  were :  William  Wirt  Virgin,  of  Norway,  colonel ;  Enos  T. 
Luce,  of  Auburn,  lieutenant-colonel:  Alfred  B.  Soule,  of  Lewiston,  major; 
Winthrop  H.  Hall,  of  Palmyra,  adjutant ;  William  Bray,  of  Turner,  quarter- 

1"  Maine  in  the  War." 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

master  ;  Jesse  P.  Sweat,  of  Brownfield,  surgeon;  Richard  R.  Ricker,  of  Minot, 
assistant  surgeon ;  Joseph  C.  Snow,  of  Norway,  chaplain. 

Companies  A,  1),  E,  G,  and  I  were  Androscoggin  companies.  The 
Twenty-third  passed  its  ten  months  of  service  at  various  points  along  the 
Potomac,  and  acquired  a  high  reputation  for  efficiency  in  drill  and  guard  duty. 
During  this  time  it  had  its  share  of  hard  marches,  performed  much  fatigue, 
guard,  and  picket  duty,  but  was  never  under  fire.  This  is  no  discredit  to 
either  officers  or  men,  as  they  were  well-disciplined,  doing  their  duty  promptly 
and  well.  The  citizens  of  Edwards  Ferry,  where  the  regiment  was  on  guard 
for  months,  in  a  letter  to  the  brigade  commander  said  of  the  Twenty-third : 
"  At  no  time  since  the  occupation  of  this  section  of  the  state  by  military 
forces  have  we  sustained  so  little  detriment  to  our  property  by  the  depreda- 
tions of  soldiers;  no  regiment  has  done  so  much  towards  diminishing  the 
inconveniences  inseparable  from  a  state  of  war  and  effacing  the  distinction 
between  years  of  former  peace  and  the  current  turbulent  times.  Intelligence, 
urbanity,  and  all  the  soldierly  qualities  in  our  opinion  characterize  the  officers 
and  men  of  this  regiment  in  an  eminent  degree ;  and  in  declaring  our 
unanimous  and  grateful  recognition  of  their  qualities  we  perform  not  only  a 
pleasant,  but  what  seems  to  us  an  imperative  duty." 

June  27,  1863,  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  Portland,  where  it  was 
mustered  out  July  15,  having  lost  fifty  men  by  disease  and  accident. 

Enos  T.  Luce,  Lt-Col, 

Richard  R.  Ricker,  Asst-Surg., 

Robert  M.  Sykes,  F.  M., 

William  Bray,  Q.  M., 

Alfred  B.  Soule,  Major, 

Dudley  B.  Varuey,  Capt.,  A, 

Kirke  W.  Moses,  Lieut,  A, 

Henry  A.  Norcross,  Lieut,  A,  pro  Adjt, 

Sumner  Nason,  Sgt,  A,  pro  Lieut, 

Wm  Bagnall,  Sgt,  A, 

Ethelbert  C.  Caswell,  Sgt,  A, 

Wm  F.  Forbes,  Sgt,  A, 

Ed.  M.  Dearborn,  Sgt,  A, 

Alvali  J.  Hervoy,  Corp.,  A, 

Israel  B.  Merrill,  Corp.,  A, 

Lloyd  (}.  Arnold,  Corp.,  A, 

Abel  D.  Cook,  Corp.,  A, 

Frank  M.  Follansbee,  Corp.,  A, 

Nathaniel  Davis,  Corp.,  A, 

Uriah  Reed,  Corp.,  A, 

Thomas  F.  Doyle,  Corp.,  A, 

Wm  Wing,  Mus.,  A, 

John  Neal,  Mus.,  A, 

Jas.  R.  Fairbrother,  Wag.,  A, 

Albert  A.  Barker,  A, 

George  B.  Bearce,  A, 



Joseph  F.  Berry,  A, 



Richard  Black,  A, 


Charles  E.  Blackwell,  A, 


Charles  M.  Bradbury,  A, 
William  F.  Brann,  A, 
William  C.  Bridge,  A, 
Freeman  Burleigh,  A, 
Philip  Cantlon,  A, 
John  H.  L.  Chick,  A, 
John  Clear,  A, 
Frank  A.  Conant,  A, 
Aaron  T.  Corliss,  A, 
James  M.  Crockett,  A, 
Benjamin  P.  Cummings,  A, 
Roscoe  G.  Day,  A, 
Charles  P.  Dean,  A, 
Peter  J.  Dresser,  A, 
Henry  N.  Eastman,  A, 
Joshua  B.  Emery,  A, 

Barton  A.  Fields,  A,  died  Nov. 

29,  62,         „ 

Robert  A.  Fields,  A, 

John  B.  Fowler,  A, 

Francis  M.  Gammage,  A, 

Caleb  S.  Gilbert,  A, 

Joseph  R.  Gilbert,  A, 
G.  W.  Goodbehere,  A, 

Military  Affairs. 


Simon  P.  Gray,  A,  Lewiston 

Amos  Hadley,  A,  ,, 

Freeman  C.  Hall,  A,  ,, 

John  L.  Ham,  A,  ,, 

Edwin  Haskell,  A,  ,, 

Cyrus  Hayford,  A,  ,, 

Joseph  D.  Harville,  A,  ,, 

William  N.  Higgins,  A,  „ 

Henry  H.  Hinckley,  A,  ,, 

Walter  S.  Hodges,  A,  ,, 

Charles  K.  Hooker,  A,  ,, 

Allen  Hogarth,  A,  ,, 

Charles  E.  Huston,  A,  ,, 
John  M.  Jackson,  A,  pro  Lieut  'o2  Mc,         ,, 

Peter  Jerris,  A,  ,, 

James  B.  Ladd,  A,  ,, 

Elbridge  T.  Landers,  A,  „ 

Moses  Lee,  A,  ,, 

Joseph  M.  Litchfield,  A,  ,, 

Samuel  A.  Lord,  A,  ,, 

William  H.  Love,  A,  ,, 

Roscoe  F.  Ludwig,  A,  ,, 

William  H.  Mace,  A,  „ 

Dennis  Mara,  A,  ,, 

William  McDonald,  A,  ,, 

Cleveland  B.  Merrill,  A,  ,, 

Fred  Miller,  A,  ,, 

Jonas  A.  Mitchell,  A,  ,, 

Patrick  Munster,  A,  ,, 

John  Murphy,  A,  ,, 

Elbridge  G.  Oaks,  A,  „ 

John  Oliver,  A,  ,, 

Silas  Perham,  A,  ,, 

John  Pinkham,  A,  „ 

Dennis  Roberts,  A,  „ 

John  Rogers,  A,  ,, 

Hiram  B.  Rose,  A,  ,, 

Patrick  Rowan,  A,  ,, 

John  Sheehan,  A,  ,, 
Nath  E.  Skelton,  A, 

Phineas  W.  Skinner,  A,  ,, 

Aretas  Small,  A,  ,, 

John  B.  Stickney,  A,  ,, 

Jeremiah  A.  Sullivan,  A,  ,, 

Everett  Temple,  A,  ,, 

Ivory  Temple,  A,  ,, 
Elbridge  G.  Thomas,  A, 
Earl  S.  Ware,  A, 

Amos  Whitney,  A,  ,, 

Chester  Whitney,  A,  ,, 

John  S.  Winslow,  A,  ,, 
Henry  E.  Wood,  A, 
John  C.  Wright.  A, 

Charles  E.  Bradford,  Capt.,  D,  Turner 
Horace  C.  Haskell,  Lieut,  D,  promoted 

Capt.,  March  1,  63,  ,, 

Chandler  B.  Bailey,  1st  Serg.,  D,  ,, 

Job  P.  Leavitt,  Serg.,  D,  pro  Lieut,  ,, 

James  Clark,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

John  E.  Ashe,  Corp.,  D,  pro  Serg.,  Turner 

Benj.  F.  Hodsdon,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

Thaddeus  Leavitt,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

Lewis  P.  Bradford,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 
Thomas  AV.  Davis,  Corp.,  D,  d  Jan.  14,  (i3,     ,, 

William  Smith,  Musician,  D,  ,, 

Jason  L.  Allen,  D,  ,, 

Benjamin  F.  Beals,  D,  ,, 

John  O.  Bean,  D,  ,, 

Mellen  A.  Bearce,  D,  ,, 

Asa  L.  Berry,  D,  ,, 

Charles  Blake,  D,  „ 

Leonard  P.  Bradford,  D,  ,, 

Philip  Bray,  D,  pro  Com.  Serg.,  ,, 

Benjamin  L.  Briggs,  D,  trans  25  rgt.,  ,, 

Morrill  E.  Briggs,  D,  trans  25  rgt.,  ,, 

Samuel  S.  Butler,  D,  „ 

James  A.  Cary,  D,  ,, 

Luther  K.  Carey,  D,  „ 

Thomas  T.  Cary,  D,  „ 

Howard  Conant,  D,  „ 

Sanford  Conant,  D,  „ 

Benjamin  Cox,  D,  ,, 

Jason  Cutler,  D,  ,, 
William  H.  Delano,  D, 

Elbridge  G.  Francis,  D,  „ 

Edwin  S.  French,  D,  ,, 
Edwin  E.  Fuller,  D, 
Hartwell  S.  French,  D, 

Lewis  D.  Hayford,  D,  „ 

Cyrus  W.  Hersey,  D,  ,, 

George  F.  Holmes,  D,  „ 

Ronello  B.  Keene,  D,  „ 

Lorenzo  S.  Leavitt,  D,  ,, 

James  McCorrison,  D,  ,, 

Calvin  McKenney,  D,  ,, 

Marcellus  S.  Merrill,  D,  ,, 

Shirley  Merrill,  I),  ,, 

Winslow  Merrill,  D,  ,, 

Samuel  T.  Perry,  D,  „ 

Isaac  Phillips,  D,  ,, 

Edson  Reckards,  D,  „ 

George  G.  Richardson,  D,  ,, 

Ira  A.  ShurtlelT,  D,  „ 

Edgar  E.  Swett,  D,  ,, 

George  C.  Wheaton,  D,  ,, 

James  A.  Whiting,  D,  „ 

Jolin  B.  Woodman,  D,  ,, 
Hiram  Moore,  Lieut.,  D,                               Minot 
Frank  H.  Hall,  Corp.,  D, 

John  A.  Barrows,  D  (Auburn)  killed,  ,, 

Azor  Bicknell,  D,  ,, 

Horace  C.  Briggs,  D,  ,, 

Justus  H  Briggs,  D  (Auburn),  „ 

James  Cox,  D,  ,, 

Albion  A.  Crooker,  D,  ,, 

Wellington  D.  Curtis,  D,  „ 

Charles  R.  Davis,  D,  ,, 

James  L.  Dingley,  D,  „ 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Albert  Downes,  D,  Minot 

Joseph  Freeman,  D,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Martin,  D,  „ 

Judson  B.  Swett,  D,  „ 

Daniel  H.  Woodward,  D,  ,, 
Almon  C  Pray,  Capt.,  E,                           Auburn 

Freedom  H.  Lander,  1st  Lieut,  E,  ,, 

James  White,  E,  Serg.,  pro  Lieut,  T,  ,, 
Joseph  Littlefield,  Serg.,  E,  pro  1st  Serg.,     ,, 

Alex  Stinson,  Serg.,  E,  ,, 

George  W.  Bailey,  Corp.,  E,  ,, 

Aug  H.  Haskell,  Corp.,  E,  „ 

Joseph  Gould,  Corp.,  E,  ,, 

George  W.  Noyes,  Corp.,  E,  ,, 

J.  B.  K.  Drake,  Mus.,  E,  „ 

Frank  H.  Keed,  Mus.,  E,  „ 

Horace  C.  Thayer,  Wag.,  E,  ,, 

P^ancis  Allen,  E,  ,, 

Henry  H.  Bailey,  E,  „ 

George  S.  Boutelle,  E,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Aug  E.  Briggs,  E,  „ 
Jeff  L.  Briggs,  E, 

A.  H.  Chamberlain,  E,  ,, 

Harrison  A.  Coffin,  E,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Curtis,  E,  ,, 

David  S.  Curtis,  E,  ,, 

James  Dingley,  Jr,  E,  ,, 

John  T.  Dennison,  E,  ,, 
Calvin  F.  Durrell,  E, 
Elias  E.  Elliott,  E,  trans  to  25  Me, 

Jona  L.  Flagg,  E,  ,, 

Oscar  F.  Gammon,  E,  ,, 
Geo.  B.  Glover,  E, 

Aug  D.  Gurney,  E,  ,, 

Isaac  Haskell,  E,  ,, 

Simeon  H.  Haskell,  E,  ,, 

Stephen  VV.  Hersey,  E,  ,, 
Wm  W.  Holmes,  E, 

Stafford  B.  Jones,  E,  ,, 

Charles  M.  Keith,  E,  „ 
Nath  H.  Lander,  E, 

George  W.  Lane,  E,  ,, 

Arthur  G.  Larrabee,  E,  ,, 

Joshua  Littlefield,  Jr,  E,  ,, 

Frank  O.  Lovejoy,  E,  ,, 

John  McDonald,  E,  ,, 
Clark  Mitchell,  E, 
Thos.  P.  Mitchell,  E, 

James  W.  Morgan,  E,  died  May  21,  1862,       ,, 

George  F.  Merrow,  E,  ,, 

George  F.  Newell,  E,  ,, 

George  W.  Nickerson,  Serg.,  E,  ,, 

Charles  S.  Ricker,  E,  ,, 

Ilufus  E.  Rounds,  E,  ,, 

Charles  F.  Sawyer,  E,  ,, 

Edward  H.  Sawyer,  E,  ,, 
Jo-seph  M.  Small,  E,  died  Dec.  28, 1862,  „ 

Leonard  O.  Smith,  E,  ,, 

Abel  C.  T.  Stevens,  E,  „ 

William  S.  Stevens,  E,  Auburn 

Robert  M.  Sykes,  E,  „ 

Royal  F.  Starbird,  E,  „ 

Richard  H.  Swett,  E,  „ 

Wm  K.  Vickery,  E,  „ 

Augustus  White,  E,  ,, 

Charles  W.  Gerrish,  Lieut,  E,  Lisbon 

Wm  H.  H.  Atwood,  E,  „ 

Ozias  B.  Cotton,  E,  „ 

Samuel  G.  Dingley,  E,  ,, 

Edsel  A.  Douglas,  E,  „ 

Benj.  R.  Durgin,  E,  ,, 

Chas.  W.  Felch,  E,  .  „ 

Wm.  C.  Green,  E,  ,, 

Hiram  B.  Higgins,  E,  ,, 

Lorenzo  Hinckley,  E,  „ 

Abel  G.  Jackson,  E,  „ 

Abner  Jordan,  E,  ,, 

Robt.  E.  Mitchell,  E,  ,, 

Caleb  C.  Smith,  E, 

John  A.  Smith,  E, 

John  Wallace,  E,  „ 

Alfred  Wescott,  E, 

Josiah  T.  Jordan,  Serg.,  E,  Webster 

^Matthew  S.  Jordan,  Serg.,  E, 

Robert  H.  Niles,  Corp.,  E, 

Winfield  B.  Cutter,  Corp.,  E, 

Benjamin  D.  Bryent,  Corp.,  E, 

Charles  Mann,  Corp.,  E, 

William  F.  Alexander,  E, 

Nath  Courson,  E, 

Edward  J.  Cutter,  E, 

Benjamin  P.  Jordan,  E, 

Darius  Jordan,  E, 

Harris  W.  Jordan,  E, 

John  Leigh,  E, 

Llewellyn  S.  Libby,  E, 

George  A.  Moody,  E, 

Franklin  T.  Robinson,  E, 

Horatio  G.  Small,  Corp.,  E, 

Evander  Tarbox,  E, 

Alonzo  Tarr,  E, 

James  Thompson,  E, 

Lincoln  E.  Woodbury,  E, 

Alonzo  P.  Lamb,  Capt.,  G,  Poland 

Joseph  H.  Freeman,  Lieut,  G,  ,, 

Lucius  D.  Fisher,  Serg.,  G,  ,, 

Solomon  D.  Cushmau,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Lucius  Davis,  Corp.,  G,  ., 

Charles  S.  Libby,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Sidney  A.  Griffin,  Corp.,  G,  „ 

Greenlief  Emery,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Alviu  F.  Foss,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Silas  A.  Megquier,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Eugene  L.  Dennen,  Mus.,  G,  ,, 

William  H.  Allen,  G,  died  Dec.  10,  62, 

Clarenton  W.  Benson,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Eben  Bowen,  G,  died  Jan.  28,  63, 

Joseph  R.  Bragdon,  G,  died  Jfii;.  23,  63,        ,, 

Military  Affairs. 

Stephen  Bray,  G, 

Ezra  D.  Chandler,  G 

Samnel  F.  Chaplin,  G,  trans  U.  S  N 

Levi  E.  Cole,  G,  ' 

Osgood  Cole,  G, 

Almon  Crooker,  G, 

Benjamin  Davis,  G, 

Moses  B.  Davis,  G,  ' 

Timothy  T.  Downing,  G, 

Samuel  H.  Dudley,  G, 

Bertrand  F.  Dunn,  G,' 

Alfred  Dustin,  G,  ' 

James  W.  Field,  G, 

William  G.  Gerry,  G, 

Noah  H.  Goodwin',  G, 

Francis  A.  Hannaford,  G, 

Bloomville  Herrick,  G, 

Mark  A.  Herrick,  G, 

Aug  M.  Jackson,  G, 

Charles  W.  Jordan,'  G, 

Andrew  Kilgore,  G, 

Elvin  W.  Locke,  G,' 

Lemuel  F.  ^[arshall,  G, 

Joseph  W.  Mills,  G, 

William  W.  Pratt,  G, 

Joseph  Reed,  G, 

Willard  Stone,  6, 

Charles  H.  Tripp,'  G, 

Joseph  P.  Tripp,  G  ' 

Thomas  J.  True,  Jr',  G,  drown  Jan.  20  63 

Jeremiah  Verrill,  G  "'"■  ■^'J,bd, 

Plnneas  Walker,  G,'died  Jan.  14,  63 
George  L.  Whitman,  G, 

Edwin  Woodsum,  G, 

David  Woodsum,  G  ' 

Cbarles  Thurston,  1st  Lieut,  G  nn      •„ 

Joseph  Rounds,  Serg.,  G,  i>anv,lle 

Joseph  Goss,  Serg.,G', 

Horatio  Benson,  G, 

Cyrus  Cobb,  G, 

Judson  Dawes,  G, 

Orrin  Emerson,  G, 

Brackett  M.  Field,  G, 

Charles  L.  Field,  G 

Charles  M.  Goss,  G, 

Aaron  Knights,  G,' 

Dominicus  Libby,  G, 

Gershom  C.  Libby,  G, 

Lewis  McKinney,  G,  ' 

Warren  B.  McKenney,  G 

Seward  Penley,  G, 
Stephen  M.  Pullen,  G, 
William  D.  Pulcifer,  G, 
Calvin  B.  Rice,  G, 
Elbridge  G.  Robinson,  G 
Erancis  R.  Rounds,  G, 
William  W.  Royal,  G,' 
WilUam  L.  Shackley,  G 


James  L.  Shackley,  G, 
Andrew  M.  Smith,  G, ' 
George  ^Vagg,  G, 
Ezekiel  D.  Witham,  G 
Thatcher  W.  Parker,  I'st  Serg    a 
Josiah  H.  Mower,  Serg    G 
Lowell  M.  Mower,  Corp'  G 
Jarvis  T.  Beal,  G,  '     ' 

Moses  C;.  Beal,  G,' 
William  Beal,  G,' 
Charles  A.  Bradbury  G 
Converse  R.  Daggett,  G,' 
Alvah  N.  Dexter,  G, 
William  Donnell,  g', 
Chris  C.  Gorman,  G,' 
James  M.  Lowell,  g', 
Charles  H.  Morse   G 

Darius  Pease,  G,  died  Dec.  11,  1862, 
Lllery  Perea,  G, 

Charles  H.  Pratt,  G, 

Henry  A.  Smith,  G,' 

Edwin  W.  Taylor,  G, 

James  S.  Nash,  Capt'  I 

Amos  Leavitt,Corp.,'l,  pro  Serg., 

Johns        ders.  Corp.,  I.  pro  SeW., 
JMiiton  Leavitt,  Corp.    I 

Samuel  D.  Merrill,  Corp    I 

Cyrus  M.  Barrows,  Mus  'l' 

John  M.  Bumpus,  I         '    ' 

Willard  Carver,  I, 

John  Casey,  I, 

Jacob  G.  Edge'combe,  I, 

Lee  Edgecombe,  I, 

Elbridge  P.  Gibbs,' I, 

Charles  H.  Harrington   I 

Lorenzo  B.  Harrington,  l' 

Fred  A.  Haskell,  I, 

Isaac  Hewett,  I, 

Emerson  W.  Hill,  I 

Drewrie  Howard,!,' 

Henry  R.  Merrill,  I, 

Roscoe  Merrill,  I, 

Samuel  D.  Merrill,  I, 

Joseph  R.  Oldham',  I, 

Samuel  H.  Peterson,  'l, 

George  W.  Bobbins,  I,' 

Davis  T.  Timberlake   I 

Henry  C.  Wentworth,  Lieut  I  Ea.f  r  •     " 

William  W.  Noyes,ls;Ser"    I  ^^^^^more 

pro  Capt.,  *  '    ' 

James  L.  Morse,  Corp.,  I 
Caleb  W.  Brown,  I, 
Sylvester  D.  Brown',  I, 
Charles  L.  Burgess,  I,  ' 
John  W.  Dow,  I, 
Enoch  L.  Farrington,  Corp.,  I 
S.  Farrington,  I, 
Charles  D.  Fuller,  I,  died 
A.  P.  Fuller,  I,  ' 






History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Charles  H.  Kimball,  I,  died  Jan. 

17, 1863,  East  Livermore 

Charles  R.  Mitchell,  I,  died  Dec. 

20,  1862, 
Tisdale  D.  Norris,  I,  ,,  ,, 

Nathan  J.  Sanford,  I,  ,,  ,, 

Orville  K.  Trask,  I,  died  Mar.  18, 

1863,  ,,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Leadbetter,  Serjj.,  I,  Leeds 

Oscar  D.  Turner,  Serg.,  I,  >. 

Albert  Barker,  Serg.,  I,  ,, 

Loring  P.  Gould,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

Sewell  Woodman,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

Jason  Carver,  Wag.,  I,  ,> 

George  T.  Bishop,  Corp.,  I,  ,, 

Seth  F.  Burnham,  I,  died  Mar.  8,  63,  ,, 

James  H.  Burnham,  I,  ,, 

Milton  W.  Burnham,  I,  ,, 

Russell  L.  Gould,  I,  ,, 

Daniel  W.  Hinkley,  I, 

Charles  T.  Knights,  I,  ,, 

Lorenzo  Leadbetter,  I,  ,, 

Frank  J.  Lindsey,  I, 


Thomas  J.  Lindsey,  Corp.,  I, 


Rufus  K.  Perea,  I, 


Ireson  B.  Pettingill,  I,  died  Mar. 



Elisha  P.  Ramsdell,  I,  died  Jan. 

10,  63, 


John  R.  Smith,  I, 


Joshua  H.  Sumner,  I, 


James  D.  Towle,  I, 


John  E.  Woodman,  I, 

,  J 

Thomas  T.  Jenkins,  Corp.,  I, 


Albert  L.  Additon,  I, 


Llewellyn  O.  Foster,  I, 


Charles  H.  McITarland,  I, 


Philip  H.  Tarr,  I, 


Arthur  Given,  Jr,  Serg.,  G, 


Royal  E.  Whitman,  Capt.,  G, 

pro  from 



James  White,  2d  Lieut,  I,  tr  from  E, 


Moses  F.  Hackett,  Serg.,  K, 


Arthur  M.  Parker,  Serg.,  H, 


Philip  Bray,  Cora.  Serg.,    D, 


Albert  I.  Additon,  I, 


Twenty-Fourth  Infantri/  Bef/iment. — This  regiment  was  organized  at  Augusta 
October  16,  1862,  to  serve  nine  months,  and  was  mustered  out  August  25, 
1863.  George  M.  Atwood,  of  Gardiner,  was  colonel.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Charles  T.  Bean  was  discharged  on  the  day  of  muster-in,  and  July  1,  1863, 
Major  Eben  Hutchinson  was  appointed  in  his  stead.  Captain  William  Hol- 
brook  of  Company  H  was  commissioned  major,  July  23,  1863.  This  regiment 
formed  part  of  Banks's  expedition  on  the  lower  Mississippi,  and  was  engaged 
in  the  various  duties  contingent  upon  an  army  of  occupation.  May  21  the 
regiment  was  ordered  to  Port  Hudson,  where  it  remained  during  the  long  siege, 
and  was  often  called  upon  to  build  roads  and  bridges  during  the  approach  of 
the  forces  to  the  stronghold  of  the  enemy,  and  was  often  engaged  in  action. 
Nearly  every  night  during  the  investment  the  men  were  working  on  earth- 
works and  rifle-pits.  The  regiment  participated  in  the  desperate  assaults  of 
May  27  and  June  14.  It  lost  heavily  from  disease,  184  dying,  and  about  100 
being  discharged  for  disability.  Out  of  900  men  of  the  original  organization 
only  570  returned,  yet  none  were  killed  in  battle  or  died  of  wounds.  Andros- 
coggin county  was  represented  in  this  regiment  by  George  R.  Foster,  fife-major, 
of  Lisbon,  and  Albert  Harlow,  Company  D. 

Twenty-Fifth  Infmitry  Regiment.  —  This  regiment,  mustered  into  United 
States  service  at  Portland,  September  29,  1862,  was  the  first  nine-months' 
regiment  to  leave  the  state.  Its  colonel  was  Francis  Fessenden,  a  captain  in 
the  United  States  Army ;  Charles  E.  Shaw  was  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Alex- 
ander l\r.  Tolman,  major,  all  of  Portland.  Josiah  Carr,  of  Minot,  was  surgeon. 
Leaving  Portland,  October  16,  for  Washington,  it  there  joined  the  forces  for 
the  defense  of  that  city,  and  did  much  fatigue  and  picket  duty.     It  built  on 

Military  Affairs. 


Arlington  Heights  a  camp  of  convenient  log  houses  with  board  roofs,  the  most 
elaborate  and  durable  camp  ever  constructed  in  the  department.  .June  21, 
1863,  the  First  brigade,  composed  of  the  Tvvent3^-fifth  and  Twenty-seventh 
Maine,  was  ordered  to  report  to  (leneral  Slocum,  commanding  the  Twelfth 
Corps  at  Leesburg,  but  as  their  time  of  service  had  nearly  passed,  they  were 
sent  to  Maine  for  muster-out,  and  arrived  at  Portland,  July  3,  1863,  where  the 
Twenty-fifth  was  discharged  on  July  10.  The  Twenty-fifth  participated  in  no 
engagement,  but  performed  its  responsible  and  arduous  duties  with  faithfulness 
and  zeal. 


Josiah  Carr,  surgeon, 

B.  L.  Briggs,  band, 

M.  E.  Briggs,  band, 

George  VV.  Spear,  A, 

Arthur  L.  Coombs,  Wag.,  B, 

Henry  Beal,  B, 

William  D.  Brewster,  B, 

Julius  E.  Eveleth,  Corp.,  B, 

Horace  P.  Merrill,  B, 

Sumner  N.  Strout,  Serg.,  T),  pro  Lieut, 

William  W.  Bailey,  Corp., 

Nathaniel  D.  Chase,  Corp.,  D, 

Isaac  M.  Bishop,  Jr,  D, 

Silas  Campbell,  D, 


John  H.  Davis,  D, 


Nelson  Gatchell,  D,  died  Dec. 
John  Q.  Jordan,  D, 

15,  1862 


William  Mcintosh,  D, 



Webster  Nevens,  D, 
Albert  Owen,  D, 
Alfred  Roberts,  D, 
Edmund  H.  Soper,  D, 
Benjamin  F.  Stevens,  D, 
Francis  Venus,  D, 
Orrin  S.  Vickery,  Corp.,  D, 
Joseph  O.  Wilson,  D, 
Frank  Crockett,  Serg.,  D, 


Sylvester  F.  Jordan,  1st  Serg. 




Twenty-Sixth  lufantrii  Reniment.  —  Knox,  Hancock,  and  Waldo  counties 
furnished  the  men  for  the  Twenty-sixth,  organized  at  Bangor,  October  11,  1862, 
to  serve  nine  months.  Nathaniel  H.  Hubbard,  of  Winterport,  was  colonel; 
Philo  Hersey,  of  Belfast,  lieutenant-colonel;  and  James  N.  Fowler,  of  Sears- 
port,  major.  After  a  brief  sojourn  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  the  regiment 
joined  the  forces  of  General  Banks,  and  embarked  for  the  lower  Mississippi, 
where  it  did  as  much  active  service  as  any  regiment  in  the  Department  of  the 
Gulf  during  its  connection  therewith.  At  the  battle  of  Irish  Bend  it  lost  in 
killed  and  wounded  68  out  of  300  engaged.  In  this  action  the  men  displayed 
a  courage  creditable  to  veterans,  and  established  a  reputation  for  steadiness 
under  fire,  which  it  well  sustained  at  Port  Hudson,  where  it  did  duty  in  the 
trenches  and  on  picket.  On  June  14  it  took  part  in  the  unsuccessful  assault 
against  the  Confederate  works.  Here  the  soldiers  covered  themselves  with 
honor.  Finding  it  impossible  to  enter  the  enemy's  fortifications  they  advanced 
within  twenty  feet  of  them  and  sheltered  themselves  under  the  steep  bluff  on 
which  they  were  built.  Later  they  were  on  guard  over  a  battery  within 
musket  shot  of  the  Confederates  until  the  surrender  July  8,  1863.  Soon 
leaving  for  home  the  regiment  was  mustered  out  at  Bangor,  July  17,  having 
served  almost  a  year. 

Twenti/'iSeventh  Infantry  Reyiment. —  This  companion  regiment  of  the 
Twenty-fifth  was  recruited  in  York  county,  and  mustered  into  United  States 

146  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

service  at  Portland,  September  30,  1862.  Rufus  P.  Tapley,  of  Saco,  was 
colonel ;  Mark  F.  Wentworth,  of  Kittery,  lieutenant-colonel ;  James  M.  Stone, 
of  Kennebunk,  major.  Arriving  at  Washington,  October  22,  it  went  into  camp 
at  Arlington  Heights,  where  it  was  brigaded  with  the  Tv/enty-fifth,  with  whose 
fortunes  it  was  united  ever  after.  This  regiment  was  composed  of  the  stalwart 
yeomanry  of  the  state,  with  a  liberal  sprinkling  of  skilled  mechanics  and 
professional  men,  and  would  have  done  the  severest  duty  from  a  sense  of 
patriotic  principle  as  well  as  that  which  fell  to  its  lot.  When  their  time  had 
expired  and  interests  at  home  were  pressing  for  their  immediate  presence,  the 
momentous  action  of  Gettysburg  was  impending,  all  available  men  were 
demanded  at  the  front,  and  an  unprotected  capital  was  at  the  mercy  of  any 
enemy ;  so  the  men  were  asked  by  the  President  and  Secretary  of  War  to 
remain  for  the  defense  of  Washington  until  the  battle  was  fought,  and  315 
acceded  to  the  request  and  remained  until  the  joyful  tidings  of  victory  came 
from  the  embattled  Union  host  at  Gettysburg.  July  17,  1863,  the  regiment 
was  mustered  out  with  Colonel  Mark  H.  Wentworth,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
James  M.  Stone,  and  Major  John  D.  Hill,  field  officers.  George  O.  Dockman, 
of  Poland,  was  in  Company  B,  Oren  B.  Webber  and  Alfred  C.  Webber,  of 
Lisbon,  in  Company  F. 

Ttoenty-Eighth  Infantry  Bef/iment. — This  was  organized  at  Augusta,  Octo- 
ber 18,  1862,  for  nine  months'  service.  After  remaining  on  the  Atlantic 
coast  for  a  few  months,  it  joined  the  Department  of  the  Gulf  and  was,  soon 
after  its  arrival  at  New  Orleans,  stationed  at  Pensacola,  Florida.  After  the 
evacuation  of  that  city,  it  returned  to  New  Orleans  and  was  ordered  for 
duty  to  Donaldsonville,  Bayou  La  Fourche,  and  Plaquemine.  May  27  six 
companies  were  ordered  to  Port  Hudson,  the  others  remaining  at  New  Orleans 
and  at  Fort  Butler  at  Donaldsonville.  The  Port  Hudson  detachment  was 
employed  day  and  night  for  two  weeks  in  building  batteries  and  on  picket 
duty.  It  took  part  in  the  advance,  June  14,  but  suffered  no  loss.  June  22  it 
made  an  unsupported  and  unsuccessful  assault  on  the  works  with  some  loss. 
June  28  the  detachment  under  Major  Bullen  guarding  and  garrisoning  Fort 
Butler  was  attacked  by  a  greatly  superior  force,  which  it  bravely  repulsed, 
inflicting  great  loss.  July  4  the  Port  Hudson  contingent  was  ordered  to  Fort 
Butler,  arriving  there  the  next  day.  July  10  the  Twenty-eighth  went  to 
Baton  Rouge,  from  there,  August  6,  to  Augusta,  where  it  was  mustered  out 
August  31,  1863.  The  field  officers  were:  Ephraim  W.  Woodman,  of  Wilton, 
colonel ;  William  E.  Hadlock,  of  Cranberry  Isles,  lieutenant-colonel ;  Joseph  D. 
Bullen,  of  New  Sharon,  major.  ]\[ajor  Bullen  was  murdered  by  a  member  of 
the  Second  Louisiana  Regiment,  July  5,  the  day  after  his  gallant  defense  of 
Fort  Butler.     ■ 

Tivcnty-Ninth  Lifatitry  Reyiment.  —  This  was  a  veteran  regiment,  and  much 
of  its  material  came  from  Androscoggin  county.     In  fact,  the  First,  Tenth,  and 

Military  Affairs.  147 

Twenty-ninth  regiments  could  with  much  justice  be  styled  one  regiment. 
Many  of  the  men  saw  service  in  all  three  regiments,  and  the  same  familiar 
faces  were  seen  among  the  officers.  Among  the  regimental  officers  were: 
George  L.  Beal,  colonel,  also  of  the  Tenth;  Charles  S.  Emerson,  of  Auburn, 
lieutenant-colonel;  William  Ivnowlton,  of  Lewiston,  major ;  Henry  C.  Cotton, 
of  Lisbon,  assistant  surgeon.  Companies  F,  H,  I,  and  K  were  principally 
officered  by  Androscoggin  men.  Eight  companies  were  organized  at  Augusta, 
from  November  lo,  1863,  to  January  30,  18<M,  to  serve  three  years.  ( -ompanies 
A  and  D,  in  service  in  Tennessee  as  part  of  the  Tenth  Maine  Battalion,  were 
transferred  to  complete  the  regimental  organization,  joining  it  at  New  Orleans, 
where  the  regiment  arrived  Februar}^  1(3,  18»)4.  Taking  part  in  the  Red  River 
campaign,  the  regiment" rendered  effective  and  brilliant  service  in  the  battles 
of  Mansfield  and  Pleasant  Hill,  La.,  April  8  and  9,  1861.  On  April  23,  the 
action  at  Cane  River  Crossing  was  fought,  where  the  Twenty-ninth  aided  in 
driving  the  enemy.  Soon  after,  at  Alexandria,  it  assisted  in  building  the 
famous  dam  that  saved  the  Federal  fleet.  After  this  it  was  in  camp  at 
Morganzia  Bend  until  ordered  to  join  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  in  July. 
Arriving  in  Washington  July  12,  it  was  made  part  of  the  iVrmy  of  the 
Shenandoah,  and  was  in  all  its  marches  and  encounters  with  the  Confederates, 
including  tlie  battles  of  Winchester,  Fisher's  Hill,  and  Cedar  Creek,  doing 
gallant  service.  October  18,  1864,  Company  A  was  discharged  at  expiration 
of  service,  and  its  place  taken  by  the  First  Company  of  Unassigned  Infantry, 
organized  at  Augusta  September  16,  1864,  for  one  year's  service.  Major 
Ivnowlton  died  September  20,  1864,  from  wounds  received  in  the  battle  of 
Winchester,  and  Captain  George  H.  Nye  commissioned  in  his  stead.  December 
20,  1864,  Major  Nye  was  made  colonel  and  took  command  of  the  regiment. 
Colonel  Beal  having  been  commissioned  brigadier-general.  Adjutant  John  M. 
Gould  was  now  promoted  to  major.  January  1,  1865,  the  Twenty-ninth  was 
encamped  near  Stephenson  Depot,  Va.,  and  for  over  three  months  was  on 
special  service  at  various  points.  April  20,  18<)5,  it  went  to  Washington,  and 
May  4  and  5  was  on  guard  over  the  assassins  of  President  Lincoln  at  Wash- 
ington Arsenal.  May  23  it  participated  in  the  grand  review  of  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac  at  Washington.  May  31,  1865,  Company  A  and  all  whose 
time  expired  before  the  next  October,  were  ordered  to  be  mustered  out.  June 
1,  1865,  the  regiment  proceeded  to  South  Carolina,  where  it  was  divided  into 
detachments  and  stationed  at  various  places,  with  headquarters  at  Darlington. 
Its  duties  were  here  extremely  arduous  and  consisted  in  part  in  investigating 
complaints  made  by  freedmen  and  planters,  in  making  contracts  between  them, 
and  in  the  various  unpleasant  offices  connected  with  the  operation  of  the 
Freedmen's  Bureau  and  the  reconstruction  period.  June  21,  1866,  the  regi- 
ment was  mustered  out  of  the  United  States  service  at  Hilton  Head,  S.  C, 
and  paid  off  and  discharged  June  27,  at  Hart's  Island  in  New  York  Harbor, 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 


George  H.  Nye,  Col, 

Charles  S.  Emerson,  Lieut-Col, 

Win  Knowlton,  Maj.,  d  Sept.  20,  (i4, 

George  Knox,  Chap.,  died  Oct.  31,  04, 

Chas  H.  Webster,  Chap., 

Henry  C.  Cotton,  Asst-Surg., 

C.  H.  Pettingill,  Com.-Serg., 

John  F.  Chamberlain.  Cora.-Serg., 

Horace  N.  Johnson,  leader  of  band, 

Roscoe  G.  Buck,  band, 

Adoniram  B.  Crafts,  band, 

Emery  E.  Larrabee,  old  A, 

James  Guiney,  old  A, 

Leonard  Jepson,  old  A, 

Dudley  F.  Sanborn,  old  A, 

Samuel  N.  Royal,  old  A, 

James  H.  Thurston,  old  A, 

Edward  S.  Butler,  Capt.,  A, 

Dennis  E.  Lowell,  Serg.,  A, 

Almon  J.  Gardner,  Serg.,  A, 

Samuel  W.  Lovell,  Serg.,  A, 

John  Howarth,  Mus.,  A, 

William  Ashton,  A, 

John  C.  Bridges,  A, 

George  Bubier,  Jr, 

Dennis  Farrell,  A, 

Alonzo  Gipson,  A, 

"William  Gipson,  A, 

Michael  Joice,  A, 

Hiram  Jordan,  A, 

Patrick  Lahey,  A, 

Alzamon  H.  Maxwell,  A, 

John  F.  Murphy,  A, 

John  Shehan,  A, 

John  Sweeney,  A, 

Michael  Sweeney,  A, 

F.  D.  Thompson,  A, 

Levi  Thompson,  A, 

Ezra  R.  Wright,  A, 

Freedom  H.  Mander,  1st  Lieut,  A, 

A.  C.  F.  Stevens,  1st  Serg.,  A, 

George  W.  Noyes,  Serg.,  A, 

John  Emerson,  Serg.,  A, 

Almon  J.  Gardner,  Serg.,  A, 

Henry  H.  Bailey,  Corp.,  A, 

Caiman  H.  Allen,  Corp.,  A, 

Fernando  A.  Blossom,  A, 

Selanus  Decker,  A, 

David  P.  Field,  A, 

David  Given,  A, 

Seth  B.  Johnson,  A, 

Isaac  B.  Martin,  A, 

Major  B.  Merrill,  A,  died  Oct.  21,  18G4 

Oren  B.  Merrow,  A, 

Aretas  B.  Penney,  A, 

Virgil  P.  Rounds,  A, 







Azel  Staples,  Jr,  A,  Auburn 

Simon  M.  Stevens,  A,  ,, 

Arba  H.  Trufant,  A,  „ 

Wm  R.  Vickery,  A,  ,, 

L.  E.  Woodl)ury,  A,  ,, 

Chas  W.  Gerrish,  Lieut,  A,  Lisbon 

John  Wallace,  Serg.,  A,  ,, 

George  S.  Curtis,  Serg.,  A,  ,, 
Edward  J.  Ander.son,  A,  died  Oct.  13,  64,      ,, 

Zeba  A.  Ayer,  A,  ,, 

Wm  R.  Garcelon,  A,  ,, 

Thos  S.  Y'onland,  A,  ,, 

Volney  Leavitt,  Corp.,  A,  kd,  1804,  Livermore 

Marshall  W.  Child,  A,  ,, 

Charles  F.  Ellis,  A,  „ 
Leonard  F.  Nash,  A,  died  Oct.  21,  1804,      „ 



Mechanic  Falls 






Henry  T.  Frost,  Corp.,  A, 

James  H.  Gardner,  A, 

Alonzo  L.  Tarr,  A, 

La  F.  Tenney,  A, 

Boynton  C.  Hewey,  A, 

Horatio  G.  Small,  A, 

Addis  E.  Luke,  Corp.,  A, 

Francis  M.  Allen,  A, 

Wm  W.  Holmes,  A, 

George  C.  Wheaton,  A, 

William,  A, 

Dexter  D.  Skinner,  A, 

G.  P.  McFaden,  Serg.,  B, 

Francis  M.  Chase,  Serg.,  B, 

Silas  R.  Cummings,  Serg.,  B, 

John  F.  Quimby,  Sgt,  B,  d  Mar.  I'J,  66, 

Barton  H.  Ross,  Serg.,  B, 

Levi  B.  Johnson,  Corp.,  B,  d  July  20,  04, 

Calvin  G.  Estes,  Corp.,  B, 

Eli  Owen,  Corp.,  B, 

li'rank  M.  Furber,  B,  died  Sept.  19,  04, 

William  McDonald,  B, 

Loring  Parcher,  B, 

C.  W.  Patterson,  B, 

Henry  W.  Furbish,  B, 

Samuel  R.  Harris,  B,  died  June  11,  64, 

Jeremiah  Sullivan,  B, 

Lewis  McKinney,  B, 

David  Parker,  B, 

Charles  E.  Piper,  B,  died  July  15,  64, 

Enoch  Perkins,  B, 

Orlando  C.  Gamage,  B, 

William  H.  Starbird,  B, 

Josiah  Keene,  B, 

Henry  Shea,  B, 

Louville  Smith,  B,  killed  Oct.  19,  64, 

George  W.  Gage,  Corp.,  C, 

Frank  H.  Nealley,  C,  „ 

John  Goold,  C,  '  ,, 

Charles  McDonald,  C,  Auburn 







Military  Affairs. 


Benjamin  R.  Irish,  D,  Auburn 

Gbarles  H.  Jumper,  Lieut,  D,  Lewiston 

Daniel  Flanders,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

Morris  B.  Hobbs,  D,  ,, 

Nabum  L.  Hunt,  D,  ,, 

Elmer  Cbipman,  D,  Mechanic  Falls 

John  A.  Putman,  D,  Livermore 

Amos  Bucknam,  D,  Auburn 

Edward  Record,  D,  ,, 

Henry  K.  Millett,  Capt.,  E,  ,, 
Samuel  T.  Hill,  D, 

William  Lowry,  E,  Lewiston 

Levi  M.  Garcelon,  Corp.,  E,  East  Livermore 

Charles  G.  Smith,  E,  Lewiston 
William  Knowlton,  Capt.,  F,  pro  Maj.,       ,, 

Abel  G.  Rankin,  Capt.,  F,  ,, 

Levi  W.  Harmon,  Lieut,  F,  ,, 
Harrison  B.  Winter,  Lieut,  F,  died 

June  26,  65,  ,, 

Harrison  A.  Tripp,  Serg.,  F,  ,, 

George  H.  Gould,  Serg.,  F,  „ 
Charles  H.  Palin,  Serg.,  F, 

Charles  W.  Heney,  Serg.,  F,  Lewiston 

James  Low,  Corp.,  F,  ,, 
Charles  Dennett,  Corp.,  F,  d  May  11, 64,      ,, 

C.  H.  Kenison,  Corp.,  F,  d  Sept.  1,  64,         ,, 

Andrew  Jackson,  Corp.,  F,  ,, 

James  M.  Stevens,  Corp.,  F,  „ 

Gerry  E.  Coolidge,  F,  ,, 

David  Davis,  F,  ,, 

Nathaniel  Davis,  F,  died  Sept.  5,  64,  ,, 

Fred  A.  Howard,  F,  ,, 

John  A.  Kincaid,  F,  died  Dec.  5, 64,  ,, 

John  Maloney,  F,  ,, 
Hugh  McGlincb,  F, 

Harrison  O.  Plaise,  F,  died  Apr.  12,  64,        ,, 

Charles  Pray,  F,  died  Aug.  20,  64,  ,, 

Dennis  Roberts,  F,  died  July  29,  64,              ,, 

Dudley  F.  Sanborn,  F,  ,, 

Frank  Stebbins,  F,  „ 

Mont.  Tuttle,  F,  „ 

Loring  Josselyn,  Corp.,  F,  Auburn 

Enos  H.  Stevens,  Serg.,  F,  ,, 
Caleb  S.  Gilbert,  F, 

Charles  Gilmore,  F,  ,, 

Isaac  Hill,  F,  .                „ 

Jacob  L.  Woodman,  F,  ,, 

W.  N.  Martin,  Corp.,  F,  Minot 
H.  B.  Johnson,  F, 

George  F.  Chandler,  F,  Lisbon 

Levi  W.  Harmon,  Lieut,  G,  Lewiston 
Russell  S.  Worthing,  G, 

Frank  Devereaux,  G,  Auburn 

Joseph  W.  Parker,  G,  Danville 

L.  K.  Lane,  ,, 

William  C.  Stevens,  G,  Greene 

Zebedee  Cushman,  G,  Minot 

Granville  Blake,  Capt.,  H,  Auburn 

Nathan  H.  Landers,  Lieut,  H,  ,, 

Nath.  F.  French,  Serg.,  H,  d  Oct. 9, 64,   Auburn 

Henry  C.  Pratt,  Serg.,  H,  „ 

George  W.  Herridon,  Serg.,  H,  „ 

George  M.  Roak,  Serg.,  H,  ,, 

Edward  H.  Sawyer,  Serg.,  H,  ,, 

Ira  A.  Kneeland,  Corp.,  H,  „ 

John  C.  Stevens,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

George  P.  Wyman,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 
William  H.  Wentworth,  Corp.,  H,  died 

August  9,  64,  ,, 

Samuel  L.  Stevens,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 
William  H.  Brackett,  Corp.,  H, 

William  H.  Lunt,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

Roland  W.  Randall,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

William  Bickerton,  H,  ,, 

Fred  N.  Burrill,  H,  ,, 

Albert  H.  Chamberlain,  H,  ,, 

Adon.  B.  Crafts,  11,  ,, 
Eben  Kneeland,  H,  died  May  19,  64, 

Daniel  Davis,  H,  ,, 
Winfield  S.  Walton,  H,  killed, 

Albion  A.  Drake,  H,  ,, 

Henry  S.  Drake,  H,  ,, 
Asa  H.  Fish,  H, 

Adolphus  S.  Read,  H,  ,, 
Charles  B.  Wentworth,  H,  d  July  7,  64, 
George  B.  Coburn,  Lieut,  H,                   Lewiston 

Stephen  K.  Estes,  Serg.,  H,  ,, 

Andrew  J.  Magill,  Serg.,  H,  ,, 

Mark  Grover,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

William  H.  Given,  Mus.,  H,  „ 

Joseph  Brooks,  H,  „ 

Adelbert  Holland,  H,  „ 

George  D.  Humphrey,  H,  ,, 

Peter  Lawrence,  H,  ,, 

Edouard  Legendre,  H,  ,, 

Jules  Legendre,  H,  „ 

Michael  Locklin,  H,  „ 

Hiram  W.  Loring,  H,  „ 

John  F.  Donovan,  H,  ,, 

Timothy  Donovan,  H,  Auburn 
Daniel  Field,  H,                                         Lewiston 

Lawrence  Rourk,  H,  „ 

Holman  Foss,  H,  ,, 

John  L.  Hamlin,  H,  ,, 

John  Morton,  H,  ,, 
Frank  Thibault,  H, 

Hartwell  S.  French,  Lieut,  H,  Turner 

Samuel  S.  Butler,  H,  ,, 
William  B.  Butler,  H,  died  July  30,  64, 

William  W.  Keene,  H,  „ 

William  I.  Hayford,  H,  „ 

Charles  L.  Metcalf,  H,  ,, 

Charles  A.  Metcalf,  Serg.,H,  LLsbon 

Fred  S.  My  rick,  H,  „ 
John  S.  Merrill,  H, 
Robert  L.  Taylor,  H, 

Frank  Dumas,  H,  Minot 

Stephen  Herbert,  H,  „ 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Joseph  St  Hiliare,  H,  Minot 

Charles  S.  Smith,  H,  d  July  29,  64,  Poland 

Almon  C.  Pray,  Capt.,  I,  Auburn 

C.  H.  Pettingill,  Lieut,  I,  ,i 

Augustus  White,  Serg.,  I,  died  in  service,      ,, 
Edward  H.  Sawyer,  Serg.,  I,  ,. 

Charles  H.  Crane,  Serg.,  I,  ., 

George  G.  Philbrook,  Serg.,  I,  ,, 

Cyrus  B.  Towusend,  Corp.,  I,  >> 

Charles  H.  Welch,  Corp.,  I,  „ 

Frank  H.  Read,  Mus.,  I,  „ 

Augustus  E.  Briggs,  I,  » 

A.  A.  Chamberlain,  I,  >> 

Washington  Martin,  I,  „ 

Charles  T.  Davis,  I,  Auburn 

John  T.  Dennison,  I,  ., 

Enoch  L.  Hall,  I, 

Augustus  Noyes,  I,  „ 

Jona  E.  Piper,  I,  died  Aug.  4,  04,  ,, 

Billings  J.  Hood,  I, 

Elbridge  G.  Snow,  I,  ,, 

Martin  L.  Verrill,  I,  ,, 

George  White,  I,  ,, 

Murray  B.  Watson,  I,  pro  Lieut  Militia,        ,, 
Isaac  D.  Yeaton,  I,  d  Aug.  14,  ()4,  ,, 

John  L.  Hoyt,  Lieut,  I,  kd  Oct. 

19,  64, 
H.  L.  Wadsworth,  Corp.,  I,  „ 

John  Noonan,  I,  ,, 

L.  F.  Paine,  I,  d  May  8,  64,  ,, 

George  S.  Dickenson,  I,  ,, 

A.  J.  Walton,  I,  killed,  „ 

Allen  Howarth,  Serg.,  I, 
Leonard  O.  Smith,  Serg.,  I, 
Harrison  W.  Smith,  Serg.,  I, 
Hugh  Lyon,  Serg.,  I, 
James  Donovan,  Corp.,  I, 
Daniel  Donovan,  Corp.,  I, 
George  B.  Morrill,  I, 
Charles  A.  Deshon,  F, 
John  A.  Phelps,  1,  died  Apr.  27,  04, 
Aratus  Small,  I, 
Levi  H.  Webber,  I, 
Allen  C.  Snow,  I, 
Charles  N.  Ware,  I, 
Michael  Sweeney,  I, 
Arza  B.  Webber,  I, 
Josiah  H.  Mower,  Serg.,  I, 
Henry  Sanborn,  Wag.,  I, 
Aaron  Mower,  I  (Lisbon), 
Albion  P.  Mower,  I, 
William  Donnell,  I, 
Gardner  Smith.  I, 
Edsell  A.  Douglass,  Corp.,  I, 
Ezra  Purinton,  I, 
George  P.  Moody,  I, 
Levi  Robinson,  I, 

Jas.  P.  Sutherland,  Corp,,  I,  d  in  service, 
Gideon  Hammond,  I,  died  in  service, 

East  Livermore 




Elias  K.  Webber,  K, 
Henry  McFarland,  I, 
Eli  Owen,  I, 
James  H.  Thurston,  I, 
Joshua  M.  Wagg,  I, 






Henry  A.  Wyman,  I,  d  May  12,  64,     Livermore 
George  H.  Nye,  Capt.,  K,  Lewiston 

Albert  E.  Kingsley,  Capt.,  K,  ,, 
William  Bagnall,  Lt,  K,  d  July  10,  64, 

Charles  H.  Jumper,  1st  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Jno.  A.  Willard,  1st  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Samuel  H.  Jumper,  1st  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

James  E.  Osgood,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Thomas  A.  Thorn,  Serg.,  K,  „ 

Henry  A.  Smith,  Serg.,  K,  „ 

Jarvis  T.  Beal,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Aaron  T.  Corliss,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

John  Q.  A.  Jumper,  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

George  W.  Bickford,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

John  K.  Morrill,  Corp.,  K,  pro  Serg.,  ,, 

James  H.  Walker,  Corp.,  K,  „ 

John  Clear,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Alph.  B.  Holland,  Corp.,  K,  „ 

Albert  E.  Hanson,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 
Chester  H.  Thing,  Corp.,  K, 

Melvin  Woodcock,  Wag.,  K,  ,, 

John  G.  Annas,  K,  ,, 

John  S.  B.  Arris,  K,  „ 

Gilbert  H.  Bailey,  K,  band,  ,, 

James  Baloff,  K,  ,, 

James  B.  Blackstone,  K,  „ 

S.  C.  Blackstone,  K,  „ 

Houghton  Bond,  K,  ,, 

William  Bray,  K,  „ 

Richard  Butler,  K,  ,, 

Thomas  Kelley,  K,  ,, 

Em.  E.  Larrabee,  K,  „ 

James  E.  Magner,  K,  ,, 

Elias  Maloon,  K,  ,, 

Frederick  Miller,  K,  ,, 

John  E.  McDonald,  K,  „ 

Plummer  R.  Nevens,  K,  ,, 

Frederick  Palmer,  K,  „ 

Patrick  Collins,  K,  ,,  . 

Thomas  A.  Emmons,  K,  „ 
Joseph  Flood,  K,  died  July  21,  64, 

Harry  Freeman,  K,  ,, 
Willis  Goodridge,  K,  died  June  18,  64, 

William  T.  Graffam,  K,  ,, 

Charles  A.  Hanson,  K,  ,, 

Isaac  W.  Hodsdon,  K,  „ 

Arthur  T.  Jacobs,  K,  ,, 

Leonard  Jepson,  K,  ,, 

Albert  W.  Potter,  K,  „ 

Andrew  J.  Russell,  K,  „ 

George  N.  Spates,  K,  ,, 

Cassius  R.  Stevens,  K,  „ 

Lorenzo  Parker,  K,  „ 

Leroy  Tarr,  K,  i  „ 

Military  Affairs. 


John  E.  Cutter,  Serg. 



Robert  A.  Woodbury, 



Solomon  Dyer,  K, 


Samuel  N.  Royal,  K, 


Charles  N.  Warren,  K 



George  A.  Knox, 


Sylvanus  A.  Stevens, 


Jonathan  L.  Stevens, 


Joseph  A.  Starbird, 


Fred  A.  Tiffany,  K,  died  July  29,  64,  Lewiston 
Otis  Webber,  K, 

George  M.  Williams,  K,  „ 

John  C.  Wright,  K,  ,, 

Hartwell  S.  French,  Lieut,  K,  Turner 

Albert  N.  Jones,  K,  ,, 

Benjamin  A.  Eaton,  Serg.,  K,  Greene 

V.  P.  Dillingham,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 
Alpheus  G.  Stewart,  K,  died  May  1.  64,        ,, 

Thirtieth  Infantry  Regiment.  —  This  was  organized  at  Augusta  from 
December  12,  1863,  to  January  8,  1864,  for  three  years'  service.  Francis 
Fessenden,  of  Portland,  was  colonel ;  Thomas  H.  Hubbard,  of  Ilallowell, 
lieutenant-colonel;  Royal  E.  Whitman,  of  Turner,  major;  Josiah  C'arr,  of 
Minot,  surgeon ;  and  Simeon  C.  Higgins,  of  Turner,  chaplain.  Companies  A, 
E,  G,  and  K  brought  a  large  contingent  from  Androscoggin  county.  It  went 
direct  to  the  Army  of  the  Galf,  leaving  I'ortland,  February  7,  and  after  a 
month's  rest  in  camp  at  Franklin,  J^a,  entered  upon  the  Red  River 
campaign.  It  had  much  effective  and  veteran  material  in  its  composition,  and 
within  a  month  from  this  time  it  did  honorable  work  in  the  battles  of  Sabine 
Cross  Roads  and  Pleasant  Hill.  April  23,  the  Thirtieth  took  a  prominent  part 
in  the  engagement  at  Cane  River  Crossing,  driving  the  Confederates  from  a 
position  considered  impregnable.'  From  May  22  to  July  2,  the  regiment  was 
in  camp  at  Morganzia  Bend,  and  soon  thereafter  was  sent  to  Virginia,  and  not 
long  after  arrival  joined  the  Army  of  the  Shenandoah  at  Harper's  Ferry.  In 
September  the  brigade  was  detached  from  its  division  for  arduous  and 
responsible  duties,  and  thus  the  Thirtieth  was  debarred  from  sharing  in  the 
victories  of  September  and  October,  although  without  its  service  of  moving 
and  guarding  valuable  supply  trains,  the  victories  could  not  have  been  won. 
January  8,  1865,  the  regiment  was  joined  at  its  camp  in  Winchester  by  three 
companies  of  re-enlisted  men  and  recruits  of  the  Thirteenth  Maine,  assigned  to 
this  regiment  by  special  order  issued  November  18,  1864.  The  consolidation 
was  completed  in  January  under  the  immediate  orders  of  General  Sheridan, 
the  Thirtieth  forming  seven  companies  and  retaining  the  field  and  staff  officers. 
The  men  of  the  Thirteenth  were  organized  into  a  battalion  of  three  companies, 
commanded  by  officers  of  their  own  regiment,  and  became  Companies  B,  H, 
and  K  in  the  Thirtieth.  This  regiment  formed  part  of  tlie  line  of  sentinels 
around  Washington  during  the  search  for  the  assassins  of  President  Lincoln, 
and  did  guard  duty  at  Washington  Arsenal  while  the  trial  of  the  conspirators 
was  conducted  there.  May  22  it  took  part  in  the  grand  review  of  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac,  and  later  was  on  duty  at  Savannah,  Ga,  until  mustered  out 
August  20,  1865. 

May  12,  1864,  Colonel  Fessenden  was  promoted  to  brigadier-general.  His 
successor.  Colonel  Hubbard,  resigned  July  23,  1865,  and  in  August  the  field 

1  At  this  battle  Colonel  Fessenden  lost  a  leg. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

officers    were    commissioned  thus:  Royal  E.  Whitman,    colonel;    George    W. 
Randall,  lieutenant-colonel;  Horace  C.  Haskell,  major. 


Royal  E.  Whitman,  Major,  pro  Lieut-Col 

and  Col,  Turner 

Josiah  Carr,  Surgeon,  Minot 

Simon  C.  Higgins,  Chaplain,  Turner 

Charles  B.  Rounds,  Q.  M.  S.,  Danville 

Horace  C.  Haskell,  Capt.,  A,  pro  Major,  Turner 
Benjamin  F.  Reals.  Serg.,  A, 
William  H.  Washburn,  Serg.,  A, 
Jacob  Keene,  Jr,  Mus.,  A, 
Ronello  B.  Keene,  Mus.,  A, 
Phil  A.  Bradford,  A,  died  Aug.  7,  04, 
Seth  D.  Bradford,  A,  died  April  22,  04, 
Asa  L.  Berry,  A,  died  July  2,  64, 
Jason  Cutler,  A,  died  July  9,  64, 
John  C.  Carver,  A, 
James  M.  Fish,  A, 

Oscar  L.  Johnson,  A,  killed  in  action, 
Albert  P.  Leavitt,  Corp.,  A, 
William  W.  Noyes,  Lieut,  A, 

pro  Capt.,  E,  East  Livermore 

A.  H.  S.  Garcelon,  A,  died,  ,,  ,, 

Thomas  E.  Nason,  A,  ,,  ,, 

Francis  E.  Dwinel,  1st  Lieut,  A,  Minot 

Ronello  C.  Dwinal,  Corp.,  A,  ,, 

George  W.  Currier,  A,  Hosp.  Steward,  ,, 

Charles  B.  Davis,  A,  kd  April  23,  64, 
Darius  Holt,  A,  ,, 

Charles  Martin,  A,  ,, 

F.  E.  Riggs,  A,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Edward  K.  Verrill,  A,  ,, 

Elbridge  M.  Yeaton,  A,  died  in  service,        ,, 
Jabez  T.  Denning,  Serg.,  A,  Poland 

Charles  W.  Jordan,  Srg.,  A,  d  July  11,  64,    ,, 
Thomas  S.  Bridgham,  A,  ,, 

John  W.  Deguis,  A,  ,, 

William  H.  Fuller,  A,  ,, 

Albert  Griffin,  A, 

Augustus  M.  Jackson,  A,  d  July  11,  64,        ,, 
Edward  F.  Ross,  A, 

Richard  W^eston,  A,  ,, 

Charles  L.  Field,  1st  Serg.,  A,  Danville 

Orrin  Emerson,  Corp.,  A,  pro  Serg., 

trans  V.  It.  C,  ,, 

Martin  Franklin,  Corp.,  A,  ,, 

Charles  Coding,  A,  ,, 

Alvin  L.  Coding,  A, 

Pemliroke  Haskell,  A,  i^ro  Corp.,  ,, 

Nicholas  Leighton,  A, 

Alvah  Leighton,  A,  ,, 

John  J.  Marston,  A,  ,, 

Luther  H.  Morgan,  A,  trans  V.  R.  C,         ,, 
Charles  B.  Rounds,  A,  ,, 

Amos  O.  Witliam,  A,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Francis  S.  Brown,  A,  Livermore 

Cyrus  M.  Barrows,  Serg.,  A,  ,, 

George  W.  Bobbins,  Corp.,  A,  ,, 
William  H.  H.  Goding,  Corp.,  A, 
Charles  H.  Harrington,  Corp.,  A,  died 

July  24,  ()4, 
Elisha  C.  Fuller,  Serg.,  A, 

William  A.  Hyde,  Wagoner,  A,  ,, 

Francis  S.  Brown,  A,  ,, 

Isaac  D.  Fuller,  A,  ,, 

Corydon  L.  Hyde,  A,  died  Aug.  7,64,  ,, 

Joseph  E.  Hyde,  A,  died  Aug.  26,  64,  „ 
Charles  W.  Keith,  A, 

Roscoe  F.  Merrill,  A,  died  in  service,        ,, 

William  S.  Moore,  Corp.,  A,  ,, 

Alden  L.  Norton,  A,  ,, 

George  F.  Rollins,  A,  ,, 

Frank  Roberts,  A,  died  in  captivity,  ,, 

Llewellyn  C   Vining,  A,  d  in  service,  ,, 
Amsbra  Bubier,  A,                                    Lewiston 

Allen  C.  Ford,  A,  died  in  service,  Danville 

Franklin  Hackett,  A,  ,, 

John  M.  Stockwell,  Corp.,  A,  Lewiston 

Joseph  M.  Curtis,  A,  kd  April  9,  64,  Leeds 

Thomas  G.  Pratt,  A,  Greene 

Alfred  Richardson,  G,  ,, 

Stillman  Bond,  C,  trans  to  G,  ,, 
William  H.  Starbird,  G, 

Charles  H.  Lowell,  Corp.,  C,  tr  to  G,  ,, 

Joseph  P.  Tripp,  C,  Poland 
Geo.  F.  Newell,  Corp.,  D,  k  in  action.    Auburn 

Sumner  N.  Strout,  Lieut,   E,  killed,  Durham 

Nath.  D.  Chase,  Serg..  E,  ,, 

Preston  R.  Strout,  Corp.,  E,  ,, 

Albert  Owen,  Serg.,  E,  „ 

Albert  Crockett,  E,  „ 

Ezekiel  S.  Brown,  E,  ,, 

John  Merrill,  E,  died  in  service,  ,, 

George  L.  Macomber,  E,  ,, 

Samuel  Newell,  E,  trans  to  V.  R.  C,  ,, 

Cyrus  A.  Roak,  E,  " 

Willard  J.,  E,  Leeds 
Kirke  W.  Moses,  Capt.,  G,                      Lewiston 

Jos.  W.  Harville,  Serg.,  G,  pro  Lieut,  " 
William  F.  Forbes,  Serg.,  G, 
Elbridge  G.  Thomas,  1st  Serg.,  G, 
George  W.  Goodbehere,  Serg.,  G,  pro 

Serg. -Major,  ,, 
Nathan  D.  Colder,  Corp.,  G, 

James  R.  Braley,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Jacob  E.  Brown,  G,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Moses  A.  Dunton,  G,  ,, 
John  Holland,  Jr,  G,  d  in  rebel  prison,        ,, 

Military  Affairs. 


John  B.  Lucas,  G,  died  in  service, 

Charles  H.  Ward,  G, 

Justin  K.  Richardson,  Lieut,  G, 

Bracket.t  M.  Field,  Corp.,  G, 

Asa  Garcelon,  G, 

Moses  A.  Briggs,  G, 

George  H.  Cooledge,  G, 

John  Casey,  G,  trans  to  A. 

Phil  H.  Fernald,  G,  died  in  service, 

Charles  H.  Colby,  G, 

Albert  Urinkwater,  G, 

John  C.  Jordan,  G, 

Franklin  F.  Robinson,  Corp.,  G, 

Almon  Fogg,  G,  died  in  service, 

Charles  B.  Beal,  G, 

William  E.  Longley,  G, 

Orrin  Furbush,  G, 

Llew^ellyn  O.  Foster,  G, 

John  H.  Hanscomb,  G, 

Hiram  Jewell,  G, 

Albert  F.  Gilmore,  G, 

William  O.  Parlin,  G, 

Wm  M.  B.  Hasey,  H,  died  in  service, 

Hiram  Polly,  H, 

Thomas  B.  Edgecomb,  H,  trans  to  A, 

Francis  T.  Page,  I,  trans  to  V.R.  C, 

Alba  C.  Hicks,  I, 

John  Little,  I, 

Nathan  Smith,  I, 

Chandler  B.  Bailey,  Lieut,  G,  transferred 

from  K, 
George  E.  Bartlett,  K,  trans  to  E, 
Ichabod  Goodrich,  K,  trans  to  G, 
Cyrus  Oliver,  K,  trans  to  G, 
John  E.  Oliver,  K,  trans  to  G, 
Richard  J.  Cook,  K,  killed,         E 


Samuel  P.  Tripp,  A,  died  in  captivity, 



Sylvester  D.  Brown,  A,                 East  Livermore 


Charles  A.  Fogg,  A, 



Francis  A.  Libby,  A, 



Charles  S.  Ricker,  A, 



Edgar  D.  Swett,  A, 



Charles  0.  Warren,  A,  trans  from  H, 



Joseph  O.  G.  Nichols,  Serg.,  B, 



Freeman  L.  Jackson,  B, 


W  ebster 

James  M.  Ramsdell,  B, 



Charles  L.  Connor,  Mus.,  B, 



George  H.  Clark,  Mus.,  B, 



John  McNulty,  B,  trans  from  K, 



Joshua  Harmon,  B, 



Harrison  D.  Lowell,  B, 



Charles  Holt,  D, 



Edwin  Smith,  E,  trans  from  K, 



Charles  Dingman,  K,  trans  from  B, 



William  H.  Garcelon,  G, 



James  E.  Weymouth,  G, 



Albert  N.  Ames,  Lieut,  K, 
Wesley  Carville,  K, 



Robert  England,  K, 
Augustus  O.  Fish,  K, 
Luther  Litchfield,  K, 


John  P.  Murphy,  K, 


Charles  L.  Newton,  K, 


Daniel  Severance,  K, 


Jesse  F.  Swett,  K, 


Isaac  G.  Tarr,  K, 


Patrick  Flynn,  K, 


Josiah  Jones,  K, 



George  I.  Storer,  K, 



G.  F.  Hodgdou,                               East  Livermore 


C.  F.  Fogg, 



R.  S.  Clark, 


TJurt^-Flrst  Infantry  Regiment.  —  This  regiment  was  organized  from  March 
1,  1864,  to  April  29,  1864,  to  serve  three  years.  The  colonelcy  was  given  to 
George  Varney,  who  soon  declined  to  serve,  and  Thomas  Hight,  of  Augusta,  a 
graduate  of  West  Point,  was  commissioned  in  his  stead.  Stephen  C  Talbot, 
of  Machias,  became  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain  Daniel  White,  of  Company 
A,  advanced  to  major.  Richard  R.  Ricker,  of  Minot,  was  assistant  surgeon. 
Joining  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  on  May  6,  the  regiment  lost  heavily  in  the 
battle  of  the  Wilderness,  and  on  May  12  was  in  that  of  Spottsylvania,  where 
its  loss  was  great.  For  six  days  thereafter  it  was  under  fire.  May  21  it 
marched  to  the  Po  river,  thence  to  the  North  Anna,  which  it  crossed  on 
May  24  under  the  enemy's  fire.  Skirmishing  for  several  days,  on  June  1  was 
fought  the  battle  of  Tolopotomoy,  and  June  3  ensued  the  hotly-contested 
engagements  at  Bethesda  Church,  where  fifteen  were  killed  and  thirty-nine 
wounded.  For  its  gallantry  here  it  received  from  General  Griffin,  command- 
ing brigade,  this  compliment:  "  The  Thirty-first  Maine  has  made  for  itself  a 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

most  brilliant  record,  and  won  for  its  officers  and  men  imperishable  renown." 
The  regiment  was  at  Cold  Harbor  the  next  day,  and  under  fire  and  in  frequent 
skirmishes  until  the  twelfth,  suffering  greatly  from  the  shells  and  sharpshooters 
of  the  Confederates.  On  the  seventeenth  it  took  part  in  the  assault  and 
capture  of  the  Confederate  works  at  Petersburg,  and  remained  under  fire, 
losing  many  men,  until  the  thirtieth,  when  the  regiment  was  assigned  to  an 
important  position  in  the  memorable  action  of  that  day,  and  its  soldiers  were 
the  first  to  enter  the  rebel  works.  Here  Colonel  White  was  taken  prisoner. 
From  this  time  until  August  18,  the  Thirty-first  was  on  picket  duty  within 
range  of  the  enemy's  guns.  At  the  battle  of  Poplar  Spring  Church,  Sep- 
tember 30,  it  did  grand  service.  Later  it  garrisoned  Fort  Fisher,  where  it  was 
joined  by  the  Fourth  and  Sixth  companies  of  unassigned  infantry  organized  at 
Augusta  in  October,  1864,  for  one  year.  These  became  companies  L  and  M  of 
the  Thirty-first.  In  December,  485  soldiers  of  the  'J'hirty-second  were  consol- 
idated with  this  regiment.  April  2  it  was  engaged  in  an  assault  on  the  enemy's 
works,  and  lost  heavily.  From  April  20  until  July  15,  1865,  when  it  was 
mustered  out,  the  Thirty-first  was  in  camp  at  Alexandria.  The  Official  Army 
Register  says  that  Colonel  Hight  was  discharged  July  2,  1864,  and  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Stephen  C.  Talbot  discharged  July  6,  1864.  Colonel  Daniel  White 
was  commissioned  July  8,  1864;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Edward  L.  Getchell  com- 
missioned October  21, 1864,  and  brevetted  colonel  April  2,  1865;  Major  George 
A.  Bolton,  commissioned  November  23,  1864,  and  brevetted  lieutenant-colonel, 
April  2,  1865.     Captain  Ebenezer  S.  Keyes  was  brevetted  major,  April  2,  1865. 


Rich  R.  Ricker,  Asst  Surgeon, 
Ansel  L.  Brooks,  B,  from  32d, 
Caleb  W.  Battles,  B,  from  .32d, 
Wesley  C.  Herrick,  B, 
Granville  R.  Herrick,  B,  from  32il, 
Rufus  W.  Herrick,  Corp.,  B,  from  .32d 
Ronello  S.  Herrick,  B,  from  32d, 
Charles  Seavey,  B,  from  32d, 
Benjamin  F.  Thurston,  B,  from32d, 
Caleb  Battles,  B,  from  32d, 
Charles  M.  Cobb,  C,  from  ;52d, 
Alphonso  I'ulcifer,  C,  from  32d, 
Benj.  F.  Roberts,  Corp.,  C,  from  32d, 
Robert  J.  Arris,  D,  from  32d, 
.John  W.  Abbott,  D,  from  32d, 
Forrest  E.  Bisbee,  D,  from  32d, 
Lora  H.  Collins,  Serg.,  D,  from32d, 
Leonard  G.  Dingley,  D,  from  32d, 
John  Dyer,  D,  from  32d,  tr  to  V.  R.  C, 
Charles  S.  Dyer,  D,  from  .ad, 
Charles  H.  Goodwin,  D,  from  32d, 
John  L.  Ham,  Serg.,  D,  from  32d, 
Alvah  N.  Ham,  Corp.,  D,  from  32d, 
John  Joyce,  D,  from  32d, 






Timothy  Kennedy,  D,  from  .32d,  Lewiston 

Henry  C.  Litchfield,  D,  from  32d,  „ 
Henry  M.  Lord,  D,  from  32d,                '         „ 
A.  K.  P.  Marston,  D,  from  32d, 
Alg.  M.  Mitchell,  D,  fr  32d,  tr  V.  R.  C, 
Cleveland  B.  Merrill,  D,  from  .32d, 

Lewis  F.  Mixer,  D,  from  .32d,  „ 

William  H.  Nevens,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 
C.  N.  Pettengill,  1st  Serg.,  D,  from  ;?2d,      ,, 

Moses  W.  Tarr,  D,  from  .32d,  ,, 

Hiram  K.  Thompson,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Charles  E.  Thompson,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

James  F.  Tarbox,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Daniel  Tarbox,  Jr,  D,  from  .32d,  ,, 
Josiah  H.  Witham,  D,  from  32d, 

Frank  Wright,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Benjamin  Witham,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Andrew  J.  Bryant,  D,  from  32d,  Turner 

Hiram  A.  Conant,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Cephas  J.  Fish,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Albion  Hood,  Wagoner,  D,  from  32d,  ,, 

Daniel  G.  Harlow,  D,  from  32d,  „ 

Mellen  N.  Jones,  D,  from  32d,  „ 

Fred  I.  Johnson,  D,  from  32d,  „ 

Military  Affairs. 


Oliver  N.  Leavitt,  D,  from  o2d, 
Alvora  S.  Pease,  D,  from  .Had, 
Isaac  Phillips,  D,  from  o2d, 
Ossian  C.  Phillips,  D,  from  32d, 
George  Sylvester,  D,  from  32d, 
John  W.  Beokler,  D,  from  32d, 
Loren  W.  Morse,  D,  from  .">2d, 
Ejias  A.  Morse,  D,  from  32d, 
Hebron  Norton,  D,  from  32d, 
Thomas  M.  Pratt,  D,  from  32d, 
Rogers  A.  Foss,  Corp.,  D,  from  32d, 
Andrew  J.  Gould,  D,  from  32d, 
Luther  M.  Smith,  D,  from  32d, 
Augustus  Smith,  D,  from  32d, 
Francis  E.  Salisbury,  D,  from  .32d, 
Solomon  Anderson,  E,  from  ;>2d, 
David  II.  Stevens,  E,  from  32d, 
James  S.  Townsend,  E,  from  33d, 
Albert  Bessey,  E,  from  32d, 
Charles  T.  Bailey,  E,  from  32d, 
Alonzo  D.  Edgecomb,  E,  from  32d, 
Henry  R.  Merrill,  E,  from  32d, 
Israel  C.  Taylor,  E,  from  .32d, 






Gilbert  Winslow,  E,  from  32d,  Livermore 

Mark  A.  Ilerrick,  G,  from  32d,  Poland 

Charles  W.  Verrill,  G,  from  32d,  died  in 

rebel  prison,  July  15,  65,  ,, 

Charles  II.  Judkins,  G,  from  .32d,  Lewiston 

S.  S.  T.  Marriner,  G,  from  32d,  died 

Dec.  1,  C)4,  in  rebel  prison,  ,, 

Albert  A.  Palmer,  G,  from  32d, 
George  V.  Rose,  G,  from  .32d,  Livermore 

Michael  Sullivan,  H,  from  .32d,  died 

March  20,  65,  Lewiston 

Almon   Strout,  H,  from  32d,   died   in 

captivity,  Poland 

Charles  M.  Labree,  I,  from  .32d,  Wales 

James  B.  Richardson,  K,  from  32d,  ,, 

Charles  B.  Rounds,  1st  Lieut,  K,  from 

32d,  pro  Captain,  Danville 

Charles  W.  Wills,  K,  from  32d,  Durham 

Edward  Higgins,  L,  Lewiston 

Jones  L.  Haskell,  Musician,  L,  ,, 

Joseph  C.  Norris,  D,  died  in  rebel 

prison,  East  Livermore 

Woodbury  S.  Libby,  F,  Minot 

Thirty-Second  Infantry  Re<iiment.  —  Tliis  was  organized  under  the  call  of 
the  President  made  February  1,  1864,  and  organized  at  Augusta  from  March  3 
to  May  6,  Company  D  coming  from  Androscoggin.  Mark  F.  Wentworth,  of 
Kittery,  was  colonel;  John  M.  Brown,  of  Portland,  lieutenant-colonel;  Arthur 
Deering,  of  Richmond,  major.  Owing  to  the  demand  for  troops  in  the  field, 
six  companies,  under  command  of  Major  Deering,  left  for  Virginia,  April  20. 
They  were  assigned  to  the  Second  Brigade,  Second  Division,  Ninth  Army 
Corps,  and  marched  to  Bristow  Station,  April  27.  May  5,  in  connection  with 
the  Ninth  New  Hampshire,  they  covered  the  rear  of  the  army  and  marched 
twenty-five  miles  to  the  Kappahannock,  losing  many  who  were  taken  prisoners. 
The  march  continued  until  May  12,  when  in  the  battle  of  Spottsylvania,  which 
continued  for  days,  they  rendered  valiant  and  valuable  service  in  the  most 
exposed  part  of  the  lines.  They  crossed  the  North  Anna  under  heavy 
cannonading,  threw  up  three  lines  of  works,  and  were  joined  by  the  balance  of 
the  regimental  organization.  At  Cold  Harbor  the  regiment  lost  heavily  June  3, 
and  June  17  captured  a  line  of  the  rebels'  works  at  Petersburg.  On  the 
nineteenth,  advancing  two  or  three  miles  the  regiment  erected  fortifications, 
the  men  digging  the  earth  with  bayonets  and  putting  it  in  place  with  dippers 
and  their  hands.  Here  it  remained  until  the  fort  in  front  was  blown  up,  when 
it  took  a  most  active  part  in  the  charge  which  followed  the  explosion.  In  this 
it  lost  eleven  officers  and  one  hundred  men  killed,  wounded,  and  taken 
prisoners.  September  30  a  bloody  battle  occurred  near  Pegram  House  between 
this  regiment  and  a  numerous  enemy,  in  which  it  was  completely  routed  and 
nearly  annihilated  by  the  greatly  superior  force.  December  12  the  Thirty- 
second  was  consolidated  with  the  Thirty-first  Kegiment. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Colonel  Wentwortli  was  discharged  October  18,  1864,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
John  M.  Brown  September  12,  1864,  Lieutenant-Colonel  James  L.  Hunt  and 
Major  Deering  December  12,  1864. 


James  B.  Walker,  Com.  Sergeant,  Turner 
Joseph  M.  Litchfield,  Hosp.  Stewd,      Lewiston 

Caleb  W.  Battles,  B,  Leeds 

Ansel  F.  Brooks,  B,  Minot 
Caleb  Battles,  B,                                     Livermore 

Ronello  S.  Herrick,  B,  Poland 

Joseph  H.  Reed,  B,  ,, 

Charles  Seavey,  B,  ,, 

Benjamin  F.  Thurston,  B,  ,, 

Jacob  Thurston,  15,  died  July  9,  04,  „ 

Kufus  W.  Herrick,  B,  trans  from  C,  ,, 

Sylvester  F.  Jordan,  C,  pro  1st  Serg.,  Lisbon 

Charles  ISL  Cobb,  C,  Poland 

Alphonzo  Pulcifer,  C,  ,, 
Benjamin  F.  Roberts,  C,                            Durham 
Wm  R.  Ham,  Capt.,  D,  k  June  3,  (54,    Lewiston 
John  ISL  Jackson,  Serg.,  D,  pro  Lieut,  C,     ,, 

James  H.  Sprowl,  Serg.,  D,  ,, 

John  L.  Ham,  Serg.,  D,  ,, 
Wm  H.  Mace,  Corp.,  D,  d  July  23,  CA, 

Walter  S.  Hodges,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

William  H.  Nevens,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

Robert  J.  Arris,  D,  ,, 

John  W.  Abbott,  D,  ,, 

Forest  E.  Bisbee,  D,  „ 

Lora  H.  Collins,  D,  ,, 

Leonard  (i.  Dingley,  D,  ,, 

Sewall  G.  Darling,  D,  died  May  26,  64,  „ 

John  Dyer,  D,  ,, 

Charles  S.  Dyer,  D,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Goodwin,  D,  ,, 
Alvah  N.  Ham,  D, 

(ieorge  A.  Hodgdon,  D,  died  May,  64,  ,, 

John  Joyce,  D,  ,, 

Warren  C.  Knowles,  D,  died  Sep.  4,  64,  ,, 

Timothy  Kennedy,  D,  ,, 

J lenry  (^  Litchfield,  D,  „ 

Benjamin  B.  Larrabee,  D,  k  June  .'?,  64,  ,, 

Henry  M.  Lord,  D,  ,, 

Albion  K.  Mai-ston,  1),  ,, 
Sylvanus  D.  Mitchell,  D,  d  July  11,  64, 

Algernon  M.  Mitchell,  D,  ,, 

Cleaveland  B.  Merrill,  D,  ,, 

Lewis  F.  Mixer,  D,  ,, 

C.  N.  Pettengill,  I),  pro  Serg.,  ,, 

Moses  W.  Tarr,  D,  ,, 

Hiram  S.  Tibbetts,  D,  died  May  1!),  64,  ,, 

Hiram  K.  Tliompson,  D,  ,, 

Charles  E.  Thompson,  D,  ,, 

James  F.  Tarbox,  D,  „ 

Daniel  Tarbox,  D,  ,, 

Frank  Wright,  D,  Lewiston 

Josiah  H.  Witham,  D,  ,, 

Benjamin  Witham,  D,  ,, 

Charles  B.  Rounds,  Lient,  D,  Danville 
Augustine  W.  Stinchfield,  D,  died 

October  24,  64, 
James  J.  Chase,  Lieut,  D,  promoted 

1st  Lieut,  K,  Turner 

Hiram  A.  Conant,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

Fred  T.  Johnson,  Mus.,  D,  ,, 

Albion  Hood,  Wagoner,  D,  „ 

Andrew  J.  Bryant,  D,  ,, 
Charles  B.  Chandler,  D, 

Cephas  J.  Fish,  D,  ,, 

Daniel  G.  Harlow,  D,  ,, 

Mellen  N.  Jones,  D,  '    ,, 

Oliver  N.  Leavitt,  D,  ,, 

Alvora  S.  Pease,  D,  „ 

Isaac  Phillips,  D,  ,, 

Ossian  C.  Phillips,  D,  ,, 

Judson  Pratt,  D,  ,, 

Francis  Snell,  D,  died  Aug.  29,  64,  ,, 

George  Sylvester,  D,  ,, 

James  B.  Walker,  D,  pro  Com.  Serg.,  ,, 

Lloyd  Q.  Arnold,  Serg.,  D,  Lisbon 

Rogers  A.  Foss,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

George  A.  Cole,  D,  ,, 

Andrew  J.  Gould,  D,  died  in  service,  ,, 
Albert  Small,  D,  died  May  14,  64, 

Luther  M.  Smith,  D,  „ 

Augustus  Smith,  D,  ,, 

F.  E.  Salisbury,  D,  ,, 

Chas.  E.  Cole,  Sgt,  D,  k  July  30,  64,  Livermore 
Henry  B.  Rose,  Corp.,  D,  k  June  1,  64,        ,, 

Charles  H.  Atwood,  D,  d  Aug.  5,  64,  ,, 
John  W.  Beckler,  D, 

Lorin  W.  Morse,  D,  ,, 

Elias  A.  Morse,  D,  ,, 

Charles  Morse,  D,  died  June  25,  64,  ,, 

Hebron  Norton,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 
Thomas  M.  Pratt,  D, 

Fred  H.  Nevens,  Corp.,  D,  Auburn 

Michael  McCarthy,  D,  ,, 

Maynard  G.  Davis,  D, k  May  12,  64,  Poland 

Joseph  C.  Norris,  D,  d.                  East  Livermore 

Henry  W.  Richards,  E,  kd  1864,       „  „ 

Charles  Gibbs,  Serg.,  E,  Livermore 

John  W.  Bigelow,  Serg.,  E,  ,, 

Alonzo  D.  Edgecomb,  E,  ,, 

Albert  Bessey,  E,  Webster 

Henry  R.  Merrill,  E,  Livermore 

Military  Affairs. 


Israel  C.  Taylor,  E, 


Gilbert  Winslow,  E, 


diaries  T.  Duly,  E, 


James  T.  Tarbox,  E, 


James  B.  Ridley,  E, 


David  H.  Stevens,  E, 


James  S.  Townsend,  E, 


Solomon  Anderson,  E, 


Mark  A.  Herrick,  G, 


Charles  W.  Verrill,  G, 


Charles  H.  Judkins,  G, 


S.  S.  T.  Marriner,  G, 


Albert  A.  Palmer,  G, 

George  V.  Rose,  G, 

Daniel  Constantine,  H, 

Michael  Sullivan,  H, 

Charles  E.  Phillips.  H,  d  July  '27,  (54 

Almon  Strout,  H, 

Charles  M.  Labree,  I, 

David  R.  Plummer,  K,  died  July  25, 

James  B.  Richardson,  K,  ,, 

E.  B.  Lovejoy,  East  Livermore 

E.  Goodrich,  „  „ 





First  Veteran  Volunteers.  —  This  regiment  was  formed  August  21,  1864,  at 
Charlestown,  Va,  by  consolidating  the  Fifth,  Sixth,  and  Seventh  battalions,  and 
engaged  in  battle  the  same  day.  It  fought  at  Winchester,  September  19, 
Fisher's  Hill,  September  21,  and  took  its  part  in  all  the  marches  of  the  Shenan- 
doah Valley  campaign,  and  in  the  action  at  Cedar  Creek,  October  19.  From 
January  1,  1865,  to  March  25,  it  did  duty  along  the  lines  in  front  of 
Petersburg.  On  the  last-mentioned  day  the  regiment  took  part  in  the 
successful  assault  on  the  Confederate  lines  near  Fort  Fisher  as  part  of  the 
Sixth  Corps,  and  then  was  placed  on  the  right  of  General  Hyde's  line  to 
protect  that  flank.  Several  attacks  were  made  upon  it,  until,  charging  with 
Warren's  brigade,  the  regiment  carried  all  before  it  and  took  many  prisoners. 
April  2  it  was  the  second  line  of  Hyde's  brigade,  the  point  of  "the  Sixth 
Corps  wedge,"  which  General  Meade  said  decided  the  fate  of  Richmond, 
and  its  colors  were  among  the  first  on  the  rebel  works  and  before  daybreak. 
Being  ordered  at  once  to  Hatcher's  Run,  it  there  captured  many  prisoners 
and  munitions  of  war.  Here  Captain  Merrill  and  fourteen  men,  after  a 
brisk  fight,  captured  seventy-nine  Confederates,  an  entire  company  of  sharp- 
shooters. The  same  day  the  regiment  took  active  part  in  storming  the 
battery  at  Lee's  headquarters,  and  continued  in  brilliant  skirmishes  across 
the  Appomattox  until  the  day  closed  in  full  victory.  It  was  engaged  in 
the  pursuit  of  Lee's  retreating  army,  in  receiving  Lee's  surrender,  and, 
April  26,  in  the  bloodless  occupation  of  Danville.  Here  Colonel  Hyde  was 
appointed  military  governor,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Fletcher  provost-marshal. 
Remaining  here  nearly  a  month,  it  marched  to  Washington,  took  part  in  the 
grand  review.  May  23,  and  June  28,  1865,  was  mustered  out  of  the  United 
States  service.  Returning  to  Maine,  it  was  finally  discharged  July  3,  1865. 
Colonel  Thomas  W.  H3^de  was  commissioned  October  22,  1864,  and  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Stephen  C.  Fletcher,  November  6,  1864.  Captains  Charles  T. 
Witherell  and  Albert  A.  Nickerson  were  brevetted  major  October  19,  1864, 
and  Captain  Augustus  Merrill  brevetted  major  April  2,  1865.  Major  Alex- 
ander B.  Sumner,  brevetted  lieutenant-colonel  April  2,  1865,  was  discharged 
June  16,  1865. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 


Alonzo  Adley,  Serg.,  A,  Lewistou 

John  Dow,  A,  ,, 

Albert  G.  Dunham,  A,  ,, 

Charles  Ilicks,  A,  ,, 

Albert  R.  Turner,  A,  ,, 

Philander  C.  Towns,  A,  d  Nov.  14,  (J4,  ,, 
Augustus  A.  Dwiual,  Sgt,  A,  pro  Lt,  G,     Minot 

Albert  A.  Gilbert,  A,  Turner 

Davis  M.  Merrill,  A,  ,, 
Henry  H.  Hutchinson,  1st  Serg.,  A,          Poland 

Cyrenus  P.  Stevens,  1st  Serg.,  A,  Greene 

Francis  M.  Bragdon,  B,  tr  to  G,                 Poland 

Wellington  H.  Dwinal,  B,  „ 

Joseph  Q.  Edmonds,  B,  „ 

John  Fardy,  B,  ,, 

Charles  E.  Harris,  Corp.,  pro  Serg.,  B,  ,, 

Almon  H.  Hutchinson,  B,  „ 

Levi  F.  Jordan,  B,  ,, 

Arthur  M.  Brown,  Corp.,  B,  Minot 

Harrison  J.  Dwinal,  B,  ,, 

William  H.  Morse,  Corp.,  B,  „ 

Joseph  Layet,  G,  ,, 

Joseph  Jones,  H,  Turner 

Lewis  Gordon,  H,  Poland 

Philip  Sullivan,  H,  Livermore 

Ira  Emery,  A,  ,, 

Frank  F.  Goss,  Corp.,  B,  Danville 
David  Small,  B, 

Albert  W.  Hinds,  Corp.,  B,  Turner 

David  H.  Jones,  B,  Auburn 

Samuel  W.  Taylor,  B,  Wales 

Nathaniel  Haskell,  B,  Lewiston 

W.  M.  Larrabee,  B,  ,, 

Lemont  Manning,  B,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Manning,  B,  ,, 

Thomas  Nugent,  B,  „ 

Isaiah  Purrington,  B,  ,, 

Daniel  Shehau,  Corp.,  B,  „ 

Henry  Thompson,  B,  ,, 

Thomas  Ward,  Corp.,  B,  ,, 

William  Kelley,  B,  Greene 

George  W.  Verrill,  Corp.,  D,  kd,  G4,           Minot 

Silas  Crooker,  D,  ,, 

William  B.  Ru.sli,  I),  Lewiston 

John  Barrett,  D,  ,, 

McGIoire  Gosslin,  D,  kd  Sept.  22,  (J4,  „ 

Baptist  Marcho,  D,  ,, 

Thomas  Ripley,  D,  ,, 

Edward  Valrend,  D,  ,, 

James  (Iraham,  C,  Turner 

Jolin  O'Donnell,  E,  Auburn 

David  N.  Landers,  F,  Auburn 

Barzilla  Wilson,  F,  Webster 

George  N.  Thurlow,  Corp.,  F,  Lewiston 

Charles  H.  Hodgdon,  G,  Wales 

John  W».  Adams,  G,  Auburn 

Walter  Eckhart,  G, 
Robert  Henneke,  Corp.,  G, 
Paul  H.  Ingwerson,  G, 
John  F.  M.  Lahrssehn,  G, 
Joseph  Plant,  G, 
Carl  Yahr,  G, 
Welcome  Beals,  G,  Turner 

Enos  Corey,  G,  Lewiston 

Nathan  R.  Turner,  G,  ,, 

George  H.  Fuller,  G,  Livermore 

Dominicus  Libby,  G,  k  May  6,  64,  Danville 

Charles  W.  Longfellow,  G,  Greene 

William  H.  Larrabee,  1st  Lieut,  H,  Danville 
George  B.  JSUoore,  Qm.-Serg..  Lisbon 

John  B.  Cook,  Capt.,  I,  dis  for  pro,  Lewistou 
Benjamin  F.  Mower,  I,  Greene 

James  W.  Libby,  Serg.,  K,  Leeds 

Albert  M.  Rose,  Corp.,  K,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Smith,  Lewistou 

Elijah  R.  Smith, 
John  Collins,  K, 
Jordan  G.  Carville,  Serg.,  K,  pro  Lt, 

20  Co., 
^Merrill  J.  Hibbard,  K, 
James  McCabe,  K, 
Felix  McHanuan,  K, 
John  Magner,  K,  kd  Oct.  H),  1804, 
James  Mohegan,  K, 
George  Morgan,  Corp.,  K, 
William  S.  Real,  K, 
James  Cain,  K, 
John  Carney,  K, 
John  Hammond,  K, 
Leopole  Shillott,  K, 
Thomas  Willett,  K, 
Dennis  Harris,  Corp.,  K,  Greene 

San  ford  R.  Knox,  K,  ,, 

George  F.  Hodgdon,  Corp.,  K,  Livermore 

Allen  F.  Plummer,  K,  Wales 

jNIarcus  M.  Small,  K,  tr  to  I,  East  Livermore 
William  H.  Whitney,  K,  d  of  wds,  f)4,  Lisbon 
Lyman  E.  Bessey,  Lewiston 

Charles  A.  Hatch,  Auburn 

Thomas  J.  Thurston,  A,  Lewiston 

Harland  Page,  E,  Greene 

Thomas  Quinn,  E,  ,, 

First  Infantrij  Battalion.  —  This  was  organized  May  25,  1865,  at  Augusta, 
from  four  unassigned  companies  recruited  for  one  year's  service  and  originally 
designed  for  the  Fifteenth  Regiment.     The  companies  were  lettered  A,  B,  C, 

Military  Affairs. 


and  D,  and  of  these  Company  C  had  quite  a  proportion  of  Androscoggin 
county  men.  The  battalion  was  assigned  to  the  Second  brigade  of  Dvvight's 
division,  and  commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Calvin  S.  Brown.  It  was  on 
duty  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  and  later  at  different  places  in  South  Carolina, 
until  April  5,  1866,  when  its  term  expired  and  it  was  mustered  out  of  United 
States  service. 


Royal  A.  Bray,  Capt.,  C,  Turner 

John  E.  Ashe,  1st  Lieut,  C,  ,, 

William  E.  Alden,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

Sanford  Conant,  C,  ,, 

Luther  K.  Carey,  C,  pro  Com.  Serg.,  ,, 

Algernon  H.  Davis,  C,  died  in  service,  ,, 

Henry  Donham,  C,  died  in  service,  ,, 
Alvah  N.  Dexter,  C, 

Alonzo  Fuller,  C,  ,, 
Edwin  S.  French,  Corp.,  C,died  in  service,      ,, 

Horace  J.  Gilbert,  Corp.,  C,  „ 

Samuel  J.  Oilman,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

Frank  Kilgore,  C,  Turner 

Thaddeus  Leavitt,  1st  Serg.,  C,  ,, 

Liacius  Libby,  C,  ,, 

Orpheus  M.  Leonard,  C,  died  in  service,        „ 
Albert  Ladd,  C,  ,, 

Mellen  Merrill,  C, 
Edward  Shurtleif,  Serg.,  C, 
Charles  H.  Thayer,  Sei'g.,  C,  „ 

Eraslus  E.  Gilbert,  B,  died  in  service,         Leeds 
Lorenzo  D.  Stinchfield,  B,  Lewiston 

Samuel  F.  Coffin,  Mus.,  C,  Turner 

First  Heavii  Artillery  (Eighteenth  Infantry  Kegiment).  —  This  regiment 
was  organized  at  Bangor  and  Augusta,  August  21,  1862,  for  three  years,  as  the 
Eighteenth  Kegiment  of  infantry,  changed  to  heavy  artillery  and  designated 
the  First  Heavy  Artillery  Regiment  in  December,  1862.  Two  additional  com- 
panies were  organized  —  one  in  January,  the  other  in  February,  1864.  The 
original  members  were  mustered  out  June  6,  1865,  and  the  organization, 
composed  of  veterans  and  recruits  of  this  regiment,  with  accessions  from  the 
Seventeenth  and  Nineteenth  Infantry  regiments,  remained  in  service  until 
mustered  out,  September  11,  1865.  No  regiment  more  gallantly  acquired  its 
laurels.  May  19,  1864,  at  Fredericksburg  Pike,  it  lost  in  less  than  three  hours 
in  killed  and  wounded,  476  officers  and  men,  yet  never  wavered  nor  faltered 
till  night  fell  and  checked  the  carnage.  The  Adjutant-General's  Report  of 
1864  says  of  one  of  its  engagements  at  Petersburg: 

June  18,  1864.  Advanced  on  the  enemy's  works  and  carried  two  lines  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  O'Haire  house.  In  the  afternoon  the  command  was  massed  with  the  brigade  to  assault 
that  portion  of  the  enemy's  line  considered  too  strong  to  carry  in  the  raoruiug  —  the  regi- 
ment in  three  battalions  constituting  the  three  front  lines.  Works  had  been  constructed, 
arranged  to  sweep  by  direct  and  enfilade  fires  every  foot  of  the  intervening  j^lain.  Upon 
the  word  "Forward,"  the  first  lines  moved  forward.  The  First  Battalion  was  swept  away 
by  the  deadly  fire  of  the  enemy  before  it  had  advanced  one  hundred  yards,  whole 
companies  reeled  before  the  fury  of  the  shock,  yet  the  gallant  few  went  on  as  if  devoted  to 
death.  Unsupported  they  pressed  forward,  a  few  getting  within  forty  yards  of  the  enemy's 
breastworks,  when,  more  than  two-thirds  of  the  regiment  being  either  killed  or  wounded, 
the  order  was  given  to  fall  back.  Should  the  fearful  responsibility  of  this  fatal  assault  be 
charged  against  the  gallant  Colonel  Chaplin,  justice  demands  that  it  should  be  known  that 
he  acted  under  imperative  orders,  both  in  making  the  assault  and  in  the  disposition  of  his 
own  regiment  in  front. 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Other  notable  actions  where  the  First  Heavy  Artillery  did  meritorious 
service  were  Tolopotomoy,  Coal  Harbor,  Petersburg,  Deep  Bottom,  Boydton 
Road.  Colonel  Chaplin  was  mortally  wounded  August  18,  1864.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Thomas  H.  Talbot  resigned  September  14,  and  Major  George  W. 
Sabine,  December  10.  He  succeeded  Major  Charles  Hamlin,  discharged  April 
26,  1863,  and  was  followed  in  office  by  Major  Christopher  V.  Crossraan  until 
December  22,  when  he  was  discharged.  Colonel  Russell  B.  Shepherd  was 
commissioned  October  21,  1864;  Major  Harrison  G.  Smith,  March  28,  1865. 
Major  Charles  VV.  Nute  died  March  9,  1864.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Zimro  A. 
Smith  was  in  command  for  some  time  after  he  was  appointed  before  he  was 
mustered  in  with  that  rank. 


George  Duran,  A,  Durham 

Gilman  Rice,  A,  Lewistou 

William  0.  Bridge,  M,  ,, 

Frank  Bridge,  M,  ,, 

Philip  C.  Keith,  M, 

Joseph  Jordan,  B,  Webster 

Horatio  B.  Downer,  D,  kd  June  17,  M,  Lewiston 
Sylvester  Eaton,  D,  ,, 

Thomas  Hatch,  D,  died  of  wounds  July 

12,  1804,  Auburn 

Sewall  B.  Waite,  D,  Lewiston 

Henry  A.  Evans,  E,  d  of  wds  Apr.  11,  65,      ,, 
Stephen  F.  Harriman,  E,  ,, 

William  R.  Kennerson,  E,  ,, 

Henry  W.  Stearns,  E,  ,, 

Alonzo  Goodwin,  E, 


Edwin  L.  Ladd,  E,  transferred  to  G, 


George  C.  Cross,  L,  died  June  18, 



John  J.  Bragdon,  L,  died  July  25 



Nelson  W.  Edwards,  L,  died  July 



John  H.  Quimby,  L, 


Phineas  K.  Martin,  M, 


John  G.  Tibbetts,  M, 


Isaac  S.  Fauuce,  Captain,  B, 


David  J.  Chandler,  Lieut,  B, 


W.  H.  H.  Small,  Corp.,  B, 


Arthur  L.  Coombs,  B, 


Patrick  Dolan,  B, 


John  O.  Sullivan,  B, 


Stephen  C.  Chitler,  B, 


Elisha  K.  Mann,  Serg.,  C, 


Stephen  Richards,  Corp.,  C, 


Mandrid  0.  Savage,  Serg.,  C, 


Nathan  B.  Harlow,  Corp.,  C, 


John  S.  Higgins,  C, 


David  Howe,  C, 


Frank  Larvin,  C, 

Silas  McAllister,  C, 


Leonard  Percy,  C, 


Leonard  Weston,  C, 


Frank  White,  C, 
David  Bailey,  C, 
Jonathan  Hutchinson,  Jr,  D, 
Charles  Ludus,  1st  Serg.,  D, 
Thomas  JNIcCarty,  D, 
Charles  W.  Merrill,  D, 
Henry  Hall,  E, 
Frank  Kilgore,  E, 
Charles  McCarroll,  E, 
Edwin  E.  Jones,  Serg.,  E, 
Walter  Jerald,  Serg.,  F, 
Maxim  Layois,  F, 
Frederic  Leavitt,  F, 
Patrick  Lyons,  F, 
Emery  E.  Lowell,  F, 
Hezekiah  Morse,  F, 
( Jeorge  Morris,  F, 
William  H.  Lemont,  F, 
Eben  E.  Colby,  G, 
William  B.  Ellis,  G, 
Hugh  Hunter,  G, 
Michael  A.  Murphy,  Serg.,  G, 
Warren  Sturtevant,  G, 
George  Wilbur,  G, 
James  Courson,  H, 
Roscoe  Smith,  H, 
Daniel  Strickland,  H, 
John  Sullivan,  H, 
Patrick  Sullivan,  H, 
John  Brine,  Corp.,  I, 
James  Gleason,  I, 
Martin  McElroy,  I, 
Frank  Tripp,  I, 
Charles  Wellman,  I, 
Emanuel  Brazille,  K, 
William  Greenwood,  K, 
James  W.  Hicks,  K, 
Samuel  E.  Kenniston,  K, 
Morris  Murphy,  K, 
John  H.  Williams,  K, 










Military  Affairs.  161 

John  Warner,  K,  Lewiston 
Charles  H.  Wright,  K, 

Orville  Young,  K,  ,, 

Almon  E.  Brown,  K,  Auburn 

Rufus  Danforth,  K,  „ 

Francis  D.  Moray,  K,  Auburn 

Chandler  Nason,  K,  ,, 

William  Doyle,  K,  Leeds 

Philip  C.  Keith,  M,  Lewiston 

Samuel  W.  Adams,  Greene 

First  Battalion  Light  Artillery.  —  This  name  was  given  to  an  organization 
of  seven  batteries,  serving  in  different  commands,  and  mustered  into  United 
States  service  at  different  times  and  places,  thus:  First  Battery  at  Port- 
land, December  18,  1861;  Second  Battery  at  Augusta,  November  30,  1861; 
Third  Battery  at  Augusta,  December  11,  1861;  Fourth  Battery  at  Augusta, 
December  21,  1861 ;  Fifth  Battery  at  Augusta,  December  4,  1861 ;  Sixth 
Battery  at  Augusta,  February  7, 1862;  Seventh  Battery  at  Augusta,  December 
30,  1863.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Davis  Tillson  was  discharged  March  25,  1863. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  George  F.  Leppien  died  May  24,  1864,  of  wounds  received 
in  action.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Freeman  McGilvery  died  September  2, 1864,  of 
wounds  received  in  action  at  Deep  Bottom,  Va.  Lieutenant-Colonel  James  A. 
Hall  was  brevetted  brigadier-general  March  7,  1865. 

The  First  Battery  joined  the  Army  of  the  Gulf  at  New  Orleans  and  was 
in  its  first  action  December  27,  1862,  at  Labadieville.  From  this  time  until 
August,  1863,  it  saw  much  service,  notably  at  Pattersonville,  January  14,  at 
Bisland,  April  12  and  13,  at  Port  Hudson  from  April  27  to  the  fall  of  the 
place,  and  at  Donaldsonville,  July  13,  where  it  took  a  prominent  part. 
December  29,  1863,  every  man  on  duty  re-enlisted  for  three  years  and  went 
home  on  a  furlough.  It  was  rendezvoused  at  Augusta  in  March,  and  was 
assigned  to  General  Burnside's  corps  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  and 
stationed  at  Washington.  July  12,  1864,  it  aided  in  repelling  General  Early's 
attack  on  Fort  Stevens,  and  September  19  it  was  prominent  in  the  battle  of 
Winchester,  and  at  Strasburg,  September  22.  October  19  it  participated  in 
the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek,  Va,  losing  heavily.  From  November  9  to  July  9, 
1865,  it  was  stationed  at  Winchester  and  Manchester,  Va.  On  the  last-named 
day  it  was  ordered  to  Portland,  where  it  was  mustered  out  July  15,  1865. 

The  Second  Battery  saw  action  first  at  Cross  Keyes,  Va,  June  8,  1862,  and 
took  part  in  skirmishes  at  Strasburg  June  1,  Woodstock  June  2,  Mount 
Jackson  June  4,  Newmarket  June  5,  Harrisonburg  June  6,  and  Port  Republic 
June  9.  August  8  it  fought  the  Confederates,  five  miles  beyond  Culpepper, 
and  the  next  day  was  prominent  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain.  It  took 
part  in  the  action  at  Bull  Run,  August  30.  December  13  it  was  a  participant 
in  the  attack  on  Fredericksburg  and  very  active  all  day.  On  the  afternoon  of 
August  15,  the  battery  recrossed  the  river  and  took  position  on  the  heights 
covering  the  bridge  over  which  General  Franklin's  troops  were  crossing. 
August  19  it  went  into  camp  near  Fletcher's  Chapel,  where  it  stayed  until 
May  3,  1863,  when  it  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville.  From  this 
time  it  was  active  in  the  Pennsylvania  campaign,  and  was  in    most  gallant 

1(32  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

combat  July  1,  2,  and  3  at  Gettysburg.  It  was  in  camp  and  on  furlough  from 
this  action  until  April  26,  1864,  when  it  was  assigned  to  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac  and  joined  the  march  to  Richmond,  where  it  viciously  assailed  the 
enemy  near  Spottsylvania,  May  10,  11,  12,  14,  and  18,  and  south  of  the 
Pamunkey  river,  June  1  and  3.  It  engaged  the  enemy  in  front  of  Petersburg, 
July  26.  September  27  it  went  into  position  in  the  fort  on  the  left  of  the  road 
leading  to  Petersburg,  and  was  here,  at  City  Point,  and  at  Alexandria  until 
May  31,  1865,  when  it  was  ordered  to  Augusta,  where  it  was  mustered  out  of 
service  and  discharged  June  16. 

The  Third  Battery  arrived  at  Washington,  April  3,  1862,  and  acted  as 
"pontooniers"  for  General  McDowell  from  April  14  to  November  7,  when  it 
returned  to  Fort  Lincoln  and  engaged  in  building  "Battery  Maine."  March 
28,  1863,  it  became  Company  M,  First  Regiment  Heavy  Artillery  Maine 
Volunteers.  January  5,  1864,  seventj^-two  men  re-enlisted  for  three  years 
were  furloughed,  and  rendezvoused  at  Augusta,  February  22.  They  were 
detached  from  the  First  Heavy  Artillery,  and  reorganized  as  the  Third  Battery 
of  Mounted  Artillery.  This  was  at  Washington  on  duty  from  February  28 
until  July  5,  when  it  was  assigned  to  duty  with  the  Third  Division  of  the 
Ninth  Corps,  and  July  9  was  placed  in  position  before  the  rebel  works  in  front 
of  Cemetery  Hill  at  Petersburg.  From  this  time  until  August  19  it  was  in 
daily  battle  with  the  Confederates,  bearing  honorable  part  in  the  general 
engagement  of  July  30.  October  25  it  moved  to  the  defenses  of  City  Point, 
having  been  in  the  trenches  in  front  of  Petersburg  105  days.  The  battery 
remained  at  City  Point  and  Washington  until  June  2,  1865,  when  it  returned 
to  Maine,  and  was  mustered  out  and  discharged  June  22,  1865. 

The  Fourth  Battery  was  stationed  at  and  around  Washington  from  April  3 
until  June  28,  1862,  when  it  went  to  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  where,  August  9, 
it  participated  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain.  Returning  to  Culpepper, 
August  19  it  went  to  the  Rappahannock  river,  protected  the  bridge  at  the 
railroad  crossing,  the  next  day  repulsed  a  rebel  battery  and  rejoined  its  corps 
at  Sulphur  Springs,  where  it  had  a  brisk  engagement  with  a  Confederate 
battery,  August  12.  September  17  it  did  good  execution  at  Antietam,  and, 
following  the  retreating  foe  to  Harper's  Ferry,  took  position  on  Bolivar 
Heights,  September  20,  and  was  on  garrison  and  picket  duty  here  and  at 
Maryland  Heights  until  June  30,  1863,  when  it  evacuated  its  position.  July 
22  it  was  engaged  in  the  action  at  Wapping  Heights,  Va,  and  from  this  time 
was  in  active  operations  until  going  into  camp  at  Brandy  Station,  December  3. 
It  fought  at  McLean's  Ford  October  15,  at  Kelly's  Ford  November  7,  and  at 
Mine  Run  November  30.  May  6,  1864,  it  crossed  the  Rapidan  as  part  of  the 
Sixth  Corps.  At  Cold  Harbor,  June  1,  and  later  at  Petersburg,  it  did  efficient 
service.  The  Fourth  remained  in  commission  until  June  17,  1865,  when  it 
was  mustered  out  and  discharged. 

Military  Affairs.  163 

The  Fifth  Battery  encamped  at  Washington,  April  1,  1862.  May  19  it 
"marched  to  Fredericksburg,  thence  to  Front  Royal,  and  August  9  took 
position  at  Cedar  Mountain  at  night  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire.  August  20, 
21,  and  23  it  covered  the  railroad  crossing  at  Rappahannock  Station  and 
prevented  the  Confederate  batteries  from  taking  position.  It  took  part  in  the 
action  at  Thoroughfare  Gap,  August  27,  and  lost  four  guns  at  Manassas, 
August  30.  December  13  it  was  under  the  heaviest  cannonading  of  the  battle 
of  Fredericksburg.  May  3,  1863,  it  suffered  severely  at  Chancellorsville, 
Captain  Leppien  being  mortally  wounded  and  thirty  others  killed  and  wounded. 
July  1  it  attacked  the  Confederates  at  Emmettsburg,  and  the  next  two  days 
was  active  in  the  great  action  at  Gett3'^sburg.  Passing  the  winter  at  Culpepper, 
Va,  it  commenced  its  activity  May  21,  1864,  at  Spottsylvania,  and  June  2 
silenced  the  rebel  batteries  in  front  of  its  position  at  Cold  Harbor.  It  was 
before  Petersburg,  and  later  with  the  Sixth  Corps  in  the  defensive  operations 
for  the  protection  of  Washington  and  Baltimore,  and  September  19  had  an 
all-day's  fight  at  Opequan.  At  Cedar  Creek,  October  19,  it  won  high  honors 
and  lost  heavily.  This  was  its  last  engagement  of  moment.  It  was  on  duty 
along  the  Shenandoah  and  Potomac  until  it  returned  to  Maine,  where  it  was 
mustered  out  and  discharged  July  6,  1865. 

The  Sixth  Battery  served  under  Generals  Sigel,  Banks,  and  Heintzelman  in 
Virginia,  and  Generals  Williams  and  Slocum  in  Maryland,  commencing  active 
campaigning  in  April,  1862.  At  Cedar  Mountain,  August  9,  it  held  an 
important  position  with  some  loss.  It  took  part  in  all  the  fighting  on  the 
Rappahannock  under  General  Pope,  and  was  of  great  service  at  Centerville 
and  Manassas,  August  29  and  30.  It  was  in  reserve  at  South  Mountain,  Sep- 
tember 14,  and  in  position  at  Antietam,  September  17.  December  27  one 
section  of  the  Sixth  made  a  successful  defense  of  Dumfries,  Va,  and  with 
infantry  support  repulsed  a  large  force.  It  took  a  prominent  part  at  Gettys- 
burg, July  2  and  3,  and  later  shared  in  the  skirmishing  of  the  First  Corps  on 
its  retreat  from  Culpepper.  More  than  two-thirds  of  the  men  re-enlisted  early 
in  1864.  From  May  3,  1864,  until  January,  1865,  it  was  constantly  in  aggres- 
sive duty.  May  6  losing  eight  men  at  the  action  of  Todd's  Tavern,  and  engaging 
the  Confederates  on  the  Ny,  North  Anna,  and  Pamunkey  rivers,  at  Cold 
Harbor,  for  two  weeks  in  front  of  Petersburg,  along  the  Appomattox,  on  the 
south  side  of  the  James  surrounded  by  the  enemy,  and  from  August  22  to 
October  22  garrisoning  and  defending  Fort  Davis.  From  October  the  Sixth 
liad  many  artillery  duels  with  the  Confederates,  was  pitted  against  their  heavy 
siege  guns  and  mortars,  and  in  many  other  ways  maintained  its  deservedly  high 
reputation.     It  was  mustered  out  at  Augusta,  June  17,  1865. 

The  Seventh  Battery  joined  the  Ninth  Army  Corps  in  April,  1863,  and 
May  9  and  12  had  its  first  encounters  with  the  Confederates  on  the  Ny,  acquit- 
ting itself  ably.     June  2  and  3  it  was  prominent  in  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor, 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

then  took  its  way  to  Petersburg,  aided  in  driving  the  enemy  across  the  Norfolk 
raih-oad  on  the  eighteenth,  and  on  the  twenty-third  took  position  at  Peters- 
burg, only  700  yards  from  and  directly  in  front  of  the  point  where  the  mine 
was  exploded  July  30,  and  for  forty-seven  consecutive  days  was  under  fire. 
August  4  it  was  relieved  and  stationed  at  Fort  Rice,  where  it  received  great 
attention  from  the  Confederate  batteries.  October  2  it  took  position  at  the 
Pegram  House  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire,  and  assisted  in  repelling  the  attack 
on  that  position.  December  2  returning  to  Petersburg  it  garrisoned  Fort 
Sedgwick  until  April  1,  1865,  and  took  part  in  the  capture  of  Petersburg. 
After  Lee's  surrender  the  Seventh  returned  to  Washington,  May  10  participated 
in  the  grand  review  of  the  army,  and  June  5  left  Washington  for  Maine.  It 
was  mustered  out  at  Augusta,  June  21,  1865. 










William  D.  Wood,  Q.  M.  Sgt,  1  Bat.,      Auburn 

Charles  H.  Cobb,  Jr,  1  Bat.,  Danville 

A.  J.  Lufkin,  Serg.,  1  Bat.,  Lewiston 

Michael  Collins,  1  Bat.,  died  in  service,       ,, 

L.  I.  N.  Lenfest,  1  Bat.,  ,, 

John  K.  Hamilton,  1  Bat., 

Eben  Gould,  1  Bat., 

William  Morton,  1  Bat., 

Michael  O'Brien,  1  Bat., 

Daniel  P.  Eaton,  Serg.,  5  Bat., 

Sullivan  Luce,  5  Bat.,  kd  July  3,  6.3, 

Charles  P.  IVIiller,  5  Bat., 

Warren  B.  Bailey,  5  Bat., 

Charles  H.  Foss,  5  Bat., 

Charles  H.  Harlow,  5  Bat., 

Alonzo  Hinckley,  Corp.,  5  Bat., 

Isaac  P.  St  Clair,  5  Bat., 

William  C.  A.  Browu,  5  Bat., 

John  Carvill,  Corp.,  5  Bat., 

William  C.  Coatling,  5  Bat., 

Hiram  Cordwell,  5  Bat., 

John   Finley,  5  Bat.,  wd   and   miss 

Patrick  Green,  5  Bat., 
Michael  Hickey,  5  Bat., 
James  S.  Lebroke,  5  Bat. 
William  Lenuard,  5  Bat. 
C.  W.  Richardson,  Mus., 
IJewellyn  Sawyer,  .5  Bat., 
Edward  Warren,  5  Bat., 
Richard  K.  Maxwell,  .5  I'at., 
John  R.  Whitticr,  5  Bat., 
John  H.  Hanson,  5  Bat., 
Edward  T.  Sawyer,  6  Bat., 
Omer  Smith,  Corp.,  7  Bat., 
Benjamin  S.  Crawford,  7  Bat., 
Edgar  Emery,  7  Bat., 
Delphinas  B.  Bicknell,  Serg.,  7  Bat., 


,  pro  Serg. 
5  Bat., 






Joseph  R.  Niles,  7  Bat.,  d  of  wds,  18G4 

Harris  W.  Jordan,  7  Bat., 

Alfred  B.  Wyman,  7  Bat., 

Alfred  Roberts,  7  Bat., 

Charles  A.  N.  Waterman,  7  Bat., 

Solomon  L.  Carmoin,  2  Bat., 

Eli  B.  Clark,  2  Bat., 

Benjamin  P.  Peterson,  2  Bat., 

Jerry  Russell,  2  Bat., 

Oliver  L.  Stevens,  4  Bat., 

Martin  Goding,  4  Bat.,  died  Nov.  9,  04 

William  A.  Childs,  4  Bat., 

Frank  McCann,  4  Bat., 

Uriah  Read,  Corp.,  4  Bat., 

A.  K.  P.  Ramsdell,  4  Bat., 

John  B.  Hanson,  5  Bat., 

Matthew  Roberts,  5  Bat., 

Roscoe  A.  Williams,  5  Bat., 

Luther  Briggs,  Corp.,  7  Bat., 

Samuel  A.  Stillings,  7  Bat., 

George  Holmes,  7  Bat., 

Charles  Emerson,  7  Bat., 

Sewall  B.  Emery,  7  Bat., 

Wesley  Strout,  7  Bat., 

Oliver  B.  Strout,  7  Bat., 

Henry  Stockbridge,  7  Bat., 

Samuel  Taylor,  7  Bat., 

Edwin  Woodsum,  7  Bat., 

Wentworth  M.  Brown,  7  Bat., 

Lorenzo  B.  Harrington,  7  Bat., 

George  B.  Hasey,  1  Bat., 

Edward  Connor,  1  Bat., 

Patrick  Dunn,  1  Bat., 

Samuel  Scofleld,  1  Bat., 

Ezekiel  H.  Cook,  Q.  M.  Sgt,  1  Bat., 

John  McMullen,  1  Bat., 

Frederic  C.  Fuller,  7  Bat., 

Nathaniel  C.  Dean,  7  Bat., 















Military  Affairs.  165 

Fii'st  Gavalry  Regiment.  —  This  regiment  of  twelve  companies  was  organized 
at  Augusta,  November  5, 1861,  for  three  years,  the  men  being  of  fine  material 
and  coming  from  all  parts  of  the  state.  Company  G  was  principally  recruited 
in  Androscoggin  county.  The  original  field  officers  were  Colonel  John  God- 
dard,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas  Hight  (formerly  a  captain  in  the  regular 
army),  Majors  Samuel  H.  Allen,  David  P.  Stowell,  Calvin  S.  Douty.  Colonel 
Goddard  resigned  February  12,  1862,  and  Major  Allen  was  commissioned 
colonel.  Captain  Warren  L.  Whitney  of  Company  A  becoming  major.  March 
14,  1862,  Companies  A,  D,  E,  and  F,  under  command  of  Colonel  Allen,  left 
the  state  for  Washington,  where  they  arrived  March  19.  Companies  B, 
I,  H,  and  M,  under  Major  Douty,  left  March  20,  arriving  at  Washington 
March  24.  Here  the  two  detachments  were  joined  by  the  remaining  companies. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Hight  resigned  March  14,  1862,  and  May  10  Major  Douty 
was  commissioned  in  his  place,  and  with  Companies  A,  B,  E,  H,  and  M, 
was  assigned  to  General  Hatch's  cavalry  brigade  of  General  Banks's  corps. 
The  other  companies  were  soon  connected  with  General  Ord's  Division  at 
Fredericksburg.  May  23  l^ieutenant-Colonel  Douty  with  his  command  aided 
in  covering  General  Banks's  retreat  to  Williamsport.  The  regiment  was  con- 
solidated at  Warrenton,  Va,  July  10,  and  was  in  active  service  from  that  time; 
August  9  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  and  August  20  at  Brandy  Station. 
September  4  it  was  in  the  fight  of  Frederick  City,  Md,  and  garrisoned  the 
place.  Colonel  Allen  being  made  military  governor.  Company  G  (then 
General  Reno's  body-guard)  took  part  in  the  action  at  South  Mountain, 
September  14,  and  C-ompanies  M  and  H  in  that  of  Antietam,  September  17. 
The  regiment  was  at  Frederick  City  and  Falmouth,  Va,  until  February  20, 
1863,  when  it  joined  the  First  Brigade,  Third  Division,  Colonel  J.  Kilpatrick 
commanding.  Colonel  Allen  resigned  December  12,  1862,  and  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Douty  was  promoted  to  his  place.  From  April  13  to  June  8  the  First 
was  in  several  engagements  and  reconnoissances,  and  June  17  it  lost  heavily  at 
Aldie,  Va,  Colonel  Douty  being  among  the  killed.  June  19  it  was  in  action 
at  Middleburg,  June  21  at  Upperville,  and  July  3  in  a  severe  cavalry  fight 
at  Gettysburg.  July  1  Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  H.  Smith  was  commis- 
sioned colonel,  and  Major  Boothby  succeeded  him.  The  First  went  to  the 
support  of  the  pickets  at  Shepherdstown,  who  were  attacked  by  a  large  force 
under  General  Stuart  July  16,  and  had  a  hotly  contested  fight  of  many 
hours.  From  August  24  to  January  1,  1864,  the  First  was  a  prominent  factor 
in  numerous  battles,  skirmishes,  and  reconnoissances.  February  27,  1864,  300 
men  reported  to  General  Kilpatrick  for  duty  in  the  expedition  to  Richmond,  in 
which  they  had  several  engagements,  losing  before  their  return  to  Alexandria, 
March  12,  98  men  and  over  200  horses.  May  7  and  8  they  liad  a  severe  engage- 
ment at  Todd's  Tavern,  and  May  9  started  on  (leneral  Sheridan's  first  raid  and 
reached  within  three  miles  of  Richmond.     June  2  Chaplain  Barrett  was  killed 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

by  a  solid  shot.  From  this  time  until  September,  the  First  took  gallant  part  in 
the  actions  of  Trevillian's  Station,  St  Mary's  Church,  Malvern  Hill,  Charles 
City  Road,  Dinwiddle  Court  House,  and  Ream's  Station.  At  this  time  seven 
companies  of  the  First  District  of  Columbia  Cavalry  were  transferred  to  the 
various  companies  of  the  First  Maine.  In  October  were  fought  actions  at 
Gravelly  Creek  and  Roydton  Plank  Road.  The  members  whose  terms  of 
service  expired  November  4,  1864,  were  mustered  out  at  Augusta,  November 
25,  1864.  The  organization  still  in  service  had  an  obstinate  engagement  Feb- 
ruary, 1865,  at  Cat  Tail  Run,  where  it  lost  heavily.  It  did  good  service  in  the 
closing  battles  of  the  war,  and  was  mustered  out  of  the  United  States  service 
at  Petersburg,  Va,  August  1,  1865,  after  a  most  heroic  career. 

Colonel  Smith  was  bre vetted  brigadier-general  August  1,  1864.  Major 
Whitney  resigned  May  13,  1863,  Major  George  W.  Jirown  February  11,  1864, 
Major  Sidney  W.  Thaxter  November  24,  1864,  Major  Daniel  S.  Curtis  Jan- 
uary 18,  1865,  and  Major  Joel  W.  Cloudman  February  20,  1865.  The  field 
officers  at  the  close  of  service  were  Colonel  Charles  H.  Smith,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Jonathan  P.  Cilley,  and  Majors  Constantine  Taylor,  Benjamin  F. 
Tucker,  and  Paul  Chadbourne.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Stephen  Boothby  died 
June  6,  1864,  from  wounds  received  in  action. 

An  organization  was  formed  in  1890  as  First  Maine  Cavalry  Association  of 
Androscoggin  County,  to  hold  semi-annual  meetings  in  memory  of  their  gallant 
history.  Charles  E.  Moulton  was  chosen  president ;  M.  F.  Ricker,  vice- 
president  ;  Henry  Little,  secretary  and  treasurer.  At  that  time  the  veterans 
residing  in  the  county  numbered  about  sixty,  embracing  these  whom  we  do 
not  find  credited  to  any  town  of  the  county:  Charles  E.  Moulton,  George  Day, 
O.  M.  Barnard,  J.  M.  Woodman,  Samuel  Whitney,  C.  B.  Kimball,  Nelson  A. 
Dodge,  Daniel  Irish,  J.  W.  West,  George  L.  Fassett,  Perry  Chandler,  William 
Dudley,  Charles  Phenix,  B.  P.  Lowell,  I.  B.  Harvey,  Andrew  Brawn,  Horace 
Whitcomb,  Frank  Whitcomb,  I.  S.  Maxwell,  Charles  Merryfield,  A.  E.  Soule, 
Samuel  Stone,  John  Stone,  John  Steele,  Albert  Smith,  Leander  Lane,  A.  P. 
Donnell,  A.  B.  Brown. 


Thomas  Otis,  D,  Poland 

George  Wentworth,  B,  Greene 

Seth  H.  Keene,  E,  Turner 

Roscoe  G.  Reals,  E,  Leeds 

p:d  P.  Mitchell,  F,  Vii'ales 

Moses  H.  Fogg,  H,  tr  to  V.  R.  C,  ,, 
Llewellyn  W.  Fogg,  H,                            Lewistou 

Augustus  J.  Burbank,  Capt.,  G,  ,, 
Zebulon  B.  Blethen,  Lieut,  G,  promoted 

Capt.  Aug.  14,  18()2,  „ 

Nelson  J.  Forsyth,  Serg.,  G,  ,, 
George  E.  Jumper,  G,  promoted  Lieut 

April  16,  1865, 

Boynton  Grover,  Corp.,  G,  promoted 

Sergeant  Oct.  28,  1862,  Lewiston 

Henry  W.  Furbish,  G,  ,, 
Fred  M.  Baker,  Corp.,  G,  d  Apl  17, 65, 

Elijah  Collamore,  G,  „ 

Levi  S.  Dakiu,  G,  ,, 

F.  B.  Dakin,  G,  ,, 

Rodney  C.  Davis,  G,  died  March  5,  62,  ,, 
Charles  T.  Duley,  G, 

George  L.  Duston,  G,  ,, 

Israel  M.  Hatch,  G,  „ 

Sumner  W.  Howes,  G,  ,, 

Frank  M.  Furber,  Band,  ,, 

Military  Affairs. 


William  O.  Howes,  G,  Com.  June  2,  64, 

Capt.  1st  Maine  S.  S.,  Lewiston 

Riley  L.  Jones,  G, 
Fred  K.  Noyes,  G, 
Charles  W.  Jordan,  G, 
Addison  G.  Pulsifer,  G, 
William  Maloon,  Bugler,  G, 
Bailey  T.  Royal,  G, 
George  A.  Royal,  G, 
John  M.  Stockwell,  G, 
Edward  P.  Tobie,  Jr,  G,  Com  2d  Lt,  E, 
George  E.  Huuton,  Serg.,  G,  pro 

1st  Lieut,  East  Livermore 

Cyrus  T.  Reed,  Corp.,  G,  pro 

Serg.,  April  1,  1803, 
Andrew  Jordan,  G,  Danville 

Dennis  Carty,  G,  pro  Corporal, 

Jan.  1,  1864,  East  Livermore 

Daniel  B.  Doyen,  G,  pro  Serg., 

March  21,  1864,  „  „ 

Edwin  V.  Fuller,  G, 
S.  B.  M.  Lovejoy,  G,  pro  Lieut, 

Dec.  31,  1862,  „ 

John  Mitchell,  G,  ,,  ,, 

Geo.  E.  Reed,  G,  k  Aug.  25,  64,     ,,  ,, 

William  H.  Wyman,  G, 

Eben  J.  Pulsifer,  Corp.,  G,  Poland 

Alden  Hall,  G,  pro  Corp.,  Nov.  20,  61,     Auburn 
Henry  Little,  G,  pro  Serg.,  Oct.  28,  62,         ,, 
Churchill  S.  Stevens,  G,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Additon,  G,  Greene 

Russell  S.  Bradbury,  ,, 

V.  P.  Dillingham,  G, 

Freeman  J.  Gurney,  G,  ,, 

Thomas  H.  Mower,  G,  pro  Corp.,  ,, 

John  Coffin,  G,  Webster 

Joseph  H.  Coffin,  G,  pro  Corp.,  ,, 

Charles  H.  Delano,  G,  k  May  10,  64,  Turner 

Geo.  M.  Delano,  G,  pr  Corp.,  Mar.  21,  64,      ,, 
William  Doble,  G,  Livermore 

John  B.  Drake,  Corp.,  G,  pro  Serg., 

April  1,  1863,  East  Livermore 

J.  S.  Dow,  G,  „  „ 

Joseph  F.  Hutchins,  G,  Livermore 

Timothy  B.  Niles,  G,  „ 

Alonzo  P.  Russell,  G,  Livermore 

Volney  H.  Foss,  G,  pro  1st  Sgt,  Apr.,  65,    Leeds 

Lucius  C.  Robbins,  G,  ,, 

Leonard  L.  Rose,  Corp.,  G,  ,, 

Seth  G.  Rose,  G,  „ 
Levi  W.  Wheeler,  G, 

George  Q.  Gammon,  L,  Livermore 

Milton  F.  Ricker,  L,  pro  Corp.,  1864,  „ 
Elisha  C.  Fuller,  L, 
William  H.  H.  Coding,  L, 

Laban  Smith,  L,  d  Nov.  6,  62,  Turner 
Ephraim  H.  Taylor,  Lieut,  M,  killed 

June  19,  1863,  Lisbon 

Horace  K.  Blethen,  Corp.,  M,  ,, 

George  H.  Dunham,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

John  Ford,  C,  died  in  service,  Lewiston 

Horace  Wright,  C,  died  in  service.  Auburn 

Eswell  Bonnasa,  D,  Lewiston 

John  Brown,  D,  " 

David  Curran,  1),  " 

Andrew  Felix,  D,  " 

Joseph  Rivers,  D,  " 

J.  S.  Dow,  D,  Leeds 

Winfield  S.  Bucknam,  F,  Minot 

Fernando  F.  Mason,  G,  Turner 

Frank  C.  Adams,  G,  Auburn 

David  Nash,  G,  ,, 

Henry  J.  Penny,  G,  Lewiston 

Albion  K .  Snell ,  G ,  Poland 

Alonzo  H.  Snell,  G,  ,, 

Leroy  H.  Tobin,  G,  Lewiston 
Albert  Small,  H, 

Andrew  McCoy,  H,  „ 

George  Garner,  I,  ,, 
Arad  E.  Gilbert,  I, 

Job  S.  Spear,  M,  Turner 

George  W.  Proctor,  A,  Lisbon 

John  Getchell,  F,  Lewiston 

John  S.  Johnson,  F,  killed  in  action,  ,, 

Henry  A.  Capen,  G,  Auburn 

George  W.  Lane,  G,  ,, 

Charles  A.  Washburn,  G,  ,, 

Richard  McCarthy,  K,  ,, 

George  P.  Day,  M,  Durham 

First  D.  G.  Cavalry  Regiment.  —  Eight  hundred  men,  comprising  eight 
companies,  were  enlisted  and  organized  at  Augusta,  from  October,  1863,  to 
March,  1864,  to  serve  three  years.  This  body  was  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  L.  C.  Baker,  and  was  designed  for  special  service  only  in  the  District 
of  Columbia.  The  only  commissioned  officer  originally  from  Androscoggin 
county  was  Zebulon  B.  Blethen  of  Lewiston,  second  lieutenant  of  Company  H. 
After  important  service  in  its  original  field  for  some  months,  half  of  the  regi- 
ment was  dismounted  and  ordered  to  Portsmouth,  Va.  The  other  part  was 
assigned  to  General  Butler's  command,  and  was  in  General  Kautz's  cavalry 


History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

raid  in  June,  1864.  August  23  the  regiment  had  an  engagement  with  the 
famous  Hampton  Legion,  the  next  day  it  was  in  the  thick  of  the  fight  at 
Ream's  Station,  and  the  next  day  all  its  Maine  men  were  officially  transferred 
to  the  First  Maine  Cavalry,  but  remained  on  picket  duty  on  the  extreme  left 
of  the  Union  line.  September  15, 1864,  the  regiment  was  attacked  by  a  heavy 
force  of  Confederates,  and  after  a  gallant  resistance  in  which  it  lost  heavily  in 
killed,  most  of  the  survivors  were  captured.  The  small  contingent  remaining 
joined  the  First  Maine  Cavalry  and  became  incorporated  with  it. 



Charles  H.  Pratt, 

William  G.  Besse,  H, 

George  C.  Besse,  H,  kd  in  service, 

Edwin  R.  Blodgett,  Sgt,  G,  d  in  reb  pri, 

Albion  H.  Collins,  H,  d  in  reb  pri, 

Peter  J.  Dresser,  Corp.,  K,  pro  Serg., 

William  W.  Douglas,  Corp., 

Benjamin  C.  Witham,  K, 

Thomas  B.  Hodges,  K, 

William  X.  Higgins,  Serg 

William  H.  Howard,  H, 

Thomas  J.  McMaster,  H, 

Peter  Jerris,  R, 

Samuel  O.  Libby,  pro  Corp.,  A,  1st  Cav., 

Frank  J.  Savage,  H,  promoted  1st  Serg., 

M,  1st  Cav., 
John  Spear, 

Jeremiah  Bowban,  killed  in  action,  I, 
Samuel  Thorn,  died  in  rebel  prison, 
Salmon  C.  Brewster,  K, 
Hollis  Harlow,  H, 

Delmer  Harris,  pro  Serg.,  A,  1st  Cav., 
George  A.  Kingsley,  H, 
Charles  G.  Kingsley,  H,  died  in  rebel  pris., 
Albert  P.  Winslow, 
Benj.  A.  Welsh,  Serg.,  H,  died  of  wds, 

Oct.  26,  1864, 
Stafford  B.  Jones,  Corp., 
George  F.  Proctor, 
Kendall  Pollard,  C, 
Benjamin  Sutherland,  C, 
Jeff.  L.  Coburn,  pro  Lt,  A,  1st  Cav., 
Hiram  S.  Coburn, 
John  H.  L.  Chick,  Corp.,  H, 
George  S.  Dill,  killed  in  action. 







Daniel  S.  Fitzgerald,  H,  Lewiston 

Mansel  W.  Farr,  ,, 

Charles  E.  Huston,  C,  ,, 

Andrew  J.  Lufkin,  „ 

James  W.  Lovejoy,  killed  in  action,  ,, 

Henry  C.  Nado,  I,  ,, 

Jonathan  Nash,  Corp.,  H,  ,, 

Edward  E.  Proctor,  K  (Lisbon),  ,, 

George  W.  Penley,  ,, 
John  W.  Peachey,  trans  to  M,  1st  Cav.,      ,, 

Thomas  Phillop,  K,  killed  in  action,  ,, 

George  A.  Royal,  I,  „ 

Benjamin  H.  Turner,  Corp.,  „ 

Richard  Webb,  1st  Serg.,  K,  ,, 

Ezra  R.  Wright,  ,, 
Chas  H.  Wallace,  Serg.,  I,  kd  in  service,      ,, 

Zebulon  B.  Blethen,  1st  Lieut,  H,  ,, 

Nelson  Chandler,  I,  Auburn 
Granger  C.  Crafts,  H,  died  in  rebel  prison,     ,, 

Henry  A.  Hersey,  H,  ,, 

David  L.  Stetson,  H,  ,, 

Andrew  McCoy,  H,  „ 
Alex.  B.  Conant,  Serg.,  H, 
Milton  R.  Davis,  I, 

John  French,  B, 

Edwin  D.  Hall, 

J.  D.  A.  Jacobs,  Mus.,  H, 

Hiram  B.  King, 

Horace  Perkins,  K, 

Oren  Small,  Serg.,  I, 

James  McGuire,  pro  1st  Lt,  H,  1st  Cav., 

Menander  Dennett, 

John  Warren,  H,  died  in  service, 

Lewis  Warren,  H, 












Second  Cavalry  Regiment. — This  was  organized  at  Augusta,  from  November 
30,  1863,  to  January  2,  1864.  The  field  officers  were  Ephraim  W.  Woodman, 
of  Wilton,  colonel ;  John  F.  Godfrey,  of  Bangor,  lieutenant-colonel ;  Charles 
A.  Miller,  of  Rockland,  major.  Captain  Elijah  D.  Johnson,  Company  C,  of 
Lewiston,  was  the  only  commissioned  officer  from  Androscoggin  county. 
Detachments  of  this  regiment  left  the  state  at  various  times,  and  were  united 

Military  Affairs. 


at  New  Orleans  June  1, 1864.  Previous  to  this,  Companies  A,  D,  and  a  portion 
of  G,  had  taken  part  in  engagements  at  Cherryville  Cross  Roads,  Marksville, 
Avoyelles  Prairie,  and  Yellow  Bayou,  winning  credit.  August  11,  the  regi- 
ment formed  camp  at  Barrancas,  Fla,  and  was  employed  in  fatigue  duty  and 
in  raiding  until  February,  1865.  February  23,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Spurling 
attacked  a  strong  force  of  Confederates  at  Milton,  Fla,  with  300  men,  and 
routed  it.  March  19,  the  regiment  joined  General  Steele's  command  at  Pen- 
sacola  to  aid  in  the  campaign,  which  resulted  in  the  capture  of  Mobile  and  the 
opening  of  Alabama  to  the  advance  of  Federal  troops.  In  this  campaign  the 
Second  had  several  encounters  with  the  Confederates,  and  destroyed  a  large 
amount  of  the  enemy's  property,  beside  opening  communication  with  General 
Canby,  besieging  Spanish  Fort,  and  capturing  many  prisoners.  After  the  fall 
of  Mobile  one  detachment  of  the  Second  was  assigned  to  the  Sixteenth  Army 
Corps,  and  was  all  the  cavalry  with  that  body  of  30,000  men  in  its  march 
to  Montgomery.  In  August  the  regiment  was  scattered  in  small  detach- 
ments throughout  western  Florida  to  keep  harmony  and  prevent  insurrection. 
December  6,  it  was  again  at  Barrancas  and  mustered  out  of  the  United  States 
service.  Twenty-five  commissioned  officers  and  116  men  were  discharged  in 
Florida  on  their  making  oath  to  remain  there  and  become  citizens,  and  14 
officers  and  500  men  were  sent  to  Maine,  where  they  were  discharged  at 
Augusta,  December  21,  1865.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Godfrey  resigned  May  4, 
1864,  and  the  field  officers  at  close  of  service  were  Ephraim  W.  Woodman, 
colonel;  Andrew  B.  Spurling,  lieutenant-colonel;  Nathan  Cutler,  Charles  A. 
Miller,  and  Eben  Hutchinson,  majors. 


James  N.  Atwood,  Bugler,  Liver  more 

LendaU  S.  Caswell,  B,  Leeds 

Elijah  D.  Johnson,  Capt.,  C,  Lewiston 

Thomas  J.  Owen,  Corp.,  I,  Turner 

Dexter  AV.  True,  I,  pro  Serg.,  ,, 

Daniel  D.  Dunn,  K,  liivermore 
Benj.  M.  Bradbury,  Sgt,  M,  died  Oct. 

25,  1864,  Auburn 

Henry  C.  Daley,  B,  Lewiston 

E.  Riley  Bishop,  Corp.,  I,  Leeds 

Chas  T.  Knight,  I,  died  Sept.  29,  G4,  Leeds 

David  E.  Trask,  M,  died  July  12,  64, 
Roscoe  G.  Lindsay,  I,  died  Sept.  8,  64,  ,, 

Forest  L.  Chase,  C,  East  Livermore 

Adam  Young,  C,  Auburn 

Philip  Cautlin,  D,  Lewiston 

James  E.  Caswell,  H,  ,, 

James  M.  Cobb,  H,  Durham 

Reuel  Haskell,  M,  Auburn 

Fred  B.  Haskell,  M, 

First  Regiment  Sharpshooters.  —  This  body  of  six  companies  was  organized 
at  Augusta  to  serve  one  and  three  years.  Companies  A  and  B  were  sent  south 
November  12,  1864,  and  assigned  to  the  defenses  of  City  Point,  Va.  Com- 
panies C,  D,  E,  and  F  were  oi-ganized  later  in  1864.  December  7  and  30  they 
went  to  Galloupe's  Island,  Boston  Harbor,  and  January  1,  1865,  were  ordered 
to  City  Point,  where,  joining  their  comrades,  they  remained  until  the  discovery 
by  the  War  Department  that  no  Federal  authority  existed  for  such  a  regi- 

170  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

mental  organization.     Soon  after  the  several  companies  were  consolidated  with 
the  Twentieth  Infantry  Regiment. 


John  Butler,  1st  Lieut,  C,  Lewiston 
George  F.  Haskell,  Corp.,  C,  ,, 

William  Roberts,  Serg.,  E,  ,, 

Eugene  Hinkley,  Corp.,  E,  ,, 

Frank  E.  Frye,  Serg.,  F,  „ 

Daniel  W.  Hinkley,  Serg.,  F,  died  of 

wounds,  April  3, 1865,  Lewiston 

James  W.  Libby,  Lieut,  E,  Leeds 

Albert  M.  Rose,  E,  died  Jan.  17,  1865, 

Company  i),  Second  United  States  Sharpshooters.  — This  was  a  picked 
company,  each  man  having  to  put  ten  consecutive  shots  within  five  inches  of 
the  center  of  a  target,  firing  from  a  rest  two  hundred  yards  distant.  James 
D.  Fessenden,  of  Portland,  was  captain;  Jacob  McClure,  of  Rockland,  first 
lieutenant;  Silas  C.  Barker,  of  Augusta,  second  lieutenaiit.  This  company 
was  mustered  into  service  November  2,  1861,  left  the  state  November  13,  for 
Washington,  and  became  Company  D  of  Berdan's  Second  Regiment  of  Sharp- 
shooters on  their  arrival,  and  was  stationed  in  or  near  Washington  until  March 
19,  1862,  when  it  was  assigned  to  General  King's  division  of  General  McDow- 
ell's Corps.  This  year  this  company  did  effective  service  in  many  important 
skirmishes  and  battles,  among  them  the  battles  near  Manassas,  the  advance  to 
Sharpsburg,  Antietam,  and  Fredericksburg.  It  was  in  camp  at  Stoneman's 
Station  from  December  15,  1862,  to  April  28,  1863.  It  took  part  in  the  fight 
at  Chancellorsville,  May  2,  and  was  at  Gettysburg  July  2  and  3.  Recrossing 
the  Potomac  it  went  into  camp  at  Brandy  Station,  where  the  men  re-enlisted 
and  were  furloughed.  Returning  March  1,  1864,  the  company  took  part  in 
the  regimental  movements  and  actions  until  it  was  consolidated  with  the  Sev- 
enteenth Infantry,  February  18,  1865.  Daniel  P.  Eaton,  of  Auburn,  Michael 
Murphy  and  Patrick  Earley,  of  Lewiston,  were  in  this  company. 

Miscellaneous.  —  A  coast-guard  battalion  of  seven  companies  was  organized 
from  March  18,  1864,  to  March  2,  1865,  to  serve  one,  two,  and  three  years. 
Androscoggin  was  represented  in  I),  E,  and  F.  All  of  the  companies  were 
mustered  out  of  service  in  1865. 

Three  companies.  A,  B,  and  K,  of  light  infantry  militia  were  mustered  into 
United  States  service  in  1864,  to  serve  in  forts  along  the  coast  of  Maine. 
Company  H  was  in  service  from  April  27,  1864,  to  July  9,  1864,  at  Fort 
McClary,  Kittery.     Many  of  its  men  were  from  Lewiston. 

Thirty  unassigned  companies  of  infantry  were  organized  at  Augusta  in 
1864  and  1865  to  serve  one,  two,  and  three  years.  Nineteen  were  assigned  to 
various  regiments,  four  were  organized  as  the  First  Battalion  Infantry,  two 
were  never  mustered  into  Federal  service,  and  five  continued  in  independent 
service  until  they  were  mustered  out.  The  Sixth,  Twenty-seventh,  and 
Thirtieth  contained  men  from  this  county. 

Military  Affairs. 



Daniel  L.  Verrill,  Corp.,  D,  Auburn 

George  W.  Bailey,  Corp.,  D,  „ 

George  L.  Adams,  D,  ,, 

Stephen  S.  Merrill,  D,  „ 

Rufus  E.  Rounds,  Corp.,  D,  ,, 

Marshall  Stevens,  D,  „ 

Charles  M.  Stevens,  D,  ,, 

William  W.  Stevens,  D,  „ 

Charles  A.  "Williams,  D,  „ 
Roswell  C.  Dunton,  D,                              Lewiston 

Joseph  H.  Dunton,  D,  ,, 

Lewis  M.  Hatch,  D,  ,, 

Arthur  Hathorn,  D,  „ 

Enoch  L.  Hinkley,  D,  Lewiston 

Charles  II.  Holbrook,  D,  ,, 

David  C.  Jackson,  D,  ,, 

Marcus  F.  Joy,  D,  ,, 

Llewellyn  S.  Libby,  D,  ,, 

William  Quimby,  D,  ,, 
Silas  B.  Wood,  D, 

James  J.  Chase,  Lieut,  E,  Turner 
Stephen  M.  Chamberlain,  Corp.,  F,          Auburn 

John  D.  Bailey,  F,  ,, 

Cornelius  Stackpole,  F,  „ 

Samuel  L.  Washburn,  F,  ,, 


Chester  C.  Thing,  1st  Lieut, 
Dennis  E.  Lowell,  Serg., 
Lnther  Jones,  Corp., 
William  Maines,  Corp., 
William  Hayes,  Corp., 
William  W.  Bailey,  Mus., 
Luther  C.  Bateman, 
Charles  H.  Berry, 
Ansil  F.  Crooker, 
Robert  D.  Carvill. 
Albert  G.  Dunham, 
Wesley  C.  Donnell, 
Charles  W.  Dennett, 
Andrew  Elliot, 
Jacob  A.  Field, 
Alonzo  P.  Graffam, 
Enoch  L.  Hinkley, 
Eben  Merrill, 
Martin  W.  Penley, 
John  N.  Packard, 
Charles  Sampson, 
John  B.  Sanders, 
Orestes  S.  Wood, 


Thomas  A.  Eastman,  Serg. 
Andrew  F.  Hodsdon,  Serg., 
George  D.  Bearce,  Corp., 
William  Hayes,  Corp., 
John  Keene,  Mus., 
Joel  S.  Boomer, 
Joseph  Brisey, 
Chandler  Barron, 
Joseph  S.  Carter, 
Thomas  B.  Chadbourne, 
Richard  DeWitt, 
Ervin  V.  Daley, 
H.  Nelson  Emery, 
John  F.  Eaton, 
Moses  D.  Golder, 
Oscar  F.  Gammon, 
Charles  H.  Holland, 
Melville  I.  McKenney, 
Almortd  L.  Penley, 
Joseph  E.  Rankin, 
James  M.  Steadman, 
Greenleaf  G.  Wagg, 



John  H.  Merrill,  Corp.,  6th,  Lewiston 

Edgar  H.  Forrest,  Corp.,  Gth,  ,, 

Henry  P.  Abbott,  6th,  ,, 

Barnum  Jones,  6th,  ,, 

Benjamin  F.  Pray,  6th,  ,, 

George  Seabury,  6th,  ,, 

Nathaniel  D.  Chase,  Serg.,  9th,  Durham 

William  Newell,  9th,  ,, 

W.  Chaplin,  27th,  Poland 

Ansel  F.  Crooker,  27th, 
James  W.  Downing,  27th, 
Albert  F.  Herrick,  27th, 
William  H.  Kilbouru,  27th, 
George  B.  Lane,  27th, 

James  M.  Mills,  27th, 
Mark  E.  Morton,  27th, 
George  W.  Walker,  27th, 
William  E.  Farrar,  27th, 
Frank  E.  Frye,  Lieut,  30th, 
Andrew  J.  Elliott,  Corp.,  .30tb, 
Alonzo  P.  Graffam,  30th, 
James  W.  Mitchell,  30th, 
Moses  Chick,  30th, 
Gerard  Chick,  30th, 
Elisha  P.  Churchill,  30th, 
James  A.  Douglass,  30th, 
George  R.  Howard,  30th, 
Charles  Jackson,  30th, 




History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Charles  J.  King,  30th,  Lewiston 

Ward  Locke,  30th, 

Llewellyn  C.  Pomeroy,  30th,  d  in  service,    ,, 

Warren  Pickering,  30th,  ,, 

Nicholas  F.  Ward,  30th, 

Millard  A.  Bowie,  30th,  Durham 

Seward  ^lerrill,  30th,  ,, 

Ira  F.  Beal,  30th,  Auburn 

Samuel  J.  Bradbury,  30th,  ,, 

Seth  Briggs,  30th,  Auburn 

Hiram  B.  Drake,  30th,  „ 

Solomon  Pettingill,  30th,  ,, 

Stillman  S.  Perkins,  30th,  „ 

Roscoe  G.  Townsend,  30th,  ,, 

Albert  H.  Wilson,  30th,  ,, 

Charles  Knight,  30th,  ,, 

Samuel  P.  Irving,  Corp.,  30th,  Livermore 

Orpheus  M.  Leonard,  25th,  Leeds 


George  Clark, 
Wilson  Whittier, 
William  F.  Webb, 
Charles  Smith, 
Frank  Porri, 
David  W.  Pyle, 
Arthur  W.  Penley, 
Henry  Herman, 



Henry  Cousins, 

Sanford  M.  Annis,      17th  U.  S. 
Albion  D.  Briggs,  ,, 

Charles  W.  Hayford,     ,, 
Sanford  Annis,  ,, 

Richard  McCarthy,        ,, 
Wm  K.  Chamberlain,  1st  Lieut,  17th 
U.  S.  I.,  killed  July  2,  1863, 



Winfield  S.  Hill, 


William  Berry, 


John  Baptiste, 


Clark  R.  Caswell, 


Timothy  Connelly, 


John  Butler, 


Charles  Brown, 


Bernard  Burke, 


Radford  Booker, 


John  Burns, 


Daniel  Burns, 


George  B.  Barstow, 


Dennis  Conners, 


Luther  C.  Chadbourne, 


Jesse  Coffin, 


Charles  Clark, 


Cornelius  Crowley, 


James  Cullen, 


Daniel  Canlon, 


William  Clark, 


James  A.  Oronins, 


George  Currier, 


Patrick  Driscoll, 


James  Dooly, 


Daniel  Downing, 


Rufus  L.  Dill, 


William  Dunn, 


Mark  Denningliam, 


Francis  Evans, 


James  Ferguson, 


James  Fitzgerald, 

East  Livermore 

Henry  Fitz, 


Herbert  Field, 


James  Gordon, 


William  Greene, 
Charles  M.  Hines, 
James  Hampton, 
Sandy  Harper, 
Louis  Henry, 
Benjamin  Hammond, 
Gustave  Henderson, 
Charles  E.  Johnson, 
Charles  F.  Lindsey, 
Rosmus  Lawson, 
Frank  J.  Lindsey, 
Everett  Lindsey, 
Gideon  P.  Lowell, 
Alden  Moulton, 
Arthur  N.  G.  Moulton, 
Daniel  Mahoney, 
John  McNeil, 
Jacol)  Moore, 
John  A.  Moore, 
James  MuUin, 
Daniel  McDaniels, 
Daniel  McLellan, 
John  Moore, 
John  McBride, 
Charles  Miller, 
William  Needham, 
John  Philpot, 
John  Peterson, 
William  F.  Quinby, 
John  Ready, 
Frans  Raborg, 
William  Ryan, 
Francis  Robinson, 
Henry  L.  Springer, 






















Military  Affairs. 


Levi  C.  Sumner, 
John  Sullivan, 
John  Sullivan, 
James  Scott, 
John  Steib, 
Henry  Spaulding, 
Charles  Smith, 
William  Turner, 
Charles  F.  Tripp, 
Thomas  Vance, 
Joseph  Worth, 
John  Wilson, 
Charles  H.  Ward, 
Doane  S.  Wing, 















Benjamin  P.  Winston, 

John  V.  Winslow, 

George  D.  Field, 

Warren  F.  Field, 

Cyrus  E.  Field, 

George  A.  Stinchfield, 

Isaac  W.  Bowring,  enlisted  Portland, 




Willard  Winslow, 
Charles  H.  Davis, 
Dennett  Cotton, 
Charles  N.  Raynes, 
Francis  Allen, 
Robert  Harlow, 


Portland,  kd. 

From  Auburn  enlisted  apparently  unaccounted  for  in  preceding  rosters: 
Wallace  Bicknell,  John  Y.  Turner,  William  T.  Turner,  Allen  D.  Whitman, 
Parker  S.  Merrill  (Second  D.  C.  Volunteers),  Parker  S.  Stevens  (Second  D.  C. 
Volunteers),  Henry  Jago.  From  Durham  went  Rufus  Tuttle,  George  Tuttle, 
and  John  D.  Haskell  in  Massachusetts  organizations,  Edwin  Osgood  in  a  New 
York,  and  Samuel  Loring  in  an  Ohio  regiment,  E.  W.  Stetson  in  a  Wisconsin 
battery.  George  Wentworth,  Byron  G.  Hill,  and  Henry  H.  Coburn  of  Greene, 
and  Alphonzo  B.  Holland  of  Lewiston,  served  in  Second  D.  C.  Infantry.  Dr. 
John  F.  Pratt,  of  Greene,  was  a  surgeon  in  service,  while  Lewis  Winslow  and 
John  Chase  are  apparently  unaccounted  for.  Danville  sent  Charles  Smith, 
Cyrus  C.  Walker,  and  Charles  B.  iieynolds.  Samuel  Jordan,  of  Poland,  was 
paymaster  in  United  States  Nav3^  Charles  W.  Norcross,  of  Livermore,  served 
in  Fourth  Massachusetts  Infantry.  John  N.  Fuller,  a  native  of  Livermore, 
served  in  the  Eleventh  Illinois.  Joseph  E.  Jackson,  of  Lewiston,  was  hospital 
steward  in  a  Federal  Kentucky  regiment.  Ezra  Mitchell,  Jr,  of  Mechanic 
Falls,  was  assistant  surgeon  at  Cony  Hospital.  ' 


K710X  Post,  No.  0,  Gr.  A.  M.,  Lewiston.  —  The  order  of  the  Grand  Army 
of  the  Republic  was  introduced  into  Maine  by  General  William  A.  Schmidt, 
of  Quincy,  Illinois,  in  1867.  Some  of  the  ex-veterans  of  Lewiston  met  General 
Schmidt  at  the  convention  of  the  soldiers  and  sailors  held  in  Portland  in  June, 
1867.  They  were  extremel}^  anxious  to  arrange  for  the  organization  of  a  post 
in  Lewiston,  but  it  was  not  effected  until  November  25,  1867.  For  this 
purpose  a  meeting  was  called  at  Graffam  &  Skinner's  Hall,  on  Bates  street, 
and  the  following  were  mustered  in  as  charter  members  of  a  post  of  the  Grand 
Army  of  the  Republic,  viz.:  John  S.  P.  Ham,  Isaac  S.  Faunce,  H.  H.  Rich- 
ardson, George  A.  l^arker,  John  F.  I'utnam,  Daniel  J.  Chandler,  E.  D.  Johnson, 
Amos  Whitney,  Phil  P.  Getchell,  Nelson  Howard,  Benjamin  Litchfield,  J.  H. 
Bowie,  John  A.  Skinner,  Almon  J.  Gardiner,  C.  K.  Hooker,  C.  W.  Richardson, 
George  L.  Dustin,  and  G.  C.  Sabin.     This  was  the  ninth  post  in  Maine,  and 

174  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

was  organized  under  the  direction  of  Cai)tain  H.  A.  Shorey,  of  Bath.  First 
Officers.  — John  S.  P.  Ham,  P.  C. ;  Isaac  S.  Faunce,  S.  V.  P.  C;  H.  H.  Rich- 
ardson, J.  V.  P.  C;  John  F.  Putnam,  P.  Adjutant;  Phil  P.  Getchell,  P.  Q.  M.; 
Daniel  J.  Chandler,  I.  G.;  George  A.  Parker,  O.  G.  Amos  Whitney,  Almon 
J.  Gardiner,  Benjamin  Litchfield,  Charles  K.  Hooker,  J.  H.  Bowie,  were 
detailed  for  guard  duty.  The  post  did  not  receive  a  name  until  December 
1,  1868,  and  was  then  called  Knox  Post,  in  memory  of  Chaplain  George  Knox, 
who  was  chaplain  of  the  First,  Tenth,  and  Twenty-ninth  Maine  Regiments; 
and  died  in  Virginia,  October  31,  1861.  One  of  the  members  served  as 
commander  of  the  Department  of  Maine  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  and 
several  others  were  elected  to  offices  in  that  body.  The  post  surrendered  its 
charter  April  18,  1877,  thus  closing  a  work,  which  for  nearly  ten  years  had 
been  fruitful  in  acts  of  philanthropy  and  charity. 

Custer  Post,  No.  7,  (r.  A.  M.,  Le/wiston.  —  This  post  had  its  origin  in  a 
meeting  of  the  petitioners  for  a  charter  held  at  the  hall  formerly  occupied  by 
Knox  Post,  May  16,  1877.  (The  record  of  the  meeting  is  dated  June  16,  an 
obvious  error,  as  the  next  meeting  was  held  "on  Saturday  next.  May  19.") 
On  May  19  and  23,  preliminary  meetings  were  held,  and  May  26  the  post  was 
organized  by  the  assistant-adjutant  general  of  the  Department  of  Maine,  S.  J. 
Gallagher,  who  mustered  in  these  comrades:   M.  T.  Ludden,  R.  L.  Howard,  G. 

A.  Chandler,  J.  Q.  A.  Jumper,  A.  L.  Wills,  M.  A.  Murphy,  I.  S.  Faunce,  M. 
Emery,  N.  R.  Lougee,  L.  Q.  Arnold,  D.  P.  Field,  L.  T.  Curtis,  J.  S.  P.  Ham, 
J.  F.  Davis,  W.  H.  Graffam,  Russell  Daggett,  Otis  Currier,  A.  J.  Woodbury, 

B.  B.  Wells,  W.  S.  Voter,  D.  H.  Elliott,  G.  A.  Parker,  Nelson  Howard,  W.  T. 
Chase,  A.  S.  Perham,  J.  L.  Hayes,  T.  B.  Mennealy,  C.  H.  Goodwin,  Charles  H. 
Jumper,  L.  C.  Aldrich,  A.  B.  Holland.  The  first  officers  were:  W.  T.  Chase, 
commander;  J.  L.  Hayes,  quartermaster;  R.  L.  Howard,  chaplain;  C.  H. 
Jumper,  officer  of  the  day;  T.  B.  Mennealy,  officer  of  the  guard;  A.  S.  Per- 
ham, adjutant.  The  post  was  named  by  M.  T.  Ludden,  R.  L.  Howard  and  A. 
S.  Perham.  The  commanders  have  been:  W.  T.  Chase,  C.  P.  Nash,  Isaac  S. 
Faunce,  R.  L.  Howard,  J.  Q.  A.  Jumper,  W.  G.  Haskell,  B.  B.  Wells,  D.  P. 
Field,  S.  H.  Bagley,  D.  P.  Field,  J.  O.  Nickerson,  George  B.  Haskell,  William 
H.  Graffam,  George  W.  Cappers,  J.  L.  Hayes,  C.  S.  Crowell,  F.  A.  Conant. 
Much  of  the  good  work  done  by  Custer  Post,  its  care  for  the  sick  and 
distressed,  and  other  labors  in  which  it  has  wrought  well,  unrecorded,  and  are 
only  indicated  on  its  books  by  the  payment  of  some  bill  for  supplies,  and  by 
the  record  of  thanks  received  from  some  beneficiary,  (xraves  are  decorated  in 
Riverside,  Barkerville,  Mount  Hope,  Greene,  Sabattus,  and  South  Lewiston 
cemeteries.  The  post  owns  a  large  lot  in  Riverside  Cemetery,  whither  have 
been  brought  the  bodies  of  soldiers  previously  buried  in  various  places  in  the 
cemetery,  and  May  5,  1890,  it  was  incorporated  as  a  charitable  association.  It 
holds  annual  fairs,  which  are  well  patronized  and  has  a  large  post  fund,  while 

Military  Affairs. 


the  relief  fund,  although  constantly  drawn  upon,  is  kept  in  good  condition.  It 
receives  valuable  aid  from  Custer  Relief  Corps  and  Custer  Sons  of  Veterans. 
April  1,  1891,  there  were  235  members  in  good  standing.  Regular  meetings 
are  held  weekly,  on  Monday  evenings,  at  (1.  A.  R.  Hall,  in  Pilsbury  lilock, 
corner  of  Lisbon  and  Pine  streets.  These  comrades  served  in  other  than  Maine 
reg'iments :  — 

George  D.  Armstrong, 

E.  W.  Bartlett, 

Leander  Bourque, 

Fred  A.  Berthold, 

John  E.  Carrigan, 

Seth  Chandler, 

T.  C.  Chapman, 

B.  F.  Cotton, 

W.  E.  Cunningham, 

Russell  S.  Daggett, 

Hugh  Daly, 

Randall  W.  Dresser, 

I.  W.  Emerson, 

Charles  G.  English, 

A.  P.  Foster, 

Thomas  Fahey, 

Fred  A.  Hall, 

William  G.  Haskell, 

O.  A.  Horr,  114  U.  S.  Cav 

Albert  R.  Hovey, 

Charles  Horbury, 

J.  Q.  Huzzy, 

John  C.  Jepson, 

C,  13  Mass  Inf 

A,  19  Mass  Inf 

A,  7  N.  H.  Inf 

1  Conn.  Art 

A,  Marine  Corps 

L,  2  Mass  Cav 

E,  31  Mass  Inf 

C,  2  N.  H.  Inf 

A,  5  Md  Inf 


G,  101  Penn. Inf 

G,  1  U.  S.  Cav 

B,  1  Mass  Cav 

A,  (i  N.  H.  Inf 


7  Mass  Bat . 

2  Mass  Art 

Ass't  Surgeon 

A,  13  Mass  Inf 


H,  1  Minn.  M.  R 

C,  6  Mass  Inf 

James  Kelley, 
Herman  Klusner, 
John  H.  Lander, 
Benjamin  Litchfield, 
Samuel  Lowell, 
Charles  Morgan, 
Hiram  A.  Robinson, 
James  Scott, 
W.  H.  Scruton, 
O.  L.  Small, 
N.  B.  Stockbridge, 
Jonas  W.  Strout, 
Christopher  Thompson, 
Fred  Thornton, 
E.  W.  Vosmus, 
G.  H.  Lombard, 
Charles  E.  Hayes, 
George  Willetts, 
Samuel  Wilkinson, 
W.  J.  Cotton, 
Rodney  Hadley, 
-Jacob  L.  Hayes, 
John  S.  Hill, 


K,  25  Mass  Inf 

F,  10  N.  H.  Inf 

D,  13  Mass  Inf 

1,  20  Mass  Inf 

1,  N.  Y.  Cav 

B,  32  Mass  Inf 

G,  53 Ind. Inf 

B,  86  111.  Inf 

B,  8  Penn.  Cav 

A,  142  N.  Y.  Inf 

10  Mass  Bat 

I,  1  Oregon  Inf 


26  Mass  Band 

1  Mass  Cav 


1,7U.  S.  Inf 

F,  4  N.  H.  Inf 
3,  N.  H.  Inf 
7,  N.  H.  Inf 


G,  8  N.  H.  Inf 

Folsom  Post,  No.  J^-Jf,  G.  A.  R.,  Auburn,  was  organized  at  Armory  Hall, 
Auburn,  March  23,  1869.  Charter  members:  A.  A.  Miller,  George  D.  Field, 
Roland  W.  Randall,  Frank  E.  Miller,  Orren  Emerson,  Henry  Young,  Charles 
S.  Emerson,  Joseph  Littlefield,  James  White.  March  27,  A.  C.  Pray,  Henry 
Little,  A.  H.  Fish,  Lyman  Wright,  Aretas  B.  Penney,  S.  H.  West,  Dr  B.  F. 
Sturgis,  Charles  M.  Goss,  and  S.  B.  Day  were  elected  members,  and  officers 
installed  as  follows:  C.  S.  Emerson,  Commander;  A.  C.  Pray,  S.  V.  C;  A.  A. 
Miller,  J.  V.  C;  Henry  Little,  Adjutant;  Joseph  Littlefield,  Q.  M.;  A.  H. 
Fish,  S.  M.;  Lyman  Wright,  Q.  M.  S.;  B.  F.  Sturgis,  Surgeon.  The  post  was 
named  in  honor  of  Lieutenant  James  C.  Folsom,  killed  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
Va.  This  post  relinquished  its  charter  after  an  existence  of  eight  years,  during 
which  time  it  did  a  large  amount  of  good  work,  one  year  paying  out  more  for 
relief  to  soldiers  and  soldiers'  families  than  any  other  post  in  the  state.  Its 
largest  membership  was  about  180. 

Wilson  Post,  No.  17,  G-.  A.  R.,  Turner,  was  organized  in  1876,  with  these 
charter  members:  Jacob  Keene  (dec),  Augustus  H.  Strickland  (dec),  Horace 
Coburn,  Elisha  B.  Lovejoy,  Samuel  A.  Thomas  (dec),  Elbridge  G.  Francis, 
Loren  W,  Morse,  Charles  B.  Young  (dec),   John  Y.  Wood,  Elonzo  Fuller, 

176  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Konello  B.  Keene.  Its  headquarters  have  been  at  North  Turner.  There  have 
been  one  hundred  and  forty-two  mustered  into  its  ranks;  at  present  there  are 
sixty-six  members  in  good  standing.  There  is  a  fund  of  six  hundred  dollars 
for  relief  and  post  use.  Wilson  Post  decorates  about  eighty  graves  each  year. 
Livermore,  Hartford,  Buckfield,  Turner,  and  Leeds  are  represented  in  this 
post.  E.  G.  Francis,  E.  B.  Lovejoy,  A.  H.  Pratt,  M.  K.  Mabry,  and  Shirley 
Merrill  are  past  post  commanders  now  living.  H.  T.  Conant  is  the  present 
post  commander,  and  Rev.  M.  K.  Mabry,  adjutant. 

The  following  comrades  did  not  enlist  from  Androscoggin  county:  Elonzo 
Fuller,  Hartford,  First  Maine  Battery ;  John  Y.  Wood,  Hartford,  Company  E, 
Sixteenth  Maine;  Sylvanus  DeCosta,  Hartford,  Company  C,  Eighth  Maine; 
Moses  Verrill,  Buckfield,  Company  C,  Twentieth  Maine;  Seth  Alden,  Hartford, 
Company  E,  Sixteenth  Maine;  William  G.  Page,  Hartford,  Company  E, 
Eighteenth  Maine;  Jason  Carney,  Wayne,  Company  K,  Third  Maine;  M.  K. 
Mabry,  Hiram,  Company  K,  Seventeenth  Maine;  A.  H.  Pratt  enlisted  in  the 
Fiftieth  Massachusetts;  Patrick  Octril,  Seventeenth  Massachusetts;  Ira  L. 
Mason,  Fifth  Ohio  Cavalry. 

Burndde  Post,  No.  ^7,  Cr.  A.  B.,  Auburn,  was  instituted  October  21,  1881, 
by  Rev.  W.  G.  Haskell,  commander  of  the  Department  of  Maine.  There  were 
seventy-seven  charter  members:    J.  E.  Ashe,  C.  W.  Allen,  Francis  M.  Allen, 

B.  F.  Beals,  D.  Bickford,  George  D.  Barnum,  Rufus  Bryant,  B.  K.  Barrows, 
Charles  F.  Burr,  Horatio  Bumpus,  R.  F.  Bickford,  J.  W.  Chaplin,  J.  W. 
Chaplin,  Jr,  Charles  W.  Campbell,  D.  S.  Curtis,  George  H.  Dunham,  Henry  S. 
Drake,  George  P.  Day,  James  C.  Drew,  J.  N.  Foster,  A.  S.  Folsora,  Frank  F. 
Goss,  C.  M.  Goss,  Joseph  Goss,  R.  L.  Gilbert,  Henry  M.  George,  Benjamin  J. 
Hill,  J.  C.  Harlow,  R.  L.  Harlow,  S.  F.  Haskell,  R.  G.  Jackson,  F.  R.  Jordan, 
Florian  Jordan,'  C.  B.  Kimball,  C.  M.  Keith,  Henry  Little,  Alvah  Leighton,  C. 
M.  Lander,  Alonzo  P.  Lamb,  Abram  Libby,  Elias  A.  Lothrop,  A.  L.  Lamarche, 
George  Lothrop,  W.  H.  Lunt,^  Charles  L.  Metcalf,  Clark  Mitchell,  Frank 
Martin,  I.  B.  Martin,  F.  E.  Miller,  George  W.  Moore,  O.  C.  Phillips,  A.  M. 
Peables,  M.  W.  Penley,  I.  O.  Partridge,  S.  G.  Perry,  Frank  H.  Read,  Weston 
H.  Rand,  iUifus  E.  Rounds,  Thomas  L.  Roberts,'  Frank  J.  Shaw,  J.  B.  Saun- 
ders, B.  F.  Sturgis,  Edwin  T.  Stevens,  Edward  H.  Sawyer,  Robert  M.  Sykes, 
Thomas  Tyrie,  H.  Thompson,  John  E.  True,  R.  B.  Taylor,  George  F.  True, 
Murray  I>.  Watson,  J.  M.  Wagg,  Henry  C.  Weston,  Benjamin  Watson,  Henry 

C.  Cony,'  S.  F.  Chaplin,  Delance  Young.  The  first  officers  were:  Thomas 
Tyrie,  Commander;  Delance  Young,  S.  V.  C. ;  J.  E.  Ashe,  J.  V.  C;  Edwin 
T.  Stevens,  Q.  M. ;  A.  M.  Peables,  Surgeon;  George  Lothrop,  Chaplain; 
George  D.  Barnum,  O.  D.;  A.  P.  Lamb,  O.  G. ;  Murray  B.  Watson,  Adjutant; 
C.  M.  Lander,  S.  M.;  F.  F.  Goss,  Q.  M.  S.  This  post  is  one  of  the  largest  and 
most  influential  posts  in  Maine.     Its  total  membership  has  been  486,  and  at 

1  Not  eligible  to  membership. 

Military  Affairs. 


present  writing  (March,  1891,)  it  has  310  members  in  good  standing.  It  has 
ever  been  an  active  body,  and  has  discharged  its  duties  in  a  faithful  manner. 
It  has  had  nearly  every  year  a  fine  parade  on  Memorial  Day,  when  the 
numerous  cemeteries  in  the  town  have  been  visited  and  the  graves  of  soldiers 
decorated.  Its  fairs  have  met  the  hearty  support  of  the  people  and  brought  to 
the  relief  fund  ample  supplies,  which  have  been  expended  wisely  and  gener- 
ously in  the  aid  of  sick  and  distressed  soldiers  and  their  families.  Its  record 
is  a  noble  one.  The  moneys  paid  out  for  charitable  purposes  since  its  organi- 
zation amount  to  thousands  of  dollars.  It  has  two  valuable  auxiliaries  —  the 
Relief  Corps  and  Sons  of  Veterans,  that  have  been  of  great  service  in  its  good 
works.  The  commanders  have  been  Thomas  Tyrie,  Delance  Young,  J.  E. 
Ashe,  Charles  S.  Emerson,  George  Lothrop,  J.  N.  Foster,  Edwin  T.  Stevens, 
A.  B.  Crafts,  Charles  L.  Metcalf,  H.  B.  Sawyer. 

Some  of  the  leading  citizens  of  Auburn  who  were  not  soldiers  are  connected 
with  the  post  as  honorary  members,  and  are  called  Honorary  Reserves.  Two 
of  these,  Ara  Cushman  and  E.  T.  Gile,  each  have  purchased  a  Post  Memorial 
Record,  costing  $100  per  volume,  to  secure  for  the  post  the  complete  war 
record  of  each  member,  and  Comrade  Henry  Little,  the  post  historian,  is  now 
making  the  transcript  in  these  magnificent  volumes.  The  flag  which  waves 
over  Edward  Little  High  School  when  in  session,  was  presented  by  Burn- 
side  Post,  April  9,  1890.  The  post  has,  at  46  Main  street,  a  fine  hall  with 
reading  and  social  rooms  attached,  where  weekly  meetings  are  held  Wednesday 
evenings.     These  members  served  in  other  than  Maine  organizations:  — 

George  Acherson, 

Serg.,  A,  12th  R.  I 

George  H.  Howard, 

B,  1st  H.  A 

William  E.  Alden, 

Unattached  Mass 

Moses  D.  Hodgkins, 

G,  45th  Mass 

Isaac  S.  Ayers, 

F,  104th  111 

J.  A.  Hackett, 

Serg.,  C,  1st  111.  Art 

George  D.  Barnum, 

C,  12th  Mass 

W.  H.  Hanscom, 

D,  74th  N.  Y 

R.  F.  Bickford, 

I,  12th  N.  H 

Thomas  Hayes, 

U.  S.  S.  Sabine 

David  Bickford, 

A,  2d  Mass 

H.  N.  Hood, 

A,  3d  Mass 

R.  S.  Bradbury, 

A,  2d  Mass 

John  M.  Kennison, 

Serg.,  D,  7th  N.  H 

George  H.  Billington, 

58th  Mass 

Oliver  P.  Laverty, 

E,  25th  Mass 

James  W.  Chaplin, 

H,  6th  Mo.  Cav 

Lawrenton  Lane, 

A,  17th  U.  S.  Inf 

Henry  Clark, 

U.  S.  N 

William  A.  Miller, 

6th  Ind.  Mass 

William  P.  Dyer, 

8th  Mass  H.  A 

Michael  McGrath, 

F,  91st  N.  Y 

George  M.  Dyer, 

G,  19th  Mass 

Enoch  C.  Nevrton, 

G,  18th  Conn 

Henry  P.  Dorman, 

A,  13th  Mass 

A.  M.  Peables, 

Surg.,  30th  U.  S.  Col 

G.  W.  Daicy, 

Serg.,  D,  53d  Penn 

J.  D.  Pulsifer, 

paymaster  U.  S.  A 

Charles  Dinsmore, 

D,  3d  Vt 

George  H.Rock, 

K,  1st  Va  Cav 

Walter  S.  Eldridge, 

F,  92d  N.  Y 

Edwin  T.  Stephens, 

Serg.,  D,  1st  Mass  Bat 

Nelson  Fogg, 

C,  2d  Mass  H.  A 

Thomas  Tyrie, 

Serg.,  H,  1st  N.H.  Cav 

H.  M.  George, 

A,  17th  Vt 

Hannibal  Thompson, 

Corp.,  L,  2d  Mass  H.  A 

F.  W.  Garrett, 

Mus.,  13th  Mass 

Albert  F.  Whiting, 

K,  7th  Mass 

Horace  INI.  Gurney, 

K,  14th  Mass  H.  A 

Charles  W.  Wallace, 

E,  6th  Vt 

John  Gray, 

G,  7th  U.  S.  Inf 

A.  D.  Whitman, 

G,  13th  Mass 

I.  C.  Hanson, 

K,  3d  U.  S.  Art 

William  Willett, 

U.S.  N 

Ruel  W.  Hanscom, 

I,  43d  Mass 

Albert  A.  Young, 

Corp.,  D,  33d  Mass 

Behj.  F.  B.  Holmes, 

C,  1st  Mass  Cav 

178  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Burnside  Belief  Corps  was  instituted  January  30, 1883.  It  had  thirty-three 
charter  members  and  its  first  officers  were:  President,  Dr  Mary  Bates  Stevens; 
Vice-President,  Mrs  C.  E.  Moulton  ;  Secretary,  Mrs  Ella  A.  Beals ;  Treasurer, 
Mrs  Amy  Estes ;  Chaplain,  Mrs  Annie  Foster;  Conductor,  Mrs  George  D. 
Barnum;  Guard,  Mrs  M.  E.  Smith;  Past  President,  Lydia  A.  Bickford. 
Since  organization  the  corps  has  had  over  275  members  on  its  books.  It  has 
furnished  for  the  state  department  of  the  society  two  presidents,  two  secre- 
taries, two  treasurers,  one  inspector,  and  one  director.  The  corps  and  the  post 
work  hand  in  hand  for  the  good  of  the  veterans  and  their  families,  and  in  a 
year  do  a  large  amount  of  labor  and  accomplish  much  good. 

A.  A.  DwinaJ  Post,  No.  3,  Gr.  A.  B.,  Mechanic  Falls.  —  This  post,  named  in 
honor  of  one  of  Minot's  youngest  citizen  soldiers,  a  lieutenant  in  Company  E, 
Seventeenth  Maine  Regiment,  whose  picture  and  sword  hang  on  the  walls  of 
the  hall  where  the  post  meets  weekly,  was  instituted  July  18,  1872,  by 
Inspector  W.  H.  Pennell,  of  Portland.  Although  only  nine  men,  Josiah  Carr, 
Augustus  Golderman,  Asa  L.  Downs,  Elliot  King,  R.  D.  Weston,  L.  L. 
Brown,  H.  T.  Bucknam,  David  Farr,  G.  M.  Holt,  and  Edward  F.  Ross  were 
named  in  the  charter,  thirty-one  men  were  present  at  the  institution,  viz.: 
Josiah  Carr,  Augustus  Golderman,  H.  T.  Bucknam,  Z.  M.  Cushman,  S. 
Hiram  Hutchinson,  Nathaniel  Harding,  Frank  A.  Millett,  Eliab  Bryant,  James 
L.  Dingley,  A.  L.  Rounds,  David  Farr,  A.  S.  Harmon,  Mellen  Greene,  William 
C.  Bridge,  Frank  Bridge,  G.  M.  Holt,  Elliot  King,  G.  W.  Currier,  Asa  L. 
Downs,  William  A.  Tobie,  Joseph  R.  Bearce,  W.  W.  Pratt,  Edward  F.  Ross, 
Hiram  B.  King,  Percival  D.  Herrick,  Richard  D.  Weston,  L.  L.  Brown, 
Edward  Fuller,  Ronello  Dwinal,  Hiram  Moore,  Hiram  P.  Bailey.  The  first 
officers  were:  Commander,  Josiah  Carr;  Senior  Vice  Commander,  Hamlin  T. 
Bucknam;  Junior  Vice  Commander,  Z.  M.  Cushman;  Chaplain,  Zenas 
Thompson;  Quartermaster,  G.  M.  Holt;  Officer  of  the  Day,  S.  H.  Hutchinson; 
Officer  of  the  Guard,  Asa  L.  Downs ;  Adjutant,  Augustus  Golderman ; 
Sergeant-Major,  Mellen  Greene;  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  Elliot  King.  The 
commanders  since  that  time  have  been :  Horace  A.  Sawyer,  1873 ;  Hamlin  T. 
Bucknam,  1874 ;  Edward  Fuller,  1875  ;  Edward  F.  Ross,  1876 ;  Frank  R. 
Harmon,  1877  and  1878;  Hiram  B.  King,  1879;  William  H.  Poole,  1880; 
William  C.  Bridge,  1881 ;  Charles  B.  Adams,  1882;  George  W.  Robbins,  1883; 
Hamlin  T.  Bucknam,  1884;  F.  Edwin  Dwinal,  1885;  Asa  L.  Downs,  1886; 
George  W.  Sholes,  1887;  Frank  A.  Millett,  1888;  Charles  N.  Burns,  1889; 
Orrin  Downs,  1890 ;  Joseph  Gould,  1891.  The  present  officers  are :  Commander, 
Joseph  Gould;  Senior  Vice  Commander,  Dexter  D.  Skinner;  Junior  Vice 
Commander,  Charles  S.  Greene;  Adjutant,  Charles  N.  Burns;  Quartermaster, 
Hamlin  T.  Bucknam;  Chaplain,  George  W.  Sholes;  Surgeon,  Francis  E. 
Mabry ;  O.  D.,  John  F.  Bancroft ;  ( ).  G.,  Amos  Tilton.  The  post  held  its  first 
meeting  in  Briggs's  Hall,  in  the  block  now  owned  by  D.  B.  Perry,  and  occupied 

Military  Affairs.  179 

these  quarters  until  about  1883,  when  it  leased  and  moved  into  J.  1).  Curtis's 
hall,  where  its  meetings  are  held.  With  the  aid  of  liberal  contributions  from 
the  citizens  of  Minot  and  Poland  the  post  has  erected  a  beautiful  soldier's 
monument  in  ^Mechanic  Falls,  "Dedicated  May  30,  A.D.  1887,  to  the  memory 
of  those  comrades  who  died  during  the  war,  1861-1865." 

These  members  of  the  post  served  in  organizations  outside  the  state:  Frank 
A.  Millett,  4  Mass.  Heavy  Art.,  Co.  I;  Z.  M.  C'ushman,  1st  Mass.,  Co.  I),  lieut; 
Hiram  B.  King,  Co.  K,  1  D.  C.  Cav.;  J.  C.  Owens,  Co.  G,  181  Ohio;  H.  A. 
Sawyer,  Co.  H,  1st  Mass.;  George  F.  Church,  Co.  G,  11  Mass.;  Horatio  H. 
Gammon,  Co.  G,  43  Mass.;  Henry  M.  George,  Co.  A,  17  Vt  Inf.;  Albert  H. 
Law,  Co.  C,  33  Ind.;  Jeremiah  Robinson,  Co.  C,  4  Mass.  Cav.;  L.  F.  Johnson, 
Co.  G,  2  Mass.;  Edson  F.  Howard,  19  unattached  Mass.  Vols.;  Moses  D.  Hodg- 
kins,  Co.  G,  45  Mass.;  B.  R.  Sumner,  Navy;  Orrin  AV.  Bartlett,  Co.  L,  1  D.  C. 
Cav.;  Harry  W.  Jordan,  Co.  E,  14  N.  H. ;  Albert  J.  Smith,  Navy;  E.  H. 
Damon,  Co.  G,  2  D.  C.  Inf.;  John  Faunce,  Co.  I,  1  D.  C.  Cav.;  Michael 
McGrath,  Co.  F,  91  N.  Y.;  Charles  Greene,  1  N.  H.  Heavy  Art. 

Berry  Post,  JVo.  10,  Cr.  A.  R.,  Lisbon.  —  A  post  was  instituted  here  February 
1,  1868,  by  Captains  I.  S.  Faunce  and  J.  S.  P.  Ham,  with  these  officers:  O.  E. 
Small,  P.  C;  Charles  W.  Gerrish,  S.  V.  C;  W.  H.  H.  Atwood,  J.  V.  C; 
Emery  Gilbert,  Adjutant;  Judson  Ames,  Q.  M.;  L.  Judkins,  S.;  George  W. 
Jordan,  Chaplain.  This  had  a  brief  life,  for  May  8,  1871,  Berry  Post  was 
instituted  by  George  A.  Parker,  of  Lewiston,  with  twenty-eight  members.  E. 
M.  Shaw  was  commander;  W.  PI.  Atwood,  adjutant;  E.  B.  Warren,  quarter- 
master. The  post  was  named  in  honor  of  General  Hiram  G.  Berry,  of  Rock- 
land. These  members  served  in  organizations  outside  of  Maine:  W.  H.  Miles, 
2  Mass.;  Frank  E.  Grinniger,  47  Mass.;  Edward  Marr,  Engineer  Corps;  James 
Ives,  56  Mass.;  N.  J.  Shaw,  72  N.  Y.;  S.  Stone,  1  Ver.;  Jesse  Coffin,  J.  A. 
Rogers,  U.  S.  N. ;  H.  P.  Thompson,  hospital  steward.  Meetings  are  held  in 
Farwell  Hall,  semi-monthly. 

Knox  Post,  No.  1'20,  G-.  A.  R.,  Lewiston,  was  organized  May  5,  1890,  at 
Clan  Campbell  Hall,  Lewiston,  by  the  officers  of  the  Department  of  the  Grand 
Army  of  jNIaine.  The  officers  jtresent  were :  John  I).  Anderson,  Department 
Commander;  M.  C.  Wadsworth,  Senior  Vice  Commander;  John  D.  Williams, 
Junior  Vice  Commander;  B.  F.  Beals,  Assistant  Quartermaster;  E.  C.  Mil- 
liken,  Assistant  Adjutant-General;  J.  W.  Oilman,  Chief  Mustering  Officer. 
The  following  were  elected  officers :  Danville  B.  Stevens,  Commander ;  R.  R. 
Ricker,  Senior  Vice  Commander;  F.  C.  Tarr,  Junior  Vice  Commander; 
William  Baird,  Adjutant;  M.  A.  Murphy,  Quartermaster;  E.  C.  Douglas, 
Chaplain;  C.  H.  Allen,  Officer  of  the  Day;  A.  B.  Holland,  Officer  of  the 
Guard ;  C.  H.  Weymouth,  Sergeant-Major ;  I.  W.  Hodgdon,  Quartermaster 
Sergeant.  The  charter  membei'S  were:  Danville  B.  Stevens,  R.  R.  Ricker,  F. 
C.  Tarr,  William  Baird  (12  Mass.),  M.  A.  Murphy,  E.  C.  Douglas,  C.  H.  Allen, 

180  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

A.  B.  Holland,  C.  H.  Weymouth,  I.  W.  Hodgdon,  C.  H.  Jumper,  D.  B.  Cressey, 
L.  D.  Parker,  John  A.  Hodgden,  G.  G.  Wagg,  Henry  J.  Penney,  L.  G.  Dingley, 
Horace  V.  Whitcomb,  P.  R.  Nevens,  Levi  Webber,  J.  M.  Sherman,  E.  E.  Hall, 
I.  S.  Faunce,  R.  D.  Damren,  George  B.  Haskell,  George  W.  Hartwell,  William 
N.  Higgins,  F.  E.  Bisbee,  William  Barnes,  L.  C.  Robbins,  Joseph  A.  Johnson, 
David  Nash,  Byron  D.  Babcock,  A.  S.  Donnell. 

The  post  retired  to  Lyceum  Hall,  where  the  officers  were  publicly  installed. 
After  the  installation  the  ladies  of  Knox  Relief  Corps  held  an  informal  recep- 
tion, during  which  they  presented  to  the  post  a  check  for  -flOO,  the  president, 
Miss  Nellie  G.  Ham,  making  the  presentation.  The  year  has  been  a  prosperous 
one.  The  membership  is  forty-six.  The  officers  for  the  year  are :  R.  R. 
Ricker,  Commander;  F.  C.  Tarr,  Senior  Vice  Commander;  A.  B.  Holland, 
Junior  Vice  Commander;  William  Baird,  Adjutant;  M.  A.  Murphy,  Quarter- 
master; George  B.  Haskell,  Chaplain;  Levi  Webber,  Officer  of  the  Day;  H. 
V.  Whitcomb,  Officer  of  the  Guard;  C.  H.  Allen,  Sergeant  Major;  J.  W. 
Hodgdon,  Quartermaster's  Sergeant. 

Kimhnll  Fosf,  No.  38,  Gr.  A.  B.,  Livermore  Falls,  was  organized  May  9, 
1881,  with  these  charter  members:  Commander,  Augustus  D.  Brown;  S.  V. 
C,  David  F.  Blunt;  J,  V.  C,  Josiah  Mitchell;  Surgeon,  Almado  R.Smith; 
Chaplain,  George  Tarr;  O.  D.,  John  F.  Lamb;  O.  G,,  James  Ridley;  Q.  M., 
Adelbert  Alden;  Adjutant,  Edgar  M.  Eustis;  S.  M.,  Rufus  M.  Dinsraore;  Q. 
M.  S.,  Granville  Richmond,  James  Elliott,  Lyman  Harmon.  The  present 
membership  (April,  1891,)  is  sixty-two,  of  whom  these  served  in  organizations 
out  of  the  state:  Charles  R.  Loring,  U.  S.  N. ;  Loring  P.  Gould,  K,  3  Mass.; 
John  Girard,  H,  2  R.  L;  A.  B.  Holmes,  20  Mass.;  J.  F.  Jefferds,  1  Mass.  H.  A. 
Of  the  charter  members,  Josiah  Mitchell  died  April  18,  1889,  and  Edgar  M. 
Eustis  in  December  of  the  same  year.  The  officers  for  1891  are:  Commander, 
A.  D.  Brown;  S.  V.  C,  A.  Alden;  J.  V.  C,  Charles  Burgess;  Surgeon,  C.  W. 
Brown  ;  Chaplain,  J.  L.  Morse;  Q.  M.,  T.  Stone;  O.  D.,  J.  Ridley;  O.  G.,  C. 
N.  Kincaid;  Adjutant,  George  Tarr;  S.  M.,  C.  R.  Loring;  Q.  M.  S.,  James 
Elliott.  The  past  commanders  are:  A.  D.  Brown,  C.  R.  Loring,  John  F. 
Lamb,  Josiah  Mitchell,  J.  F.  Jefferds,  C.  W.  Brown,  George  Tarr.  The  adju- 
tants have  been:  E.  M.  Eustis,  C.  R.  Loring,  A.  B.  Holmes,  George  Tarr.  The 
post  holds  its  meetings  in  G.  A.  R.  Hall,  on  Depot  street.  It  decorates  graves 
in  Livermore,  East  Tjivermore,  Jay,  and  other  places  Kimball  Relief  Corps, 
No.  31,  was  organized  in  December,  1885,  with  thirty-four  members.  Mrs  J.  F. 
Lamb  was  president;  Mrs  May  Allen,  vice-president. 

Sons  of  Veterans,  U.  S.  A.  —  This  patriotic  order,  founded  in  1881, 
admits  to  membership  the  sons,  not  less  than  eighteen  years  of  age,  of  deceased 
or  honorably  discharged  soldiers,  sailors,  or  marines,  who  served  in  the  Union 
army  or  navy  during  the  Civil  War  of  1861-65,  and  the  sons  of  members  of 
the  order,  not  less  than  twenty-one  years  of  age.     No  one  is  eligible  who  has 

Military  Affairs.  181 

ever  been  convicted  of  an  infamous  crime,  or  who  has,  or  whose  father  has, 
ever  borne  arms  against  the  government  of  the  United  States.  Its  objects  are 
"to  keep  green  the  memories  of  our  fathers  and  their  sacrifices  to  maintain  the 
Union,  and  to  promote  their  interests  and  welfare  as  opportunity  may  offer  or 
necessity  may  demand;  to  aid  and  assist  in  caring  for  their  helpless  and 
disabled  veterans  ;  to  extend  aid  and  protection  to  their  widows  and  orphans  ; 
to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  their  heroic  dead,  and  the  proper  observance  of 
Memorial  Day ;  to  aid  and  assist  worthy  and  needy  members  of  our  order ;  to 
inculcate  patriotism  and  love  of  country,  not  only  amongst  our  membership, 
but  among  all  the  people  of  our  land,  and  to  spread  and  sustain  the  doctrine  of 
equal  rights,  universal  liberty,  and  justice  to  all."  The  announced  principles 
are  a  firm  belief  and  trust  in  Almighty  God,  and  a  recognition  of  His  beneficent 
guidance  in  the  preservation  of  the  life  and  integrity  of  the  nation.  True 
allegiance  to  the  government  of  the  United  States  of  America,  a  respect  for 
and  fidelity  to  its  constitution,  laws,  and  opposition  to  any  sj^stem  or  power 
that  in  any  manner  tends  to  impair  the  efficiency  and  permanency  of  our 
National  Union. 

In  1882  General  I.  S.  Bangs,  of  Waterville,  who  had  been  commissioned  to 
inaugurate  the  order  in  Maine,  organized  James  A.  Garfield  Camp,  No.  1,  in 
Waterville.  This  was  an  experimental  camp,  composed  of  lads  under  fourteen 
years,  and,  after  successfully  exemplifying  the  workings  of  the  ritual,  it  ceased 
to  exist.  The  first  camp  in  Maine  organized  under  the  constitution,  rules,  and 
regulations  of  the  order  was 

Almon  C\  Pray  Camp^  No.  2.  —  This  was  established  by  Provisional 
Colonel  Frank  P.  Merrill,  at  Auburn,  January  16,  1883,  and  fourteen  charter 
members  were  mustered  in.  These  were  Frank  P.  Merrill,  Fred  H.  Storah, 
Herbert  A.  Goss,  John  C  Blake,  Leonard  A.  Pray,  Melville  E.  Goss,  A.  A. 
Mower,  Arthur  C.  Wyman,  George  D.  Emerson,  Henry  Harvey,  Samuel  H. 
Dill,  Wallace  P.  Dill,  Robert  E.  Casey,  Henry  G.  Casey. 

The  first  officers  were  H.  A.  Goss,  captain ;  A.  C.  Wyman,  M.  E.  Goss, 
lieutenants;  John  C.  Blake,  first  sergeant;  S.  H.  Dill,  quartermaster  sergeant. 
The  camp  has  now  sixty-six  members.  The  meetings  are  weekly,  on  Tuesday 
evenings,  and  have  been  held  in  the  G.  A.  R.  Hall  from  organization  except  in 
1886-7-8,  when  they  were  held  in  Union  and  Glover's  Band  halls.  The 
captains  have  been  H.  A.  Goss,  A.  C.  Wyman,  S.  H.  Dill,  G.  D.  Emerson,  F. 
W.  Davis,  C.  E.  Merrill,  C.  L.  Wright,  D.  M.  Chamberlain,  F.  L.  Beals,  O.  H. 
Bradbury.  Those  members  entitled  to  vote  in  the  Division  Encampment  are 
the  past  captains,  F.  L.  Donnell,  G.  A.  Field,  F.  P.  Merrill  (past  commander- 
in-chief),  John  C.  Blake  (past  colonel  of  division),  W.  A.  Ripley  (inspector  of 
division).  F.  W.  Davis  has  been  division  quartermaster,  F.  L.  Beals  member 
of  division  council,  C.  E.  Merrill  aid-de-camp  on  staff  of  commander-in-chief. 
F.  L.  Dearborn  was  delegate  to  the  last  National  Encampment  held  in  Auburn 

182  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

in  June,  1891.  The  officers  installed  in  January  were  O.  H.  Bradbury, 
captain;  C.  A.  Campbell,  first  lieutenant;  J.  H.  Folsoni,  second  lieutenant; 
George  W.  Wing,  chaplain ;  J.  Sherman  Douglass,  first  sergeant ;  F.  W. 
Haskell,  quartermaster;  H.  C.  Mitchell,  color  sergeant;  E.  H.  Bickerton, 
sergeant  of  guard ;  Warren  M.  Spearin,  camp  guard ;  George  E.  Sleeper, 
picket-guard;  Charles  E.  Merrill,  D.  M.  Chamberlain,  Frank  L.  Beals,  camp 
council.  The  first  permanent  division  of  Sons  of  Veterans,  U.  S.  A. — 
Division  of  Maine  — was  organized  at  Auburn,  April  10,  1888,  in  connection 
with  Almon  C.  Pi-ay  Camp,  and  Frank  P.  Merrill  elected  colonel. 

Ouster  Camp,  S.  of  T",  U.  S.  A.,  Lewlston,  was  instituted  March  16,  1883, 
and  had  twenty-four  charter  members:  G.  W.  Martin,  Ranee  H.  Babb,  Pearl 
Babb,  George  E.  Faunce,  I.  S.  Blake,  Fred  Edgecomb,  I.  L.  Quinby,  Harry  H. 
Miller,  Fred  Merryfield,  George  B.  Estes,  Henry  R.  Ham,  H.  Arthur  Goodwin, 
Burton  S.  Stubbs,  Charles  F.  Nealey,  Charles  F.  Stanley,  Willard  Hayford,  E.  H. 
Jackson,  H.  L.  Wright,  Charles  F.  Hayford,  Edwin  E.  Rowe,  Fred  W.  Goodwin, 
Charles  M.  Penney,  C.  S.  Jackson,  A.  Holland.  The  first  commissioned  officers 
were:  Lyman  H.  Wright,  captain;  George  E.  Faunce,  first  lieutenant;  H.  H. 
Miller,  second  lieutenant;  Charles  F.  Hayford,  chaplain;  George  W.  Martin, 
surgeon.  For  the  first  years  the  camp  had  great  prosperity.  It  has  had  ninety- 
one  names  on  its  roll  of  members,  and  has  been  especially  active  in  charitable 
work.  It  has  cordially  and  ably  supported  the  Grand  Army  in  its  weighty 
duties,  and  has  been  numbered  among  the  first-class  camps  in  Maine.  The 
captains  have  been  Lyman  H.  Wright,  Harry  H.  Miller,  George  A.  Field,  E.  H. 
Jackson,  George  E.  Faunce,  Beaumont  Stevens,  Charles  F.  Hayford,  Charles  L. 
Witham,  Willard  Hayford,  A.  F.  Nutting,  Frank  A.  Lapham,  Edward  M.  Small. 

Kimball  Camp-,  S.  of  F".,  No.  11,  Livermore  Falh,  was  organized  February 
23,  1888,  with  sixteen  charter  members :  Charles  L.  Day,  captain  ;  Charles 
Elliott,  G.  A.  Thompson,  D.  W.  Mitchell,  E.  E.  Kincaid,  E.  Y.  Kincaid,  C.  N. 
Kincaid,  H.  S.  Kincaid,  George  Tarr,  George  A.  Parker,  J.  L,  Goodwin,  J.  H. 
Royal,  C.  W.  Brown,  Jr,  Charles  A.  Gould,  Warren  Hyde,  W.  B.  Gould,  Leon 
Blunt,  Herbert  Newman.  The  first  officers  were  C.  L.  Day,  captain;  C.  N. 
Kincaid,  J.  G.  Loring,  lieutenants;  S.  C.  Elliott,  S.  G. ;  C.  W.  Brown,  first 
sergeant ;  George  Tarr,  chaplain  ;  H.  Newman,  sergeant-major  ;  I.  L.  Goodwin, 
color  sergeant;  C.  A.  Gould,  corporal  of  guard;  W.  B.  Gould,  inside  guard;  J. 
H.  lioyal,  outside  guard.  There  were  thirty -four  members  April  1,  1891,  and 
these  officers:    C.  N.  Kincaid,  captain;   J.  C.  Hatch,  C.  W.  True,  lieutenants; 

E.  Ridley,  S.  G.;   W.  B.  Gould,  first  sergeant;  R.  N.  Holmes,  quartermaster; 

F.  H.  Farrington,  color  sergeant;  E.  Y.  Kincaid,  inside  guard;  E.  E.  Kincaid, 
outside  guard;  C.  L.  Day,  chaplain.     Meetings  are  held  in  G.  A.  R.  Hall. 

A.  J.  Pelter  Camp,  No.  60,  Mechanic  Falls,  was  organized  March  12,  1891, 
with  I).  S.  Smith,  captain;  A.  A.  Cobb  and  George  Sawyer,  lieutenants;  O. 
C.  Bridge,  C.  M.  Cobb,  H.  C.  Bucknam,  camp  counsel. 


184  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

On  the  other  hand  there  are  considerations  serving  in  a  measure  to  coun- 
teract these  powerful  competitive  influences.  All  the  attractions  of  college  halls 
do  not  stand  to  the  credit  of  age,  else  new  comers  would  be  entirely  shut  out. 
The  customs,  traditions,  methods,  and  spirit  dominating  an  institution  in  the 
name  of  the  past,  may  lack  adaptation  to  the  intellectual  and  moral  interests 
of  students  of  the  present  day.  Besides,  the  flush  and  freedom  and  energy 
of  youth  may  make  liberal  compensations  in  the  class-room  for  the  must  of 
antiquity  wanting  there. 

The  disadvantage  under  which  a  new  college  begins  may  also,  in  a 
measure,  be  offset,  if  it  is  to  be  devoted  to  a  special  line  of  instruction,  and 
if  it  is  planted  on  a  rich  foundation.  But  let  it  propose  to  be  of  the  same 
general  character  as  that  of  other  colleges;  let  it  start  in  poverty,  looking  for 
support  and  equipment  to  funds  to  be  gathered  here  and  there  by  personal 
solicitation,  and  largely  from  persons  of  small  means ;  let  it  aim  to  secure  on 
meager  salaries  a  full  and  able  faculty,  attempt  to  win  the  confidence  of 
tlie  public  in  an  institution  half  equipped,  and  attract  students  to  an  alma 
mater  without  children,  and  the  difficulties  it  would  have  to  surmount  would 
be  precisely  those  confronting  the  founders  of  Bates  College  as  they  began 
their  work.  By  their  uncommon  faith  and  courage,  however,  they  at  the 
outset  gave  hostages  to  the  friends  of  education  that,  in  spite  of  the  magnitude 
of  their  undertaking,  it  should  be  carried  to  success. 

They  saw  that  certain  educational  wants  in  New  England  were  not  met  by 
any  existing  college.  They  knew,  as  well,  that  in  some  special  directions  a 
need  existed  that  only  a  new  college  could  supply.  Believing  also  in  the 
leadings  of  Providence  in  the  matter,  they  started  the  institution,  and  stood 
ready  to  give  to  every  man  a  reason  for  calling  it  into  existence. 

Raison  d'etre.  I.  Denominational  Need.  —  The  primary  object  of  the 
projectors  of  the  college  was  to  provide  the  Free  Baptists  of  New  England 
with  an  institution  of  their  own  for  the  higher  education  of  their  children. 
When  the  enterprise  was  started,  this  denomination,  having  in  New  England 
r)00  churches,  30,000  church  members,  and  thrice  that  number  of  church 
attendants,  had  no  college  east  of  Hillsdale,  Michigan.  Several  small  acad- 
emies and  two  large  seminaries  of  a  higher  grade  constituted  their  educational 
equipment.  From  these  schools  classes  of  young  men  were  annually  sent  to 
colleges  controlled  by  other  denominations. 

Among  the  Free  Baptists  no  popular  demand  for  the  college  existed,  only 
a  great  need,  and  a  great  possibility.  Its  projectors  expected  to  meet  opposi- 
tion, but  knew  that  if  the  college  were  once  secured,  the  effect  of  denomina- 
tional ownership  would  be  to  awaken  interest  in  it,  to  make  the  churches 
centers  for  advertising  its  advantages,  and  to  set  the  ministers  at  work  to  find 
students  and  put  them  on  the  way  to  its  halls;  they  knew,  also,  that  many 
young  people,  who  would  otherwise  never  be  reached  by  a  call  to  enter  on  a 

Bates  College.  185 

thorough  course  of  study,  would  now  come  under  a  special  jiressure  to  fit  for 
college  and  begin  the  pursuit  of  learning.  Within  the  denomination,  therefore, 
it  was  plain  that  room  and  reason  enough  for  the  college  could  be  found.  But 
patronage  from  this  source  alone  would  be  comparatively  small.  The  college 
required  a  larger  constituency ;  and  another  large  class  remained  needing  if 
not  asking  for  its  aid. 

II.  Co-education.  —  Prior  to  1863  no  college  in  New  England  opened  its 
doors  to  her  sons  and  daughters  alike,  or  opened  them  to  her  daughters  at  all. 
Against  the  principle  of  co-education  old  customs,  traditions,  inherited  preju- 
dices were  stoutly  arrayed.  If  a  college  would  come  forward,  accepting  the 
hazard  of  the  experiment,  and  admit  young  women  to  its  classes  on  the  same 
terms  as  it  did  young  men,  it  doubtless  would  in  time  find  its  intelligent  and 
generous  action  appreciated,  and  have  the  honor  of  first  ministering  to  this 
peculiar  educational  need.  If  Bates  had  no  other  sufficient  reason  for  its 
existence,  it  certainly  had  one  here,  and  one  that  came  to  be  approved  by  the 
later  spread  of  the  principle  of  co-education. 

III.  Ind'Kjetit  jSfvdents. — Few  of  the  old  colleges  managed  their  affairs 
in  the  interest  of  a  class  of  students  compelled  by  their  own  exertions  to  pay 
their  way  through  the  course.  By  the  standards  of  the  poor  the  scale  of 
expenses  was  high  in  all  New  England  colleges,  and  to  many  a  youth  disheart- 
ening. However  willing  to  work,  the  sons  and  daughters  of  farmers  and 
mechanics  saw  no  reasonable  prospect  of  earning  enough  money  to  cover  the 
expense  of  four  years'  work  in  college,  after  meeting  the  expense  of  a  prepara- 
tion for  college. 

College  history  shows  that  expenses  tend  to  increase  with  the  age  and 
wealth  of  the  institution.  Funds  are,  therefore,  provided,  to  a  limited  extent, 
for  directly  assisting  poor  students.  But  however  delicately  given,  this  form 
of  charity  chafes  the  spirit  of  the  beneficiary.  American  youth  prize  their 
independence  and  demand  the  right  to  meet  their  companions  as  equals.  When 
Bates  was  projected  there  was  need  of  a  college  where,  without  loss  of  self- 
respect  or  social  standing,  poor  young  men  and  women  could  get  on,  pay  their 
bills,  and  reach  graduation  the  peei's  of  any  other  student,  if  only  peers  in 
brains  and  scljolarshij). 

IV.  Local  /Support.  —  The  location  of  Bates  promised  to  secure  it  the 
attendance  of  a  large  number  of  students  of  botli  sexes  from  the  homes  of 
Lewiston  and  Auburn.  Bates  was  to  stand  in  the  midst  of  more  than  thirty 
thousand  people.  To  the  young  people  of  its  neighborhood  a  college  is  an 
object-lesson  on  the  value  of  an  education.  The  sound  of  the  college  bell, 
the  sight  of  the  grounds  and  buildings  animate  with  student  life,  the  results 
of  college  training  shovi^n  in  public  declamations,  debates,  and  other  rhetorical 
and  literary  exhibitions,  together  with  the  inspiring  scenes  of  Class  Day  and 
Commencement  Day,  powerfully  appeal  to  the  youth  living  in  the  vicinity  of  a 

186  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

college  urging  them  not  to  be  left  behind  by  their  equals  in  age  in  the  pursuit 
of  the  best  things  of  life.  Bates  saw  a  great  opportunity  to  diffuse  intelli- 
gence and  culture  in  society  at  its  doors. 

V.  The  General  Pnhlic.  —  In  addition  to  serving  the  wants  of  the  special 
classes  named,  the  college  saw  a  good  chance  to  do  no  inconsiderable  work 
for  the  cause  of  higher  education,  irrespective  of  any  special  class.  By  main- 
taining a  decided  moral  and  Christian  character,  and  by  securing  a  reputation 
for  the  quality  of  its  instruction,  the  college  might  reasonably  expect  that 
parents  would  often  prefer  to  intrust  to  it  the  training  of  their  children. 

In  view  of  all  these  considerations,  it  was  evident  that  New  England  had 
left  a  large  place  vacant  in  her  educational  work  for  Bates  College  to  fill.  Its 
originators  could  reasonably  count  on  adequate  patronage,  increasing  from 
year  to  year,  if  they  went  forward  and  called  the  college  into  existence. 

The  Beginning  of  the  College. —  The  Maine  State  Seminary.  —  The 
college  was  developed  from  the  Maine  State  Seminary  and  succeeded  to  its 
lands  and  buildings.  Hence  it  is  necessary  to  give  some  account  of  the  latter 
institution.  The  seminary  was  chartered  by  the  state  in  1855,  and  was  given 
$15,000  on  condition  that  its  friends  would  raise  an  equal  sum.  Before  the 
seminary  was  begun,  or  its  location  fixed,  many  Maine  towns,  appreciating  the 
advantages  it  would  bring  to  the  place  securing  it,  made  strenuous  efforts  to 
obtain  it.  China,  South  China,  Hallowell,  West  Waterville,  Unity,  Vienna, 
Pittsfield,  and  Lewiston,  competed  in  offers  for  it.  The  people  of  Lewiston 
agreed  to  raise  $10,000  for  the  seminary  and  to  provide  it  a  site  worth  $5,000, 
and  won  the  prize.  Of  the  money  from  the  state,  $10,000  were  to  be  set  aside 
as  a  fund ;  the  remainder  could  be  used  for  any  purpose  needed.  The 
conditions  of  the  state  grant  having  been  met  by  the  payment  of  the  pledges 
made  by  the  citizens  of  Lewiston,  the  seminary  started  on  a  capital  of  $30,000. 
This  sum  was  soon  increased  by  many  private  donations. 

Two  buildings  were  constructed  on  a  well  chosen  site,  Parker  and  Hathorn 
halls.  The  former  is  a  brick  dormitory,  147  x  44  feet,  three  stories  high, 
divided  into  two  distinct  apartments,  with  dining  halls  in  the  basement.  This 
building  was  named  in  honor  of  Hon.  Thomas  Parker,  of  Farmington,  Me,  the 
largest  individual  contributor  towards  its  construction.  Tlie  latter  hall  is  a 
beautiful  brick  building,  86  x  50  feet,  containing  the  chapel,  recitation,  and 
society  rooms,  cabinet,  and  library.  It  was  so  called  to  commemorate  the 
liberality  of  Mr  and  Mrs  Seth  Hathorn,  of  Woolwich,  Me,  who  gave  $5,000 
towards  the  erection  of  the  building.  Another  dormitory  like  Parker  Hall, 
and  designed  to  balance  it  on  the  opposite  side  of  Hathorn  Hall,  was  included 
in  the  original  plan,  but  was  never  built. 

In  September,  1857,  the  seminary  began  the  work  of  instruction.  One 
hundred  and  thirty-seven  students  were  in  attendance,  eighty-three  gentlemen 
and  fifty-four  ladies.     The  corps  of  instructors  consisted  of  Rev.  O.  B.  Cheney, 

Bates  College.  187 

A.M.,  principal;  Miss  Rachel  Symonds,  preceptress;  George  H.  Ricker,  A.M., 
John  A.  Lowell,  A.M.,  Miss  Jane  W.  Hoy-t,  and  Miss  Mary  R.  Cushman. 
Three  courses  of  study  were  taught:  a  classical  course,  fitting  students  for 
college  ;  a  ladies'  course  that,  omitting  Greek,  went  beyond  the  classical  course 
in  Latin,  and  included  modern  languages,  mental  and  moral  philosophy,  and 
other  advanced  studies;  an  English  course,  designed  especially  to  meet  the 
wants  of  students  looking  to  a  business  life. 

The  seminary  took  high  rank  among  institutions  of  its  kind.  That  it 
placed  scholarly  ideals  before  its  students  appears  from  the  fact  that,  until  it 
was  transformed  into  a  college,  it  graduated  on  an  average,  each  year,  a  class 
of  twelve  fitted  to  enter  college.  During  these  six  years,  also,  forty-one  young 
ladies  took  the  full  course  of  study  in  their  department.  It  was  very  natural, 
therefore,  that  the  thoughtful  teachers  of  the  seminary  should  begin  to  question 
the  wisdom  of  Free  Baptists  in  maintaining  the  seminary  as  a  source  of  supply 
for  colleges  of  other  denominations. 

The  Originator  or  the  College.  —  As  the  seminary  largely  owed  its 
rise  to  its  principal,  so  even  more  did  the  college.  In  the  autumn  of  1854, 
while  Mr  Cheney  was  pastor  of  the  Free  Baptist  Church,  in  Augusta,  Me, 
Parsonsfielcl  Seminary,  at  that  time  the  only  Free  Baptist  school  in  the  state, 
was  destroyed  by  fire.  At  once  Mr  Cheney  conceived  the  idea  of  substituting 
for  it  a  higher  seminary,  in  a  more  central  location.  Taking  others  into  his 
counsels,  and  ably  seconded  at  every  step  and  sometimes  led  by  Rev.  Ebenezer 
Knowlton,  Mr  Cheney  brought  to  pass  most  of  the  measures,  and  largely 
secured  the  means  by  which  the  Maine  State  Seminary  was  founded,  and 
carried  to  its  good  degree  of  prosperity.  Meanwhile,  other  ideas  grew  upon 
him,  and  a  larger  plan  took  shape  in  his  mind.  He  saw  the  opportunity,  felt 
the  necessity,  and  pressed  the  subject  of  using  the  seminary  as  the  foundation 
of  a  college. 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  trustees  of  the  seminary,  in  1862,  sixteen  of 
its  young  men  presented  a  petition  to  the  board  for  college  instruction  to  be 
provided  them  in  the  institution.  In  anticipation  of  the  inevitable  change  the 
right  of  the  seminar}^  thus  to  enlarge  its  scope  and  to  confer  degrees  had  been 
obtained  from  the  state,  on  conditions,  however,  as  yet  unmet.  Mr  Cheney 
now  requested  the  trustees  to  add  to  the  seminary  a  college  department.  The 
trustees  were  not  ready  to  adopt  so  bold  a  measure.  To  the  petitioners  they 
replied  that  the}^  dared  not  assure  them  that  their  request  would  be  granted, 
but  advised  them  to  consult  with  their  teachers  in  respect  to  enlarging  the 
course  of  study  in  the  seminary. 

The  trustees  hesitated,  with  good  reason.  They  questioned  their  ability  to 
secure  funds  sufficient  to  give  a  college  any  standing  or  worth.  For  the  year 
just  closed  the  regular  income  of  the  seminary  was  less  than  '16,000.  The 
chapel  in  Hathorn  Hall  was  not  finished.     The  seminary  had  but  two  build- 

188  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

ings.  rts  assets  over  liabilities,  exclusive  of  land  and  buildings,  were  only 
.^12,000.  Free  Baptist  educational  interests  centered  in  New  Hampton,  N.  H., 
divided  the  sympathies  of  the  churches,  and  prevented  a  concentration  of 
denominational  effort  at  I>ewiston.  Already  a  tripartite  agreement  between 
the  Theological  School,  New  Hampton  Institution,  and  Maine  State  Seminary 
aiming  to  become  a  college,  had  been  proposed,  and  was  under  advisement. 

Notwithstanding  these  objections,  at  the  next  annual  meeting,  in  July, 
1863,  the  trustees  unanimously  voted  "  That  the  seminary  be  hereafter  known 
and  called  by  the  name  of  liates  College,"  and  that  application  be  made  to  the 
next  legislature  for  a  college  charter  under  that  name. 

This  vote  meant  that,  during  the  year,  friends  of  education  in  and  out  of 
the  denomination  had  been  approached  upon  this  subject  and  that  there 
appeared  to  be  a  reasonable  prospect  of  success  in  the  attempt  to  found  a 
college.  Prior  to  the  annual  meeting  of  the  board  two  special  meetings  had 
been  held,  —  one  in  February,  at  Augusta,  to  take  action  on  certain  generous 
proposals  received  from  wealthy  gentlemen  of  Boston  who  were  interested  in 
the  business  enterprises  of  Lewiston.  Encouraged  by  this  unexpected  and 
liberal  promise  of  help  in  an  attempt  to  enlarge  the  institution,  the  trustees 
resolved  to  go  forward  in  that  direction.  At  a  second  special  meeting  of  the 
board,  in  May,  at  Lewiston,  it  was  voted  to  commence  a  college  course  in  the 
fall  and  to  put  an  agent  in  the  field  to  solicit  funds  for  the  great  undertaking. 

These  offers  of  aid  came  to  the  trustees  through  the  activity  of  Mr  Cheney. 
He  was  the  head  and  front  of  this  enterprise,  and  was  the  secret,  when  not 
manifest,  force  back  of  almost  every  movement  in  its  favor ;  and  it  was  chiefly 
due  to  his  faith  and  determination,  courage  and  persistency,  that  the  desired 
result  was  reached.  He  believed  in  Lewiston  as  a  favorable  place  for  such  an 
institution,  and  was  convinced  that  if  it  were  managed  in  the  interests  of  poor 
students  and  of  students  of  both  sexes,  patronage  would  flow  to  it.  He  knew, 
also,  that  his  denomination  would  gladly  second  an  attempt  to  plant  a  college 
of  its  own,  if  men  of  wealth  were  found  ready  to  aid  it  by  their  benefactions. 

An  Honored  Name.  —  Providentially,  at  this  time  several  such  men  had 
large  sums  of  money  invested  in  Lewiston,  who,  both  for  the  sake  of  the  city 
and  for  the  cause  of  education,  had  taken  a  generous  interest  in  the  seminary. 
Foremost  of  these  was  Mr  Benjamin  E.  Bates.  Possessed  of  great  wealth,  he 
had  cherished  the  thought  of  devoting  a  good  part  of  it  to  the  benefit  of 
mankind  through  an  institution  of  learning.  Taking  the  seminary  into  his 
favor,  he  encouraged  the  i)roject  of  clianging  its  character.  In  1863  he  offered 
to  give  the  trustees  .125,000  if  they  would  raise  $75,000  towards  making  it  a 
college.  The  next  year  he  made  them  the  munificent  offer  of  175,000  more,  on 
condition  that  they  would  raise  !|25,000.  These  conditions  having  been  met 
to  his  satisfaction,  Mr  Bates  paid  the  college  '1100,000,  and  became  its  honored 

Bates  College.  189 

In  view  of  his  first  proposition,  the  trustees  voted  that  the  college  should 
bear  his  name,  an  honor  as  unexpected  by  Mr  Bates  as  it  was  deserved.  For  in 
this,  as  in  all  his  many  subsequent  favors  to  the  college,  Mr  IJates  was  governed 
by  philanthropic  and  Christian  motives.  He  understood  the  value  to  our 
country  of  Christian  colleges,  and  looked  upon  the  opportunity  of  aiding  a 
small  denomination  to  found  such  a  college  as  a  happy  way  of  executing  one 
of  his  benevolent  intentions.  It  may  be  questioned  if  he  could  have  found  for 
his  money  a  wider  field  of  usefulness.  To  his  distinguished  liberality  in 
thought  and  deed  the  college  owes  its  existence.  Without  his  benefactions 
the  labors  of  Mr  Cheney  would  have  been  unavailing. 

Other  Details.  —  In  1864  the  trustees  secured  from  the  legislature  of  the 
state  an  act  changing  the  name  of  Maine  State  Seminary  to  Bates  College, 
and  allowing  all  the  property  of  the  seminar}^  to  become  the  property  of  the 
college,  the  same  as  if  the  college  and  seminary  were  one.  In  addition  to  this, 
the  state  made  a  grant  of  land  to  the  college,  valued  at  $20,000.  This  grant 
was  accompanied  by  the  provision  that  the  state  should  control  ten  scholarships 
in  the  college,  giving  free  tuition  to  as  many  need}^  students,  the  children  of 
soldiers  falling  in  the  war  having  the  preference. 

The  course  of  study  adopted  was  made  very  similar  to  that  of  other  colleges 
in  New  England.  Invitations  to  enter  the  freshman  class  were  sent  out.  The 
terms  of  admission  were  not  made  low  for  the  sake  of  attracting  students.  It 
was  determined  by  the  government  that  the  college  should  be  of  the  same 
grade  as  that  of  other  New  England  colleges. 

It  is  interesting  to  notice  what  were  the  standard  requirements  for 
admission  to  New  England  colleges  in  1863. 

The  Terms  of  Admission.  —  Latin  —  Virgil's  ^Eneid,  nine  books;  Virgil's 
Bucolics  and  first  two  (Tcorgics;  Hanson's  Cicero,  Sallust  and  Csesar;  Arnold's 
Prose  Composition,  twenty -four  exercises;  Andrew's  &  Stoddard's  Latin  Gram- 
mar. Greek  —  Xenophon's  Anabasis,  five  books;  Homer's  Iliad,  first  book; 
Greek  Grammar.  Mathematics  —  Arithmetic,  Robinson's;  Algebra,  first  six 
sections,  Smyth.  JSne/Iish  —  Ancient  and  Modern  History;  Ancient  and 
Modern  Geography ;    English  Grammar. 

Sixteen  joined  the  first  freshman  class,  of  whom  eight  continued  through 
the  course.  At  the  end  of  the  first  four  years  the  classes  stood:  seniors,  8; 
juniors,  7 ;  sophomores,  9 ;  freshmen,  24  ;  whole  number,  48. 

The  first  catalogue  of  the  college  gave  the  faculty  as  follows:  Rev.  Oren 
B.  Cheney,  A.M.,  President;  Levi  W.  Stanton,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Greek 
Language  and  Literature ;  Selden  F.  Neal,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Mathematics  ; 
Jonathan  Y.  Stanton,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Latin  Language  and  Literature; 
Horace  R.  Cheney,  A.B.,  Tutor  in  Latin  and  Mathematics. 

In  1865  Professor  Neal  resigned  to  enter  upon  the  practice  of  medicine,  and 
Tutor  Cheney  also  resigned  that  he  might  begin  the  study  of  law.     The  next 

190  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

year  Professor  L.  W.  Stanton  accepted  the  principalship  of  an  institution  in 
IJyfield,  Mass.  The  places  thus  vacated  were  filled  by  temporary  instructors, 
and  by  the  permanent  professors  of  whom  mention  is  made  in  another  place. 

College  and  Seminary  SErARATED.  —  When  the  college  opened  the 
seminary  remained  as  a  department  of  the. college,  sharing  with  it  Parker  and 
Hathorn  Halls,  the  grounds,  library,  and  apparatus.  As  the  college  classes 
o-rew,  the  mistake  of  associating,  in  this  way,  students  of  all  grades  of  advance- 
ment began  to  be  recognized,  and  a  complete  separation  of  the  college  and 
seminary  was  declared  to  be  necessary.  Hence,  in  1867,  a  site  then  near  but 
now  within  the  college  campus  was  selected,  and  a  commodious  brick  building, 
100x43  feet,  three  stories  high,  was  constructed,  at  a  cost  of  |>30,000,  and 
named  Nichols  Hall  in  honor  of  Mr  Lyman  Nichols  of  Boston.  Here,  the 
next  year,  the  seminary  took  up  its  abode,  under  the  control  of  its  own  faculty 
and  board  of  trustees.  By  a  new  seminary  charter  the  college  was  required 
to  pay  the  seminary  not  less  than  forty,  nor  more  than  fifty  thousand  dollars. 

The  Latin  School.  —  Three  years  prior  to  this  separation,  the  college 
preparatory  class  in  the  seminary  had  been  formed  into  a  distinct  body  of 
students,  called  the  Latin  School,  having  for  its  special  work,  by  a  three  years' 
course  of  study,  to  fit  students  for  college.  Without  involving  any  immediate 
change  in  the  character  of  the  seminary,  this  action  had  the  effect  to  bring 
into  special  prominence  this  department,  and  to  make  it  attractive  to  the 
ambitious  student.  The  influence  of  the  college  upon  the  seminary  was 
generally  recognized  to  be  in  favor  of  the  Latin  School  as  of  the  first  import- 
ance. This  department  soon  became  the  heart  of  the  institution.  Ere  long 
the  idea  of  discontinuing  the  seminary  in  the  interests  of  the  Latin  School  was 
broached.  Hence  it  came  about  that,  the  next  year  after  the  seminary  took 
possession  of  Nichols  Hall,  the  Ladies'  De[)artment  was  discontinued,  and, 
together  with  -$5,000,  was  presented  to  the  Maine  Central  Institute,  a  new 
Free  Baptist  school  in  Pittsfield,  Maine.  The  Latin  School  was  retained  and 
this,  with  the  remaining  property  of  the  seminary,  was  given  over  to  the 
college.     Then  the  charter  of  the  seminary  was  surrendered. 

The  endeavor  to  carry  on  a  seminary  in  connection  with  the  college,  after 
the  manner  of  not  a  few  successful  institutions  in  the  West,  proved  unsatis- 
factory, and  was  at  length  abandoned.  The  various  changes  through  which 
the  institution  passed  before  its  final  state  was  evolved  were  not  made  without 
some  opposition.  Ardent  friends  of  the  seminary,  in  the  name  of  which  the 
enterprise  was  started,  were  not  all  ardent  for  the  college,  and  some  of  them 
viewed  its  absorption  of  the  property  of  the  seminary,  and  its  willingness  to 
have  the  seminary  given  up,  as  wanting  in  good  faith.  Time,  however, 
vindicated  the  wisdom  of  the  trustees,  and  changed  this  feeling  into  one  of 
cordial  acc^uiescence  in  all  the  measures  adopted,  and  of  approval  of  the  results 


192  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

own,  and  to  ask  the  Education  Society  to  surrender  its  school  and  appropriate 
the  income  of  its  funds  in  aid  of  needy  students  studying  for  the  ministry,  but 
to  give  the  use  of  its  library  to  the  new  institution.  The  college  agreed  to 
open  its  school  in  the  autumn,  with  three  men  in  the  faculty,  and  to  add  a 
fourth  man  within  three  years.  Rev.  John  Fullonton,  D.D.,'and  Rev.  John  J. 
Butler,  D.D.,  professors  in  the  former  school,  were  elected  to  chairs  in  the 
new.  To  these  was  added,  temporarily.  Professor  Hayes  of  the  college  faculty, 
who  was  to  teach  in  both  departments.  Readily  accepting  this  surprisingly 
liberal  offer,  the  Education  Society  took  the  step  asked  of  it,  and  left  the  way 
clear  for  the  college  to  initiate  its  new  enterprise. 

The  school  opened  in  Nichols  Hall,  at  the  beginning  of  the  fall  term  of  the 
college,  with  fourteen  students  present.  Professor  Fullonton  taught  Hebrew 
and  Ecclesiastical  History;  Professor  Butler,  Theology  and  Homiletics;  Pro- 
fessor Hayes,  English  and  Greek  Exegesis.  Rev.  James  A.  Howe,  A.M.,  was 
added  to  the  faculty,  in  1872,  as  Professor  of  Theology,  and  Thomas  Hill 
Rich,  A.M.,  as  Professor  in  Hebrew.  The  next  year.  Professor  Butler  accepted 
a  call  to  a  professorship  in  the  theological  department  of  Hillsdale  College. 
In  1890,  Rev.  Alfred  W.  Anthony,  A.M.,  took  the  chair  of  New  Testament 
Exegesis  and  Criticism.  Since  the  school  has  been  in  operation,  the  annual 
average  attendance  has  been  twenty-one,  and  thirty-eight  per  cent,  of  the 
students  have  been  college  graduates. 

In  1887,  the  name  was  changed  to  Cobb  Divinity  School,  in  recognition  of 
the  catholic  spirit  and  generous  act  of  Hon.  J.  L.  H.  Cobb,  of  Lewiston,  in 
giving  to  the  institution  -^25,000.  Probably  this  is  the  only  instance  in  our 
country  of  a  divinity  school  of  one  denomination  named  in  honor  of  a  member 
of  another  denomination.  This  donation,  joined  with  others  specially  con- 
tributed for  the  divinity  school,  has  secured  to  it  a  foundation  of  its  own 
nearly  sufficient  for  its  entire  support.  The  interests  of  the  Free  Baptist 
churches  in  New  England  were  appreciably  promoted  by  uniting  their  divinity 
school  with  their  college;  and  the  college,  in  turn,  has  been  benefited  even 
more,  both  because  its  right  to  appeal  to  the  churches  has  thus  been  reinforced, 
and  because  through  the  divinity  school  the  college  became  more  widely 
advertised,  and  more  distinctly  a  center  of  denominational  attraction. 

Growth  of  the  College.  —  The  decade  from  1870  to  1880  was  one  of 
steady  growth  in  patronage.  The  catalogue  of  1879-80  shows  a  total  of 
students,  in  the  academical  department,  of  one  hundred  and  forty-one,  or 
nearly  double  the  number  ten  years  before.  During  this  time,  also,  four  men 
were  added  to  the  college  faculty:  In  1872,  Mr  George  C.  Chase,  A.M.,  as 
Professor  of  Rhetoric  and  English  Literature ;  in  1873,  Rev.  I'riah  Balkam, 
D.D.,  as  Professor  of  Logic  and  Christian  Evidences;'  in  1875,  Mr  Oliver  C. 

1  At  the  time  of  liis  election  Trofessor  Balkam  was  a  retired  clergyman,  who  had  at  an  earlier  date 
been  pastor  of  the  large  Congregational  church  in  Lewiston.    In  view  of  his  scholarly  attainments, 

Bates  College.  193 

Wendell,  A.M.,  as  Professor  of  Astronomy;^  in  1876,  Mr  John  H.  Rand, 
A.M.,  as  Professor  of  Mathematics.  The  library  and  apparatus  were  steadily 
increased,  receiving  annual  appropriations  from  the  college  treasury,  -tSOO  being 
the  standard  sum  of  expenditure  for  them.  The  cabinet  collections  were  also, 
to  some  degree,  enriched,  both  by  occasional  purchases,  and  by  valuable  gifts 
from  friends. 

The  external  appearance  of  the  college  was  not  forgotten.  A  lot  of  land 
sej^arating  the  site  of  the  divinity  school  from  that  of  the  college  was  pur- 
chased, at  a  cost  of  #13,838,  and  added  to  the  campus.  The  gymnasium  was 
built  and  partly  equipped,  at  a  cost  of  -#4,000 ;  a  building  for  the  Latin  School 
was  constructed  at  a  cost  of  l|7,000;  and  a  house  for  the  president  bought  for 

This  increase  of  land  and  buildings,  of  facilities,  students,  and  professors, 
were  signs  to  the  public  of  a  healthful  development  of  the  college  and  of  an 
intelligent  adjustment  of  its  affairs  to  secure  its  present  and  future  interests. 
But  during  this  period  there  was  written  an  altogether  different  cliapter  of 
history.  In  spite  of  these  appearances  of  prosperity,  for  a  period  of  fifteen 
years,  beginning  in  1870,  the  college  was  battling  against  a  financial  storm  of 
increasing  severity,  threatening  the  destruction  of  the  institution. 

Storm  and  Stress.  —  The  first  necessity  of  a  college  is  income.  Inexo- 
rable are  the  demands  for  it.  Buildings,  students,  professors,  are  of  no  avail 
without  it.  The  college  must  have  money,  and  that  in  a  liberal  measure. 
Starting  on  an  inadequate  foundation.  Bates,  at  once,  had  to  begin  a  struggle 
for  existence.  With  its  expenditures  brought  down  to  the  lowest  figure,  they 
would,  year  by  year,  stubbornly  overrun  the  receipts.  The  gifts  of  friends, 
though  generous,  could  only  supplement  other  sources  of  income.  The  tuition, 
according  to  the  settled  policy  of  the  college  to  assist  poor  students,  was  kept 
at  $36  a  year,  the  lowest  tuition  charged  by  an}'  college  in  New  England;  and 
this,  too,  in  many  cases  of  need,  was  freely  given  to  the  student.  The  room- 
rent  receipts  from  Parker  Hall,  the  only  dormitory,  did  not  pay  four  per  cent, 
on  its  cost.  The  main  source  of  revenue,  the  endowment  fund,  in  1869,  the 
year  before  the  divinity  school  was  opened,  when  swelled  by  room  rent,  tuition, 
and  all  gifts  for  current  expenses,  allowed  the  expenditures  to  exceed  the 
receipts   by    the  sum  of   #2,567.     When    the  trustees  dared  to  add    to  their 

Professor  Stanton  conceived  the  idea  of  connecting  him  with  the  college,  and  solicited  money  in 
Lewiston,  principally  from  the  members  of  Dr  Balkam's  former  parish,  towards  endowing  the  chair 
of  Logic  and  Christian  Evidences,  for  his  occupancy.  This  effort  was  so  far  successful  that  in  the 
autumn  of  1873,  Dr  Balkam  began  his  work  as  an  instructor,  taking  for  that  year  the  classes  of 
Professor  Hayes,  who  was  studying  abroad.  On  the  fourth  of  March,  in  the  next  spring,  while  riding 
to  the  college  to  meet  his  class,  Pi'ofessor  Balkam  was  thrown  from  his  horse  and  instantly  killed.  His 
death  brought  upon  the  college  the  loss  of  a  teacher  of  superior  ability  and  scholarship,  who  was 
adding  greatly  to  its  attractiveness  and  worth. 

'-Professor  Wendell,  on  account  of  ill  health,  was  compelled  to  retire  at  the  end  of  the  year. 

194  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

already  heavy  responsibilities  the  support  of  a  theological  school,  they  saw  a 
reasonable  prospect  of  an  immediate  increase  of  the  resources  of  the  college. 
Instead  of  any  increase,  however,  the  year  of  opening  the  divinity  school  was 
signalized  by  the  failure  of  two  of  the  generous  patrons  of  the  college,  involv- 
ino-  a  loss  to  it  of  125,000.  The  support  of  the  theological  faculty  together 
with  that  of  the  increased  college  faculty,  added  to  the  outlay  for  improve- 
ments before  noticed,  soon  carried  the  aggregate  excess  of  expenditures  over 
income  to  an  alarming  extent.  In  1876  the  floating  debt  amounted  to  -181,292. 
The  next  year  it  was  '|!5,000  more,  with  the  invested  funds  of  the  college 
reduced  to  nearly  !|120,000.  The  outlook  of  the  institution  grew  more  and 
more  menacing,  except  as  relieved  in  a  measure  by  promises  of  aid. 

By  another  characteristically  generous  act,  Mr  Bates  early  came  to  the 
assistance  of  the  struggling  institution.  February  21,  1873,  President  Cheney 
received  word  from  him  that  if  within  live  years  the  college  would  raise 
'tlOO,000,  he  would  give  it  an  equal  sum.  At  the  same  time  the  college  was 
encouraged  to  expect  that  half  the  amount  required  of  it  would  come  from 
another  generous  source.  Hence,  with  -150,000  to  raise,  the  college  went 
zealously  to  work.  Its  needs  were  too  pressing  to  admit  of  delaj^  The  Free 
Baptist  Education  Society  subscribed  125,000.  In  a  little  more  than  a  year, 
by  strenuous  solicitations,  the  subscription  called  for  by  the  college  was 
declared  complete. 

Then  it  was  found  that,  owing  to  the  prevailing  business  depression,  the 
anticipated  gift  of  |!50,000  could  not  be  secured.  This  great  sum  was  thrown 
back  upon  the  college  for  it  to  raise.  A  limited  field,  at  best,  was  that  open 
to  appeals  for  Free  Baptist  enterprises,  and  this  field  had  just  been  canvassed. 
The  stagnation  of  trade  increased  the  difficulty  of  soliciting  money.  The 
endeavors  of  the  college  to  accomplish  its  object  were  tireless  and  heroic.  The 
very  life  of  the  college  seemed  to  depend  on  getting  this  promised  fund.  A 
donation  of  ^10,000,  made  by  the  president,  at  commencement,  in  1876, 
finished  the  subscription.  Again  there  was  great  rejoicing.  In  view  of  the 
general  prostration  of  business,  the  payment  of  Mr  Bates's  subscription  was 
delayed.  Meanwhile,  some  of  the  pledges  made  to  the  college  had  suffered 
from  the  financial  distress  of  the  time.  Before  the  matter  was  settled,  on 
January  14,  1878,  within  live  weeks  of  the  limit  of  time  allowed  for  meeting 
the  terms  of  his  offer,  Mr  Bates  suddenly  died. 

The  college  knew  that  to  deal  with  the  law  was  not  to  deal  with  a  per- 
sonal friend.  Therefore  it  carefully  reviewed  its  subscription  list,  converted 
unsettled  pledges  into  cash  or  legal  notes,  and,  with  the  utmost  confidence  in 
tlie  validity  of  its  claim  against  Mr  Bates's  estate,  awaited  the  day  of  settle- 
ment. By  counting  a  bequest  of  140,000  that  fell  to  the  college  in  1874,  with 
the  other  sums  received,  it  could  show  that,  in  the  given  time,  it  had  raised  in 
notes,  cash,  and  other   securities,  $143,785.      The  legality  of   the  claim  was 

Bates  College.  195 

doubted  by  the  executors  of  Mr  Bates's  will,  and  the  courts  sustained  them  in 
their  doubt.  Not  until  five  years  after  the  death  of  Mr  Bates  was  the  case 
finally  decided,  and  then  the  college  was  non-suited.  The  decision  of  the 
supreme  bench  against  the  college  rested  on  a  point  not  considered  by  either 
party  in  the  trial.  The  gift  of  the  Education  Society  carried  with  it  the 
condition  that  the  money  should  be  available  for  the  use  of  the  college  so  long 
as  the  teachers  supported  by  it,  in  whole  or  in  part,  "  should  be  approved  by 
the  executive  committee  of  the  society."  No  evidence  was  offered  to  show 
that  in  view  of  these  terms  Mr  Bates  would  accept  this  money  as  a  permanent 
gift  to  the  college.  Hence,  by  not  allowing  this  sum  to  stand,  nor  legal  notes 
to  be  counted  as  dollars,  the  courts  ruled  that  the  conditions  of  Mr  Bates's 
pledge  were  not  fulfilled. 

The  effort  to  meet  those  conditions,  however,  had  brought  to  the  college 
treasury  ^100,000,  and  had  proved  to  be  the  salvation  of  the  institution. 
Increased  by  this  amount  on  the  one  hand,  diminished  by  the  amount  of  many 
annual  deficits  on  the  other,  the  funds  of  the  college  still  remained  obstinately 
insufficient.  The  poverty  of  the  college  rested  heavily  on  the  faculty.  For 
twelve  years  they  each  sacrificed  a  fifth  of  their  salaries  towards  keeping  down 
the  debt.  At  their  request  Professor  Chase  was  induced  to  act  as  an  agent  for 
the  college  during  vacations,  if  not  for  a  longer  period.  His  efforts  were 
especially  valuable.  By  his  labors,  in  connection  with  those  of  the  president, 
it  came  about  that,  in  1884,  the  treasurer's  books,  for  the  first  time  since  1868, 
showed,  on  current  expense  account,  a  slight  balance  on  the  right  side.  The 
expenditures  were  <|18,729.28,  the  income  $18,800.80,  leaving  the  balance 
171.52.  But  a  balance  so  small  as  this  is  with  difficulty  kept  from  shifting 
sides.     The  next  year  the  familiar  story  was  repeated  —  a  deficit  of  JftSlO. 

Wliile  the  current  expense  account  was  brought  within  control,  the 
permanent  fund  did  not  always  show  a  stability  in  harmony  with  its  name. 
In  1881,  for  instance,  two  notes,  valued  at  -112,000,  belonging  to  that  fund, 
became  worthless  ;  on  the  other  hand,  during  the  same  year,  rf5,000  were  added 
to  the  fund,  leaving  it,  with  all  debts  of  the  college  paid,  !i!l57,037,  or  less  than 
half  the  sum  needed  by  IJates  for  a  generous  life.  The  equipment  of  the 
college  was  not  complete ;  the  management  was  rigidly  economical ;  expenses 
were  kept  at  the  lowest  scale;  wants  accumulated;  desirable  improvements 
were  deferred;  the  salaries  of  the  professors  remained  severely  meager. 
But,  at  last,  a  prospect   of   relief   appeared. 

Relief.  —  The  financial  relief  of  the  college,  so  long  desired,  came  about 
through  another  conditional  promise  of  money,  and  b}^  another  liberal  bequest. 
In  1886,  Hon.  J,  L.  H.  Cobb,  of  Lewiston,  proposed  to  give  $25,000  to  the 
college  if  it  would  raise  $75,000.  This  offer  was  followed  by  that  of  another 
gentleman  to  add  to  the  sum  thus  obtained  $30,000,  the  gift  to  be  used  for 
an  astronomical  observatory.     While  the  college  was  engaged  in  finding  the 

196  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

money  for  securing  these  pledges,  a  bequest  of  $40,000  fell  to  it,  and,  as 
bequests  were  not  to  be  included  in  the  $75,000  to  be  raised,  the  funds  of  the 
college  were  by  so  much  the  more  increased. 

To  lighten  the  work  thus  inqiosed  upon  the  college,  the  Free  Baptists  of 
New  England  were  invited  to  endow  a  chair  in  the  divinity  school,  to  be  named 
the  FuUonton  professorship,  in  honor  of  Professor  John  FuUonton,  D.D.,  who, 
for  more  than  fifty  years,  has  served  his  denomination  as  an  instructor  of  its 
youth.  This  proposition  was  heartily  seconded  by  all  the  old  pupils  of  the 
revered  professor.  The  churches  were  canvassed  by  two  students  who,  in  the 
course  of  a  year,  secured,  generally  in  small  suras,  a  good  part  of  this  endow- 
ment fund.     The  remainder  will  doubtless  be  made  up  in  a  short  time. 

At  the  end  of  two  years  the  college  had  met  the  conditions  to  Mr  Cobb's 
generous  offer,  when  his  noble  purpose  was  promptly  executed,  and  the  college 
found  itself  brought  into  a  safe  position. 

Benefactors  and  Benefactions.  —  Since  the  building  of  a  college  is 
the  building  of  a  public  and  permanent  institution,  the  persons  by  whose 
liberal  gifts  its  foundation  is  secured  are  entitled  to  such  public  and  lasting 
honor  as  the  pages  of  its  history  can  give.  It  is  a  pleasant  as  well  as  a  just 
act  to  put  on  record  the  names  of  some  of  the  generous  givers  to  Bates  College. 
Institutions  owing  their  existence  to  funds  gathered  as  were  those  of  Bates, 
become  indebted  to  a  multitude  of  donors  of  small  sums  worthy  of  grateful 
and  enduring  remembrance.  Of  such  benefactors  Bates  has  a  long  and 
illumined  roll.  The  aggregate  of  their  gifts  formed  no  small  part  of  the 
capital  of  the  college  at  the  beginning  of  its  history.  Its  growth  in  years 
made  imperative  enlargement  in  every  direction.  Enlargement  meant  larger 
expenditures,  and  larger  expenditures,  the  necessity  of  larger  receipts.  So 
inexorable  have  been  the  calls  for  money  in  equipping  this  young  institution, 
so  wide  and  strong  the  ever-flowing  and  deepening  current  of  expense,  that 
only  the  munificent  gifts  of  wealthy  friends  could  have  availed  to  arrest  the 
flood  and  keep  it  froiu  overwhelming  the  college.  Though  the  endowment  of 
Bates  is  still  small,  not  reaching  to  an  approximate  equality  with  that  of  most 
New  England  colleges  having  only  one  department,  and  conducted  on  a  higher 
scale  of  charges,  yet  it  has  probably  known  more  widely  than  they  the  warmth 
of  philanthropic  hands  and  hearts.  And  to  these  the  college  is  specially 
indebted  for  its  record,  and  for  all  its  promise  of  usefulness. 

To  group  the  chief  benefactors  of  the  college,  in  spite  of  the  slight 
repetition  it  may  involve,  is  to  present  in  a  true  light  one  important  chapter 
of  the  college  history.  First  among  these,  first  in  time,  and  first  in  the  amount 
of  his  benefactions,  was  the  noble  man  whose  name  the  college  bears,  who 
gave  the  institution,  in  addition  to  his  valuable  influence,  1100,000.  The  state 
of  Maine,  with  a  constitution  requiring  it  to  make,  from  time  to  time,  appropria- 
tions in  aid  of  institutions  of  learning,  must  be  ranked  among  the  benefactors 

Bates  College.  197 

of  Bates.  It  appropriated  $15,000  at  the  beginning  of  the  Maine  State 
Seminary,  and,  at  the  starting  of  the  college,  two  townships  of  land,  valued 
at  120,000.  The  Free  Baptist  Education  Society,  relieved  by  the  college  of 
the  support  of  its  theological  school,  gave  $25,000  towards  securing  Mr 
Bates's  last  subscription.  The  Alumni  Association,  a  legally  incorporated 
body,  gave  the  college  its  note  for  $10,000,  with  the  understanding  that  all 
gifts  from  the  alumni  should  go  towards  the  liquidation  of  the  note.  President 
Cheney,  with  characteristic  liberality,  gave  $11,000  to  the  college  to  which  he 
has  given  his  life.  The  bequest  of  Mr  Joshua  Benson,  of  Boston,  brought 
great  encouragement  to  the  college  in  a  dark  hour  of  its  history.  Intending 
to  devise  the  principal  part  of  his  estate  to  some  institution  of  learning,  he 
was  induced  by  a  grand-nephew  of  his,  then  in  college,  the  late  Mr  E.  H. 
Besse,  of  the  class  of  1877,  to  consider  the  character  and  need  of  Bates. 
Another  grand-nephew,  Mr  E.  C.  Benson,  of  Boston,  heartily  seconded  this 
request.  The  will  was  made  in  favor  of  Bates,  and  brought  it  $40,000,  though 
changes  in  the  real  estate  somewhat  reduced  this  amount. 

The  next  large  legacy  came  to  the  college  by  the  will  of  Mrs  Sarah  S. 
Belcher,  of  Farmington,  Me.  A  widow,  without  children,  long  interested 
in  the  educational  work  of  her  denomination  at  Lewiston,  and  influenced  by 
her  friendship  for  Dr  Cheney,  she  formed  the  wise  and  large-hearted  purpose 
of  leaving  the  bulk  of  her  property  to  the  college.  The  will  was  contested 
on  the  ground  of  undue  influence,  a  fictitious  and  absurd  charge,  contradicted 
by  her  remarkable  strength  of  mind  and  disallowed  by  the  courts.  The 
expense  of  the  entire  suit  falling  upon  the  college,  the  only  result  of  the  trial 
was  to  take  from  the  legacy  nearly  $10,000  for  the  costs  of  law,  leaving 
$40,000  to  the  treasury. 

The  largest  benefaction  Bates  has  received  from  any  person  now  living  is 
$25,000  from  Hon.  J.  L.  H.  Cobb,  of  Lewiston.  To  this  noble  liberality  in 
behalf  of  the  college  Mr  Cobb  was  moved  as  the  result  of  his  observation  of 
its  work  and  worth.  How  the  trustees  expressed  their  appreciation  of  this 
benevolence  of  spirit  and  act  by  naming  the  divinity  school  after  him  has 
already  been  noticed. 

In  1887,  Mrs  Caroline  A.  Wood,  of  Cambridge,  Mass.,  left  to  the  college  a 
legacy  of  $35,000.  In  early  life  Mrs  Wood  was  connected  with  the  Free 
Baptist  church  in  Vermont.  By  removal  of  residence  her  membership  was 
lost  to  the  denomination,  but  not  her  attachment.  Having  become  acquainted 
with  the  character  and  needs  of  the  college,  she  generously  remembered  it  in 
the  final  disposition  of  her  estate.  The  money  thus  devised  is  yet  on  its  way 
to  the  treasury.  This  is  also  true  of  the  money  coming  from  another  recent 
bequest,  that  of  the  late  Mr  Henry  W.  Easterbrooks,  of  Sutton,  Vt,  whose 
thoughtfulness  in  his  last  days  brings  to  the  college  $12,000  in  aid  of  the 
education  of  young  men  for  the  ministry. 

198  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Early  in  the  history  of  the  institution,  Mr  William  Toothaker  and  his 
wife,  of  Phillips,  Me,  gave  it  |6,600.  At  a  later  period  Hon.  Asa  Redington, 
LL.D.,  of  Lewiston,  made  a  donation  to  the  college  of  ■'i<5,000  in  stock, 
accompanied  by  the  wish  that  11,000  of  this  sum  be  used  to  found  a  scholar- 
ship for  a  lady  student — the  first  act  of  the  kind  known  in  the  experience  of 
a  New  England  college.  By  depreciation  of  the  stock  shortly  after  its  transfer 
to  the  college,  the  generous  purposes  of  Judge  Redington  failed  to  give  the 
aid  intended.  Mrs  Charlotte  Chesley,  of  New  Market,  N.  H.,  left  the  college 
l)y  will  about  -14,000.  Hon.  George  G.  Fogg,  LL.D.,  of  Concord,  N.  H.,  one 
of  the  trustees,  showed  his  genuine  friendship  for  it  by  a  gift  of  $5,500. 

Mr  Cliace  Lewis,  of  Providence,  R.  L,  endowed  one  of  the  first  scholarships 
in  the  college,  and  also  left  to  it  a  legacy  of  $4,000.  The  late  Mr  M.  D. 
Spalding  and  his  brother,  of  Boston,  rendered  valuable  aid  to  the  college  in 
its  time  of  need,  by  a  gift  of  |i4,000.  By  repeated  remembrances  of  the 
college,  the  late  Mr  S.  D.  Warren  and  his  family,  of  Boston,  assisted  it  to 
tlie  amount  of  $10,000,  assistance  made  doubly  valuable  by  the  ever  cordial 
spirit  with  which  it  was  rendered.  I.  H.  Hedge,  M.D.,  of  Waukon,  Iowa, 
contributed  $5,000  towards  the  erection  of  the  laboratory  that  bears  his  name. 
Two  liberal  and  cultured  ladies  of  Boston  have  placed  the  college  under  deep 
obligations  to  them  for  donations  amounting  to  $7,300.  Their  names,  not 
their  generous  acts,  can  be  kept  concealed.  United  States  Senator  Stanford, 
of  California,  has  given  this  Maine  college  signal  reason  for  cherishing  a 
fraternal  interest  in  the  university  of  which  he  is  the  founder,  as  well  as  for 
holding  his  name  in  lasting  honor  by  a  gift  to  Bates  of  $8,000.  In  addition  to 
these  sums  should  be  counted  the  outstanding  pledge,  soon  to  be  honored,  of 
$30,000  towards  an  observator}^  and  its  equipment. 

As  has  been  said  this  is  only  a  partial  list  of  the  noble  benefactors  who 
have  chosen  to  make  Bates  the  almoner  of  their  liberality  to  church,  society, 
and  native  land.  The  college  thus  bears  witness  to  the  claim  of  American 
wealth  to  be  foremost  in  the  world  in  recognizing  institutions  of  learning,  and 
especially  those  designed  for  students  of  limited  means,  as  agencies  of  highest 
usefulness.  Were  all  the  records  of  Bates  to  be  published  they  would  testify 
as  strongly  to  the  appreciation  of  such  institutions  by  >  American  people  not 
counted  as  wealthy. 

The  Equipment  of  the  College.  —  The  aggregate  gifts  to  the  college 
named  in  the  above  list  is  about  $415,000,  including  in  this  sum  the  legacies 
and  pledge  not  yet  in  the  possession  of  the  college.  By  means  of  these  and 
smaller  gifts,  the  college,  in  spite  of  the  large  excess  of  current  expenses  over 
current  income,  extending  through  a  period  of  fifteen  years  and  carrying  the 
debt  nearly  to  $90,000,  has  managed  to  stop  the  deficit,  pay  this  debt,  and 
retain  a  working  capital,  that,  by  the  strictest  economy,  will  enable  it  to  live. 
It  now  has,  for  both  departments,  an  endowment  fund  of  $262,967.22,  shortly 

Bates  College.  199 

to  be  increased  by  the  Wood  and  Easterbrooks  legacies  to  over  J|300,000. 
The  grounds  contain  fifty  acres,  and  with  the  six  college  buildings  are  valued 
at  1200,000. 

The  G-i/mnasium. — The  gymnasium  is  the  least  expensive  of  the  buildings, 
though  adequate  for  its  purpose.  It  is  a  commodious  wooden  structure  in  the 
rear  of  Parker  and  Hathorn  halls,  and  is  the  place  where  commencement 
dinner  is  served.  It  is  furnished  with  apparatus  of  the  most  approved  pattern. 
Exercise  is  taken  under  the  care  of  four  students,  one  of  them  a  young  lady, 
who  are  specially  trained  at  Harvard  under  Professor  Sargent  for  instructors 
in  gymnastics.  It  is  thought  that,  by  taking  competent  undergraduates  for 
tutors  in  the  gymnasium,  the  interest  and  morale  of  this  work  will  be  kept  at 
its  best,  while  the  instructors  will  receive  compensation  to  help  them  through 
their  college  course.  Instruction  is  given  four  times  a  week  to  each  class  by 
itself.  Regular  attendance  is  required  of  all  students  as  at  other  college 

The  Lihraries  connected  with  the  college  amount  to  15,373  volumes.  These 
are  distributed  thus  :  College  library,  10,373;'  society  libraries,  1,000  ;  divinity 
school,  3,900.  The  books  of  the  college  library  have  been  selected  with  care, 
and  primarily  with  reference  to  the  needs  of  the  undergraduates.  Hence,  as 
an  aid  in  their  education  it  has  a  value  that  might  not  be  found  in  a  much 
larger  collection  of  books.  It  contains  little  rubbish,  is  enriched  by  a  few  rare 
books  of  value,  and  is  constantly  growing. 

The  cabinet  of  minerals,  fossils,  shells,  and  birds,  classified  and  arranged  for 
uses  of  instruction,  has  grown  with  the  years  of  the  college  to  a  respectable 
size.  It  contains  valuable  specimens  of  fossils  from  the  coal  regions  of 
Pennsylvania,  the  gift  of  Rev.  Dr  I.  P.  Warren,  of  Portland.  A.  C.  Hamlin, 
M.D.,  of  Bangor,  Me,  contributed  to  the  collection  sixty  rare  minerals, 
including  several  precious  stones.  Other  friends  have  made  additions  from 
time  to  time,  so  that,  by  gradual  accumulation,  it  now  answers,  though  still 
meager,  most  of  the  demands  of  the  class-room  upon  it  for  illustrations  of  the 
processes  of  nature.  One  feature  of  the  cabinet  deserving  notice  is  the 
ornithological  collection  that  contains  a  good  number  of  New  England  birds, 
together  with  specimens  of  foreign  birds.  This  collection  was  gathered  at  a 
cost  of  $500,  and  presented  to  the  college  by  its  distinguished  ornithologist. 
Professor  J.  Y.  Stanton.  The  study  of  botany  is  aided  by  an  herbarium,  secured 
at  a  cost  of  several  hundred  dollars  from  the  late  President  Chadbourne,  of 
Williams  College. 

Apparatus  is  supplied  to  meet  the  needs  of  instruction  in  chemistry  and 
physics  to  a  good,  but  not  to  the  fullest  extent,  as  the  aim  of  the  college  in 
this  direction  is  sometimes  hindered  by  lack  of  money.  Several  years  ago  the 
lamented   Professor  Stanley  received    seven  hundred  dollars  from  Mr  A.  D. 

iln  1891,  10,757. 

200  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Lockwood,  an  old  friend  and  former  trustee  of  the  college,  for  the  purchase  of 
a  small  telescope.  By  rare  good  fortune  one  of  A.  Clark  &  Sons'  six  and  one- 
half  inch  classes  was  secured  from  Professor  O.  C.  Wendell  of  Harvard 
Observatory.  This  telescope  is  equatorially  mounted,  and  located  where  it 
can  be  made  available  for  the  classes  in  astronomy.  The  college  now  has 
a  prospect  of  crowning  David  Mountain — a  steep  and  solitary  hill,  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  above  surrounding  territory,  three  hundred  and 
ninety  feet  above  tide  water,  its  base  within  a  stone's  throw  of  the  college  — 
with  an  observatory  furnished  with  a  large  telescope  and  other  instruments  of 
astronomical  science. 

In  things  essential  to  a  full  equipment  of  a  college,  Bates,  of  course,  has 
not  yet  reached  a  limit.  It  is  glad  to  be  able  to  point  to  Hedge  Laboratory, 
just  completed,  a  brick  building  36x58  feet,  two  stories  higli,  finished  to  the 
roof,  as  evidence  of  progress  in  supplying  the  facilities  for  instruction. 

The  Instructors  and  Instruction.  —  The  branches  taught  in  the 
college  may  be  grouped  under  the  following  heads:  classics,  mathematics, 
modern  languages,  English  literature  and  rhetoric,  political  economy  and  the 
various  branches  of  science,  psychology,  logic  and  Christian  evidences.  The 
gymnasium,  not  the  university,  is  taken  for  a  model.  On  the  question  of 
extensive  modifications  of  the  old  curriculum  under  which  earlier  New  England 
colleges,  not  to  speak  of  those  abroad,  have  won  their  reputation  for  discipline 
and  scholarship.  Bates,  in  part  by  necessity,  but  more  by  preference,  is  inclined 
to  be  conservative.  A  technical  course  of  study  pursued  after  graduation 
from  college,  when  the  mind  has  been  broadened,  disciplined,  and  furnished 
with  the  groundwork  of  knowledge,  gives  promise  of  yielding  the  best  results. 
If  the  business  of  life  is  to  shut  the  student  up  to  one  special  line  of  studies, 
not  too  early  let  him  turn  aside  from  all  other  departments  of  learning.  Of  no 
branch  of  study  in  the  curriculum  of  Bates  would  a  liberally  educated  inan 
willingly  be  ignorant.  Even  in  America  life  is  not  too  short  for  one  to  lay, 
in  youth,  a  proper  foundation  for  his  future  work. 

In  the  classics,  the  instruction  at  Bates  aims  to  secure  accuracy  and 
smoothness  of  translation,  and  to  bring  the  student  to  feel  the  force  and 
beauty  of  the  ancient  languages.  Special  weight  is  attached  to  a  correct 
knowledge  and  application  of  the  grammar  as  one  of  the  surest  means  of 
sharpening  the  power  of  discrimination  and  disciplining  the  judgment.  This 
department,  together  with  that  of  ornithology,  is  in  charge  of  Professor 
Stanton,  who  has  been  a  member  of  the  faculty  since  the  opening  of  the 
college.  Professor  Stanton  is  a  graduate  of  Bowdoin,  and  of  Andover 
'Jlieological  Seminary,  and  has  also  studied  abroad. 

Mathenuitics  are  continued  through  two  years,  concluding  with  calculus, 
except  as  French  is  chosen  in  place  of  it.  The  only  option  in  the  course  is 
between  these  two  studies.     Instruction  in  this  department   since    1876   has 


»liere  it 
ow  has 

imeots  of 


I  to  tie 

ill  the 

ces.  The 
stinn  of 

\i  incli 

ne  to  lay, 

urscy  and 
force  and 

ent.  This 


J  ..l.L'll'"'' 

e  course  is 
1^:6  has 

Bates  College.  201 

been  given  by  Professor  Rand.  Professor  Rand  was  a  member  of  the  first 
class  graduated  by  the  college,  and  left  a  reputation  for  aptitude  in  this  branch 
of  study  that  secured  his  call  to  this  chair. 

French  is  taught  five  hours  a  week  through  the  sophomore  year;  German, 
the  same  number  of  hours  through  the  junior  year,  and  also  one  hour  a  day, 
once  a  week,  for  one  term  of  the  senior  year.  The  limited  time  allowed  to 
these  languages  compels  the  instruction  to  favor  acquaintance  either  with  the 
written  or  the  spoken  tongue.  If  four  years  in  a  foreign  land  are  essential 
for  acquiring  the  art  of  correct  conversation  in  its  language,  it  would  seem  to 
be  wise  in  college  to  devote  the  time  given  to  French  and  German  primarily 
to  the  study  of  the  grammar  and  the  literature.  Hence,  in  this  department. 
Professor  Angell,  without  overlooking  conversation,  follows  this  line  of 
instruction,  drilling  his  classes  thoroughly  in  the  grammar,  and  introducing 
them  to  some  of  the  best  works  of  the  best  authors.  Professor  Angell  is  a 
graduate  of  Brown,  for  several  years  was  the  principal  of  Lapham  Institute, 
and  has  studied  for  his  department  in  France  and  Germany. 

English  litei'ature  and  rhetoric  receive  special  attention  at  Bates.  Instruc- 
tion in  these  branches  is  given  during  some  part  of  each  of  the  four  years.  By 
text-book  and  lectures  on  the  part  of  the  instructor,  and  by  essays  and 
criticisms  on  the  part  of  the  students,  the  theory  and  practice  of  rhetoric  are 
combined.  The  origin,  development,  and  character  of  English  speech  and 
literature  are  fully  enough  treated  to  exempt  Bates  from  the  charge  frequently 
made  that  our  higher  institutions  neglect  the  mother-tongue.  In  the  absence 
of  any  direct  instruction  in  history.  Professor  Chase  aims  to  assign  historical 
events  and  characters  as  the  subjects  of  essays  and  criticisms,  and  to  send  his 
students  to  the  library  for  historical  investigation,  and  thus,  in  a  measure,  to 
supply  the  defect  until  the  chair  in  history  is  filled.  Professor  Chase  is  the 
youngest  of  the  professors,  an  alumnus  of  the  college,  of  the  class  of  1868. 
He  specially  fitted  for  this  department  by  a  post-graduate  course  at  Harvard. 
He  is  now  traveling  in  Europe. 

Scientific  studies  and  political  economy  were  taught  by  the  lamented  Pro- 
fessor R.  C.  Stanley  from  the  time  of  his  coming  into  the  college,  in  1865,  until 
his  death,  August  5,  1889.  They  are  now  in  charge  of  Professor  W.  H.  Harts- 
horn, who  is  ably  sustaining  the  reputation  given  this  department  by  his  pred- 
ecessor. The  course  in  chemistry  has  recently  been  enlarged  in  the  direction  of 
more  laboratory  work.  Professor  L.  G.  Jordan,  of  the  class  of  1870,  was  elected 
to  this  department  in  June,  1889.  The  other  subjects  taught  under  the  head  of 
science  —  astronomy,  geology,  botany,  ornithology,  physics,  zoology,  biology  — 
are  carried  far  enough  to  give  the  student  an  intelligent  acquaintance  with 
them,  and  to  prepare  him  for  further  study.  Five  hours  a  week,  for  a  term, 
are  devoted  to  each  of  these  branches  except  ornithology,  and  for  two  terms  to 
physics.     Bates  takes  special  pride  in  its  instruction  in  ornithology  as  one  of 

202  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

its  peculiar  features.  Possessing  the  best  private  collection  of  Maine  birds  in 
the  state,  Professor  Stanton  brings  to  this,  his  favorite  side-study,  the  results 
of  wide  investigation.  By  lectures,  illustrated  with  specimens  from  his  own 
or  the  college  collection,  and  also  by  accompanying  his  class  into  the  haunts  of 
living  birds,  he  leads  the  students  to  take  a  deep  interest  in  this  somewhat 
neglected,  yet  fascinating  branch  of  study. 

(christian  in  foundation  and  in  character,  the  college  regards  moral  philos- 
ophy, ps3^chology,  and  Christian  evidences  as  studies  of  first  importance  for 
all  liberally  educated  minds.  These  subjects  are  taught  by  text-books,  lectures, 
and  the  investigation  of  assigned  topics,  and  the  preparation  of  papers  upon 
them  by  the  class.  Questions  related  to  these  topics  are  given  to  the  class  to 
answer  by  the  aid  of  their  own  reading  and  thought.  The  work  in  this 
department  falls  to  the  senior  year,  and  is  in  the  hands  of  Professor  Hayes. 
Coming  to  the  college  after  five  years'  service  as  a  pastor,  and  after  several 
years  of  teaching  the  higher  branches  of  study,  Professor  Hayes  had  a  double 
preparation  for  his  department.  He  is  a  graduate  of  Bowdoin  and  of  the  Free 
Baptist  Theological  School,  and  has  studied  in  Germany.  The  honorary 
degree  of  D.D.  was  conferred  upon  him  by  Hillsdale. 

In  the  faculty  of  both  departments  four  colleges  are  represented.  Two  of 
the  professors  are  graduates  of  Dartmouth,  four  of  Bowdoin,  two  of  Brown, 
and  four  of  Bates.  Five  of  the  faculty  have  supplemented  their  college  and 
professional  courses  by  study  abroad.  From  the  first  the  faculty  of  Bates 
have  been  a  working  corps.  In  the  youth  and  poverty  of  the  college,  the 
character  of  its  instruction  has  been  its  main  reliance  for  attractiveness  and 
growth.  Regarding  themselves  as  stewards  of  the  bounty  and  the  sacrifices 
of  many,  and  their  work  as  a  sacred  trust  received  from  the  patrons  of  the 
college,  the  faculty  have  brought  to  pass  far  greater  results  than  the  most 
sanguine  friends  of  the  college  at  first  anticipated. 

Characteristic  Features.  I.  Co-Educatlon.  —  It  was  comparativel}^ 
easy  for  Bates  to  lead  the  way,  in  New  England,  in  offering  college  privileges 
to  young  women  on  the  same  terms  as  to  young  men.  For  in  the  seminary, 
out  of  which  the  college  sprung,  both  sexes  studied  together  through  all  the 
course.  Why  prolonging  the  course  for  one  year,  or  for  four  years,  should 
involve  a  necessity  of  separating  the  sexes,  the  trustees  failed  to  see.  Before 
their  eyes  and  under  their  superintendence  the  principle  of  co-education  had 
been  put  to  the  test ;  for  them  to  abandon  it  in  the  college,  in  the  absence  of 
any  fundamental  difference  in  the  situation  presenting  a  solid  reason  for  a 
change  of  policy,  would  be  plainly  inconsistent.  Besides,  here  was  an  open 
field  for  the  new  college  to.  cultivate  with  the  prospect  of  large  returns. 
Bates,  therefore,  determined  to  introduce  the  innovation  and  fearlessly  flung 
open  its  doors  to  all.  This  step  was  taken  in  advance  of  any  popular  demand, 
but  not  in  advance  of  public  need. 

Bates  College.  20^ 

At  the  opening  of  the  college  course,  several  young  ladies,  who  had  pursued 
the  preparatory  studies  in  the  seminary,  matriculated,  and  kept  along  with  the 
class  through  two  or  three  years,  but  none  continued  until  graduation.  Miss 
Maria  W.  Mitchell,  of  the  class  of  1869,  has  the  distinction  of  being  the 
first  lady  graduate  of  any  New  England  college.  Her  example  was  slowly 
influential.  It  was  not  until  her  senior  year  that  she  saw  another  of  her  sex 
in  college.  The  number  of  ladies  graduating  thus  far  has  been  fifty-four, 
distributed  thus:  18(39,  1;  1872,  1;  1877,  2;  1880,  2;  1881,  1;  1882,  2;  1883, 
2;  1884,  5;  1886,  1;  1887,  5;  1888,  5;  1889,  7;  1890,  7;  1891,  13.  There  are 
now  forty-eight  young  ladies  in  college.  The  novelty  of  their  presence  and  of 
their  equal  participation  in  all  college  exercises  long  since  wore  away,  and 
has  ceased  to  excite  comment.  The  sight  of  them  in  college  is  as  pleasant  and 
natural  as  in  church.  Some  superior  love  of  learning  and  earnestness  of 
purpose  unite  in  such  young  ladies  as  are  intent  on  having  a  college 
education.  Thus  a  principle  of  selection  operates  to  secure  among  them  a 
high  average  of  ability ;  and  this  explains  how  it  is  that  college  honors  have 
fallen  to  them  out  of  all  proportion  to  their  numbers.  It  is  the  rule  rather 
than  the  exception  for  them  to  reach  oration  rank.  Three  times  they  have 
won  the  valedictory  and  twice  the  salutatory.  In  one  class,  containing  only 
two  young  ladies,  they  divided  these  honors  between  them.  Study  has  not 
been  detrimental  to  their  health.  The  regular  habits  of  college  life,  taken  in 
connection  with  the  prescribed  course  of  gymnastics,  tend  to  imjDrove  rather  than 
to  impair  their  health.  In  all  matters  of  college  discipline  they  are  an  aid  to 
good  order,  and  have  themselves  never  given  any  occasion  for  rebuke.  As 
their  numbers  have  increased,  the  inclination  of  the  students  to  cultivate 
unduly  the  social  instinct  has  attracted  the  attention  of  the  faculty,  and  been 
guarded  against.     Co-education,  as  tried  at  Bates,  has  proved  a  success. 

II.  Open  Societies.  —  Among  the  earliest  enactments  of  the  college  gov- 
ernment was  a  law  declaring  that  "  On  no  condition  shall  a  secret  society  be 
organized  or  be  allowed  to  exist."  Petitions  to  the  trustees  from  time  to  time 
for  the  abrogation  of  this  law  have  been  unavailing.  The  experience  of 
American  colleges  has  demonstrated  that  they  must  choose  between  secret  or 
open  societies.  Both  do  not  flourish.  Bates  prefers  the  latter  as  avoiding  ex- 
pense, securing  the  best  literary  returns,  shutting  out  the  temptations  incident 
to  secret  meetings  of  students  at  late  hours  of  night,  and  as  leaving  open  to  all 
members  of  the  college,  and  especially  of  each  class,  the  acquaintance  and 
good-fellowship  usually  pledged,  if  not  confined,  to  the  few  members  of  a 
fraternity.  One  of  the  superior  advantages  of  small  colleges  lies  in  their 
ability  to  give  students  opportunities  for  the  forensic  training  cultivated  by 
open  societies.  The  Eurosophian  and  Polymnian  societies  maintain  separate 
rooms  in  Hathorn  Hall,  each  society  having  a  library  of  about  800  volumes 
apiece.     In  their  respective  rooms  they  hold  weekly  meetings  on  Friday  night. 

204  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

and  once  a  year  have  a  more  public  meeting  in  the  chapel.  As  members  from 
the  freshman  class  are  secured  according  to  the  comparative  merits  of  the 
exercises,  a  healthful  rivalry  develoi:)S  a  healthful  exertion  to  excel.  It  cannot 
but  be  that  in  meetings  where  papers  are  read,  declamations  rendered,  ques- 
tions on  various  subjects  discussed  and  criticisms  passed,  the  literary  taste  and 
forensic  skill  of  the  members  should  steadily  improve. 

TIL  Needy  Students  Helped.  —  No  better  proof  of  the  design  of  the  college 
to  keep  its  expenses  within  the  reach  of  poor  students  could  be  given  than 
that  shown  in  its  refusal  to  obtain  relief  from  its  financial  distress  by  raising 
the  tuition  to  an  equality  with  that  charged  in  other  colleges.  "Many  a 
country  lad,"  said  one  of  the  trustees  in  discussing  a  proposition  to  raise  the 
tuition,  "is  influenced  in  his  choice  of  a  college  by  a  difference  of  five  dollars 
in  the  tuition."  In  addition  to  the  help  thus  offered  needy  students,  the 
college  has  twenty-five  scholarships  and  the  state  tea,  giving  free  tuition  to 
deserving  applicants.  A  still  greater  advantage  in  this  dii-ection  results  from 
arranging  the  college  calendar  with  a  view  to  have  vacations  favor  the  students 
in  earning  money.  Beginning  the  last  week  in  August  the  fall  term  runs  to 
the  Friday  before  Thanksgiving.  The  college  is  tlien  suspended  for  six  weeks 
to  allow  for  teaching  winter  schools,  a  privilege  made  use  of  to  such  an  extent 
that  two-thirds  of  the  young  men,  during  tliis  vacation,  may  be  found  scattered 
over  New  England  engaged  in  this  work.  Thus  New  England  reaps  some 
reward  for  whatever  aid  it  has  in  any  way  given  the  college.  Teaching,  too, 
has  other  than  pecuniary  rewards  for  the  student,  bringing  him  more  fully 
into  sympathy  with  college  methods  and  requirements,  and  quickening  his 
grasp  on  the  studies  pursued.  It  also  prepares  him,  on  leaving  college,  to 
obtain  at  once  a  permanent  situation  as  a  teacher.  Undoubtedly  the  expla- 
nation of  the  fact  that  so  large  a  per  cent,  of  the  alumni  make  teaching 
their  life-work  may  be  found  here.  The  money  earned  in  the  summer  and 
winter  vacations  frequently  enables  economical  students  to  meet  all  their 
college  bills;  and,  if  by  this  means  their  time  has  to  be  taken  from  reading 
and  the  pursuits  of  general  culture,  and  be  given  to  things  not  always 
intellectual,  these  students  receive  some  valuable  compensations  in  the  self- 
reliance,  energy,  and  perseverance,  coming  into  character  as  the  result  of  their 

IV.  Forensles.  —  The  system  of  public  debates,  established  at  Bates,  is  a 
peculiar  feature  of  the  institution,  and  one  of  very  high  merit.  During  the 
freshman  year  the  class  is  divided  into  groups  of  six  or  eight,  and  each  group 
is  given  a  question  for  public  discussion  at  the  close  of  the  fall  term  of  the 
sophomore  year.  When  the  debate  comes  off  each  disputant  is  allowed  to 
speak  twenty  minutes,  and  to  read  his  argument  or  deliver  it  from  memory. 
The  discussion  takes  place  in  the  presence  of  the  students  and  their  friends, 
before  a  committee  selected  by  the  speakers,  usually  chosen  from  the  senior 

Bates  College.  205 

class,  with,  perhaps,  one  member  from  outside  the  college.  The  committee 
first  names  the  best  debater  in  each  division,  regardless  of  his  elocution,  and 
then,  out  of  all  the  class,  selects  the  eight  best  disputants,  whether  successful 
in  their  own  division  or  not,  for  a  final  "cliampion  debate"  that  constitutes 
one  of  the  exercises  of  commencement  week.  Care  is  taken  to  have  all  the 
topics  discussed  worthy  of  the  student's  study.  Out  of  a  list  presented  by  the 
professor  in  charge  of  the  exercise  the  students  choose  one  to  their  taste. 
Some  of  the  questions  discussed  have  been:  The  Tariff;  State  vs.  Denomina- 
tional Colleges;  Bismarck  or  Grladstone ;  English  Civil  /Service  for  the  United 
States;  Correctness  of  the  Popular  Estimate  of  Bacon;  A  Canal  Across  the 
Isthmus  to  he  Built  hy  the  United  States. 

The  rhetorical  exercises  of  the  freshman  and  sophomore  classes  include 
essays  and  public  prize  declamations.  Each  member  of  both  classes  after  a 
private  drill  in  speaking  participates  in  the  declamations.  Each  junior  debates 
before  the  class,  writes  essays,  and  prepares  an  original  declamation  for  a  public 
prize  contest.  All  the  class  read  their  parts  before  a  committee  of  their  own 
selection,  who  then  choose  the  twelve  best  to  compete,  during  commencement 
week,  in  respect  to  composition  and  elocution,  for  a  first  and  second  prize. 
The  rhetorical  work  of  the  senior  3^ear  consists  of  criticisms,  literary  and 
philosophical,  essays,  and  orations.  At  the  close  of  the  spring  term,  a  senior 
exhibition  is  given  by  twelve  representative  speakers  selected  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  contestants  in  the  junior  prize. 

V.  Prizes. — The  system  of  prizes  established  at  Bates  has  been  found  to 
be  attended  with  good  results.  It  is  as  follows :  For  general  scholarship,  a 
first  and  second  prize  are  given  to  each  of  the  first  three  classes  ;  the  first  prizes 
are  respectively  eight,  nine,  and  ten  dollars;  the  second,  five,  six,  and  seven 
dollars.  As  it  often  happens  that  the  best  scholars  are  not  the  best  speakers, 
these  prizes  answer  a  wise  end,  in  honoring  merit  on  other  grounds.  For 
excellence  in  public  declamation  there  is  given  to  the  best  speaker  of  the 
freshman  class,  at  the  close  of  the  fall  term,  and  to  the  best  speaker  of  the 
sophomore  class,  at  the  close  of  the  spring  term,  a  prize  of  ten  dollars  each. 
The  successful  competitors  in  the  prize  debates  receive  ten  dollars  each, 
and  the  victor  in  the  champion  debate,  a  prize  of  twenty  dollars.  The  first 
prize  given  for  the  best  original  declamation  by  the  juniors  in  commencement 
week  is  seventy-five  dollars,  and  the  second,  twenty.  For  improvement  in 
English  composition,  as  shown  by  the  essays  and  original  declamations,  prizes 
of  ten  dollars  each  are  given  to  the  most  deserving  member  of  the  sopho- 
more and  of  the  junior  classes  respectively. 

VI.  Outside  Lectures.  —  It  has  come  to  be  a  custom  of  the  college  to  secure 
from  eminent  scholars,  teachers,  and  divines,  a  yearly  course  of  lectures  before 
the  students.  Some  of  New  England's  ablest  thinkers  and  leaders  of  thought 
have  been  heard  in  this  way.     These  lectures  are  made  free  to  the  public,  and 

206  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

are  highly  appreciated  by  the  scholarly  element  of  Lewiston  and  Auburn,  as 
well  as  by  the  class  for  whom  they  are  more  immediately  intended.  Among 
those  who  have  been  heard  are  John  Fiske,  Edwin  D.  Mead,  Phillips  Brooks, 
Edward  Everett  Hale,  Alexander  McKenzie,  Ruen  Thomas,  Professor  C.  W. 
Emerson,  ex-President  Hill  of  Harvard.  In  one  course,  Rev.  Selah  Merrill, 
D.D.,  gave  six  lectures  on  Palestine.  It  has  been  generally  by  the  courtesy 
and  generous  consideration  of  these  eminent  men  that  the  students  have  had 
the  privilege  of  listening  to  their  counsels. 

VII.  Morals  and  Eeligion. — The  college  requires  attendance  at  church,  once 
each  Sabbath,  wherever  the  student  may  elect  to  go ;  also  at  daily  morning 
prayers  after  the  first  recitation,  and  at  the  public  services  on  the  day  of 
prayer  for  colleges. 

The  students  sustain  a  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  a  Y.  W.  C.  A.  —  the  two  forming  a 
Christian  union  for  a  general  social  meeting  on  Wednesday  evening.  Class 
prayer-meetings,  with  more  or  less  regularity,  are  also  held.  By  reason  of 
these  and  other  direct  Christian  agencies,  a  pure  moral  and  religious  atmos- 
phere has,  from  the  first,  pervaded  the  institution.  In  their  guardianship 
of  the  moral  character  of  the  college,  the  faculty  have  not  hesitated  to  be 
"paternal  "to  the  extent  of  promptly  dismissing  any  student  disposed  to 
spread  moral  contamination  among  his  associates.  Temperance,  interpreted 
to  mean  total  abstinence,  is  universally  prevalent,  and,  what  is  possibly  more 
significant,  the  use  of  tobacco,  while  not  prohibited  by  the  college,  is,  by  the 
students'  own  act,  reduced  to  a  minimum,  or  altogether  discarded.  At  the 
present  time  it  is  believed  that  not  one  of  the  students  is  addicted  to  its  use. 
The  benefit  of  a  scholarship  carries  with  it  a  pledge  of  abstinence  from  tobacco. 

VIII.  Interest  of  the  Faculty  m  the  Students.  —  The  personal  interest  of  the 
faculty  in  the  students,  made  possible  by  the  size  of  the  classes,  can  be  men- 
tioned as  one  of  the  striking  features  of  the  college.  Any  student  is  invited  to 
consult  freely  with  the  faculty  on  whatever  concerns  his  welfare  as  a  member  of 
the  college.  By  the  free  response  to  this  invitation,  the  faculty  are  brought  to 
know  the  moral  as  well  as  the  intellectual  bent  of  the  members  of  each  class. 
The  result  is  that  the  student,  perceiving  that  he  is  an  object  of  interest  to  his 
teachers,  feels  at  liberty  to  seek  their  advice  in  respect  to  his  studies,  or  to  ask 
their  aid  in  his  endeavors  to  get  a  situation  to  teach  or  work.  The  opportunity 
is  thus  presented  to  the  faculty  to  mingle  any  word  of  caution,  reproof,  or 
commendation  with  their  favors.  The  good  offices  of  the  faculty  invoked  and 
freely  extended  through  the  course,  are  especially  sought  as  graduation  draws 
near,  by  those  intending  to  teach.  It  is  very  natural,  too,  that  members  of  an 
alumni  thus  trained  in  college  should  not  be  restrained  from  looking  to  the 
faculty,  at  any  later  time,  for  counsel  or  other  consideration. 

The  Alumni.  —  The  whole  number  of  graduates  from  the  college  is  five 
hundred  and  five.     The  whole  number  of  graduates  from  the  divinity  school 

Bates  College.  207 

is  ninety-four.  The  whole  number  of  graduates  from  the  institution  is  five 
hundred  and  ninetj^-nine.  The  first  class,  of  1867,  consisted  of  eight;  the 
last,  of  thirty-three,  in  1891.  Assuming  the  average  age  of  the  students  at 
graduation  to  be  twenty -three  years,  the  members  of  the  first  class  would  now 
be  in  their  forty-fifth  year.  The  first  nine  classes  graduated  one  hundred  and 
two,  —  that  is,  about  one-fourth  of  the  entire  alumni.  The  remaining  three- 
fourths,  therefore,  have  not  yet  passed  their  thirty-eighth  year.  Eighteen 
more  than  one-half  of  the  alumni  had  graduated  in  1881 ;  hence,  one-half  of 
the  whole  number  have  not  yet  passed  their  thirty-third  year.  These  figures 
clearly  set  forth  the  youth  of  the  college  and  show  that  but  few  of  its  alumni 
have  arrived  at  the  period  when  distinction  usually  comes  to  men.  The 
alumni  are  not  too  young  to  have  successfully  entered  upon  the  pursuits  of 
life,  but  are  yet  too  young  to  have  carried  off  its  highest  honors. 

Interpreted  by  the  callings  selected,  the  alumni  may  claim  to  have  been 
rather  drawn  to  positions  of  usefulness  than  to  those  promising  renown. 
Forty  per  cent,  of  them  have  become  teachers,  and  not  a  few  of  them  teachers 
of  a  superior  order.  Accustomed  to  teach  while  in  college,  on  leaving  it  many 
of  them  can  at  once  turn  their  experience  to  their  advantage  in  this  line  of 
work.  Thus  it  has  come  about  that  more  city  high  schools  in  New  England 
are  now  taught  by  graduates  of  Bates  than  by  those  of  any  other  college. 
Three  of  the  alumni  are  teachers  in  Boston,  three  in  Washington,  one  at 
Harvard,  nine  in  other  colleges,  and  others  are  found  scattered  through  the 
schools  of  twenty-one  states  of  the  Union. 

Exclusive  of  the  alumnoe,  although  the  second  young  woman  to  graduate 
from  the  college  is  a  preacher,  about  nineteen  per  cent,  of  the  alumni  have 
chosen  the  ministry,  or  seventy  in  all.  Of  these  forty-one  have  entered  the 
Free  Baptist  ministr}^  seventeen  the  Congregational,  and  twelve  that  of  other 
bodies.  In  the  lirst  decade,  twenty-three  per  cent.,  in  the  second  only  thirteen 
per  cent,  of  the  alumni  chose  this  profession,  a  serious  decline,  although  one 
shared  in  common  with  the  other  New  England  colleges  of  our  day.  Of  the 
remainder  of  the  alumni  fourteen  per  cent,  have  chosen  the  law,  twelve 
per  cent,  medicine,  the  rest,  architecture,  civil  engineering,  journalism,  and 
other  vocations. 

Alumni  Assoc(atio)ts.  —  The  loyalty  of  any  alumni  to  their  alma  inafer  may 
be  assumed  to  exist.  The  alumni  of  Bates  give  to  it  an  ardent  loyalty.  From 
association  with  graduates  of  other  colleges  in  ways  to  bring  into  relief  the 
comparative  results  of  each  other's  mental  training,  many  of  the  alumni  have 
taken  occasion  to  report  their  satisfaction  with  the  instruction,  course  of  study, 
discipline,  spirit,  and  standards  maintained  at  Bates.  Wherever  found  in 
sufficient  numbers,  they  have  organized  alumni  associations  for  an  annual 
reunion  and  supper,  and  for  fostering  the  interests  of  the  college.  The  most 
important  of  these  associations  is  the  chartered  body  consisting  of  all  the  grad- 

208  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

uates,  and  holding  its  annual  meeting  during  commencement.  One  evening  of 
the  week  is  given  up  to  this  association  for  such  literary  exercises  as  it  may,  out 
of  its  own  members,  provide.  Two-fifths  of  the  Board  of  Overseers  are  now 
nominated  by  the  alumni,  or  two  out  of  the  five  that  are  annually  elected. 
The  acquaintance  of  these  alumni  with  the  internal  affairs  of  the  college  can 
hardly  be  equaled  by  that  of  other  members  of  the  corporation ;  and  hence  the 
influence  of  the  alumni  on  the  management  of  the  college  seems  destined  to 
be  increasingly  controlling  and  valuable,  as  their  years,  with  those  of  the 
college,  ripen  into  maturity. 

Present  Condition.  —  The  college  corporation  is  now  sustaining  three 
distinct  departments:  The  Latin  School,  with  seven  instructors  and  eighty- 
nine  students;  Cobb  Divinity  School,  with  a  faculty  of  six, and  twenty  students  ; 
Bates  College  proper,  with  ten  professors  and  instructors,  and  one  hundred 
and  forty-six  students."  For  the  support  of  these  schools  the  corporation  has, 
besides  annual  donations  from  special  friends,  and  the  income  from  room  rents 
and  tuition,  the  interest  of  above  -^300, 000  of  productive  funds.  Thus,  well 
organized,  respectably  equipped  and  endowed,  with  the  confidence  of  the 
public,  and  a  commanding  reputation  for  scholarship  secured,  with  an  increas- 
ing circle  of  friends,  and  with  a  faculty  whose  character  is  best  portrayed  by 
this  record  of  results  achieved.  Bates  College  can  be  said  to  have  started  well 
on  a  career  of  service  for  education,  religion,  and  humanity. 



FREEMASONRY  in  Androscoggin. — The  first  Masonic  lodge  in  America, 
St  John's  Lodge,  was  holden  at  Boston,  July  30,  1733,  by  commission 
from  Lord  Viscount  Montague,  Grand  Master  of  England.  The  next 
was  St  Andrew's  Lodge,  instituted  there,  November  30,  1752,  by  a  dispensation 
from  Lord  Aberdowr,  Grand  Master  of  Scotland.  His  successor,  the  P^arl  of 
Dalhousie,  March  3,  1772,  commissioned  "Doctor  Joseph  Warren,  Grand 
Master  of  all  the  Masonic  lodges  in  America."  After  General  Warren  fell  on 
Bunker  Hill,  June  17,  1775,  Joseph   Webb,  Esq.,  succeeded  him  as   Grand 

1  Figures  of  1890. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  209 

Master.  The  first  lodge  in  Maine  was  Portland  Lodge,  chartered  in  1762, 
established  in  March,  1769.  The  oldest  chapter  was  Portland  Chapter, 
instituted  in  1805.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine  was  established  at  Portland, 
during  the  first  session  of  the  Maine  Legislature,  in  1820.  The  strong  men  of 
Androscoggin  Valley  were  heartily  in  unison  with  the  fraternal  spirit  and 
principles  of  Freemasonry,  and  in  the  first  decade  of  this  century  movements 
were  made  culminating  in  the  creation  of  Oriental  Star  Lodge  in  Livermore 
in  1811,  and  of  Tranquil  Lodge  now  of  Auburn.  From  these  have  sprung 
numerous  children,  and  both  exist  to-day,  exercising  a  potent  influence  in 
Masonic  counsels. 

Oriental  Star  Lodije,  No.  21,  F.  <f  A.  31.,  North  Livermore.^  —  Among  the 
early  settlers  of  Livermore  and  vicinity  were  quite  a  number  of  persons  who 
belonged  to  the  ancient  order  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons.  Drawn  together 
by  a  fraternal  feeling,  stronger  perhaps  because  they  were  strangers  in  a  strange 
land,  they  occasionally  met  together,  when  naturally  the  subject  of  Masonry 
would  be  the  topic  of  conversation.  Afterwards  there  were  appointed  meetings 
for  consultation  or  instruction.  Finally  a  general  invitation  was  extended  to 
all  brethren  residing  in  the  adjoining  towns  to  meet  at  Stone's  Hall,  Livermore, 
March  5,  1811,  to  take  measures  towards  the  formation  of  a  lodge  of  Masons 
in  that  vicinit}''.  After  mature  consultation  it  was  voted  to  petition  the  Most 
Worshipful  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts  for  a  charter.  At  a  meeting  held 
in  July  following  they  received  notice  that  their  petition  had  been  granted, 
and  a  charter  was  ready  for  them  in  Boston,  upon  the  payment  of  the  usual 
fee  of  seventy  dollars,  granting  them  full  powers  as  a  lodge  of  Free  and 
Accepted  Masons  by  the  name  of  Oriental  Star  Lodge.  This  charter  was 
received  at  a  meeting  held  April  21,  1812.  It  bore  the  date  of  June  13,  1811, 
and  was  signed  by  Timothy  Bigelow,  Grand  Master.  At  the  same  meeting 
these  officers  were  elected :  W.  Samuel  Small,  W.  M. ;  William  H.  Brettun,  S. 
W. ;  Simeon  Waters,  J.  W.;  Jesse  Stone,  treasurer;  Sylvester  Strickland,  secre- 
tary. This  lodge  never  worked  under  a  dispensation.  During  the  first  few  years 
of  its  existence  it  had  no  suitable  place  for  its  meetings,  and  usually  met  in  a 
private  room  of  a  dwelling  of  one  of  the  brethren,  and  sometimes  in  an 
unfinished  chamber  over  a  store.  It  was  determined  to  erect  a  building  for 
the  accommodation  of  the  lodge,  and  in  1818  a  hall  was  erected  at  Stone's 
Corner,  Livermore,  at  a  cost  of  about  one  thousand  dollars.  The  lodge  was 
incorporated  by  the  legislature,  February  10,  1823,  with  the  right  to  take  and 
hold  for  charitable  and  benevolent  purposes  real  estate  to  the  value  of  three 
thousand  dollars,  and  personal  estate  to  the  value  of  five  thousand  dollars. 
The  original  members  were  Samuel  Small,  Sylvester  Strickland,  James 
Johnston,  Oliver  Pollard,  James  Waite,  Simeon  Waters,  Ithamar  Phinney, 
Isaac    Root,  Isaac  Livermore,  Libeus  Leach,   Aaron  S.  Barton,  William   H. 

1  By  S.  G.  Shurtleff. 

210  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Brettun,  Cornelius  Holland,  Jesse  Stone,  and  Dexter  Walker.  These  either 
signed  the  petition  or  were  active  in  the  preliminary  measures  taken  to  start 
the  lodoe.  Many  of  them  were  prominent  and  influential  members  of  the 

The  lodge  got  well  under  way  and  its  prospects  were  looking  bright  wlieu 
the  Morgan  excitement  broke  out.  Oriental  Star  felt  its  disheartening  influ- 
ence with  the  rest.  The  excitement  even  got  into  the  church.  Stillman 
Noyes,  James  Starr,  Sebes  Hyde,  and  Arnold  Whittemore,  members  of  (Oriental 
Star,  were  also  members  of  the  Baptist  church  in  Jay.  They  were  notified  to 
withdraw  from  the  order  or  lose  their  standing  in  the  church.  Of  course  they 
adhered  to  their  obligations  as  Masons,  and  the  church  concluded  it  would  not  be 
wise  to  lose  some  of  its  best  members.  For  about  fifteen  years  following  1830 
little  or  no  work  was  done  ;  but  the  lodge  usually  elected  its  officers  and  was 
in  condition  to  do  work.  While  at  this  time  they  received  no  accessions  to 
their  numbers  they  were  yet  thoroughly  imbuded  with  the  spirit  of  Masonry 
and  some  of  the  most  interesting  meetings  were  held  during  this  period. 

In  185(3  the  lodge  met  with  a  severe  misfortune.  On  July  26  their  hall, 
with  a  great  part  of  their  furniture,  was  burned.  The  loss  was  but  one-half 
covered  by  insurance.  The  lodge  immediately  voted  to  rebuild,  and  a  new 
hall  was  completed  in  November,  1857,  which,  on  June  24  following,  was 
solemnly  dedicated  to  Free  Masonry  by  the  M.  W.  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine, 
Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master  Robert  P.  Dunlap,  presiding.  November  9, 
1875,  this  hall  also,  with  the  furniture,  fixtures,  and  regalia,  was  destroyed  by 
fire,  together  with  its  ancient  charter.  In  no  ways  discouraged.  Oriental  Star 
promptly  voted  to  rebuild  on  a  larger  scale.  A  new  hall  was  erected  the 
next  year,  and  completed  so  that  the  annual  communication  was  held  in  it  in 
October.  It  was  dedicated  on  June  21,  1877,  by  the  M.  W.  Grand  Lodge  of 
Maine.  There  were  present,  on  this  occasion,  Whitney  Lodge  of  Canton, 
Reuel  VVashburn  Lodge  of  Livermore  Falls,  King  Hiram  Lodge  of  Dixfield, 
beside  delegations  from  Nezinscot,  Evening  Star,  Tranquil,  Kabboni,  Asylum, 
and  Blazing  Star  lodges.  The  address  was  delivered  by  M.  W.  Josiah  H. 
Drunimond,  I'ast  Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine. 

Oriental  Star  was  organized  during  the  earl}^  settlement  of  Livermore.  As 
this  section  of  the  state  was  then  sparsely  settled,  it  drew  its  membership 
largely  from  the  adjacent  towns.  But  as  the  country  became  more  thickly 
settled,  new  lodges  were  formed  in  the  adjoining  towns,  often  drawing  quite 
largely  upon  Oriental  Star  for  membership.  In  April,  1872,  twenty-nine 
members  were  dimitted  to  enable  them  to  organize  Whitney  Lodge,  in  Canton. 
Again  in  May,  1877,  twenty -five  more  were  dimitted  to  organize  Reuel  Wash- 
burn Lodge  at  Livermore  Falls.  Few  lodges  have  experienced  so  many 
misfortunes  or  have  met  with  so  much  discouragement  as  Oriental  Star.  It  is 
quite  a  different  thing  to  build  up  and  maintain  a  flourishing  lodge  in  the 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  211 

cities  and  larger  villages  where  wealth  abounds,  to  what  it  is  in  a  sparsely 
settled  farming  community.  Oriental  Star  is  entitled  to  much  credit  for  its 
energy  and  pluck  in  meeting  its  misfortunes  so  bravely,  and  so  resolutely 
pushing  ahead  against  adversity.  To  resist  the  discouraging  influence  of  the 
anti-Morgan  excitement,  to  lose  two  Masonic  halls  by  fire  within  twenty  years, 
to  lose  fifty-four  members  within  six  years  by  dimit,  and  then  to  retain  a 
membership  of  ninety  and  possess  a  Masonic  hall  worth  twenty-five  hundred 
dollai's,  and  an  invested  fund  of  more  than  one  thousand  dollars,  is  consider- 
able for  a  small  country  town  of  less  than  twelve  hundred  population.  More 
than  this,  in  November,  1873,  it  donated  the  sum  of  five  hundred  dollars  to 
Whitney  Lodge,  to  be  used  for  charitable  purposes,  according  to  the  usages  of 
the  fraternity.  Doubtless  the  prosperity  of  the  lodge  was  largely  due  to  many 
prominent  and  influential  men  included  in  its  list  of  membership.  Among 
them  may  be  mentioned  Samuel  Small,  Cornelius  Holland,  and  Keuel  Washburn. 
Samuel  Small  was  a  physician  of  extensive  practice,  and  the  first  Master  of  the 
lodge.  He  was  a  man  of  intelligence  and  respected  by  the  whole  community. 
He  represented  his  town  in  the  legislature  of  Massachusetts  and  Maine,  and 
the  County  of  Oxford  in  tlie  Senate  of  Massachusetts  and  in  the  Senate  of 
Maine,  and  was  a  member  of  the  executive  council.  Cornelius  Holland  was 
also  a  phj^sician  of  large  practice.  He  was  an  active  member  of  the  lodge 
upon  its  first  organization,  and  was  conspicuous  for  his  zeal  and  fidelity  to 
Masonic  principles.  He  was  several  times  elected  to  the  State  Senate,  and 
twice  elected  Representative  to  Congress. 

Perhaps  the  man  to  whom  Oriental  Star  Lodge  is  indebted  more  than  to 
any  other  is  Reuel  Washburn.  He  was  born  in  1793;  graduated  at  Brown 
University  in  1814;  admitted  to  the  bar,  1817;  made  a  Mason  in  1818;  elected 
Master,  1822;  D.  D.  S.  M.,  1826  and  1827;  Grand  Master,  1835-0-7;  served  his 
lodge  as  Master  seven  years,  and  as  secretary  eleven  years;  was  a  member  of 
both  branches  of  the  legislature  and  of  the  executive  council;  was  register 
and  judge  of  probate,  and  several  times  a  candidate  of  the  Whig  party  for 
Congress.  During  his  membership  of  Oriental  Star  Lodge  of  nearly  sixty 
years  he  was  largely  instrumental  in  shaping  its  course  of  action,  and  watchful 
of  its  financial  as  well  as  of  its  moral  advancement.  He  took  a  deep  interest 
in  everything  pertaining  to  Masonry,  and  his  invaluable  services  both  in  and  out 
of  the  lodge  to  promote  its  usefulness  will  not  soon  be  forgotten.  His  ability, 
integrity,  and  upright  bearing  in  all  of  the  walks  of  life  gave  him  an  influence 
possessed  by  no  one  else. 

Among  other  prominent  members  of  the  lodge  may  be  mentioned  William 
H.  Brettun,  an  active  business  man,  who  accumulated  quite  a  large  estate; 
Sylvester  Strickland,  a  merchant,  who  was  the  first  secretary  of  the  lodge ; 
Benjamin  Bradford,  for  nearly  sixty  years  a  practicing  physician  in  Livermore, 
several  times  elected  to  the  legislature,  twice  elected  Master  of  the  lodge,  and 

212  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

held  in  high  esteem  by  the  fraternity ;  Lee  Strickland,  colonel  of  the  Eighth 
Maine  Infantry;  Major  Isaac  Strickland,  a  prominent  business  man;  Joseph 
Covell,  wlio  died  while  consul  to  Prince  Edward's  Island;  nor  should  the 
name  of  Moses  Stone  be  omitted,  who  served  as  chaplain  of  the  lodge  for 
forty  years.  He  was  noted  for  integrity,  firmness  of  purpose,  and  purity 
of  life.  No  member  was  so  sincerely  and  universally  venerated  and  loved 
by  the  fraternity.  During  that  dark  period  of  Masonry,  the  anti-Masonic 
excitement,  he  conld  be  seen  advancing  with  a  firm  and  unfaltering  step 
to  that  Masonic  temple  where  his  brethren  were  assembled,  and  where  he 
always  devoutly  and  fervently  prayed  for  the  perpetuity  of  the  order,  and 
God's  blessing  upon  it.  For  his  moral  and  Christian  character  and  unblem- 
ished reputation  he  was  respected  by  all,  and  regarded  in  the  order  as  a  pillar 
of  strength. 

Oriental  Star  has  now  a  membership  of  ninety-two.  With  a  lodge  on  one 
side  within  five  miles,  and  on  the  other  side  within  three  miles,  its  territory  is 
quite  restricted,  and  its  membership  is  therefore  smaller  than  it  otherwise 
would  be.  The  present  officers  are:  Asa  G.  Timberlake,  W.  M. ;  Willie  A. 
Thompson,  S.  W. ;  K.  A.  Ryerson,  J.  W.;  Caleb  Smith,  treasurer;  S.  G. 
Shurtleff,  secretary.  The  living  past  masters  are :  Lewis  A.  Farrar,  John  D. 
Hodge,  Cornelius  M.  Holland,  Byron  C.  Waite,  Everett  L.  Philoon,  C.  H. 
Boothby,  C.  E.  Knight,  M.D.,  and  George  Q.  Gammon. 

Tranquil  Lo(l</e,  No.  !B9,  F.  <|-  A.  M.,  Auhurti.  —  This  lodge  never  worked 
under  a  dispensation.  March  18,  1818,  a  number  of  brethren  met  at  the  house 
of  Bro.  Oliver  Pollard  in  Minot  (North  Auburn),  took  the  necessary  steps  for 
formation  and  elected  officers.  These  were  Oliver  Pollard,  W.  M. ;  Henry 
Jackson,  S.  W. ;  Alden  Blossom,  J.  W. ;  Enoch  Perkins,  treasurer;  Joseph 
Keith,  secretary ;  Seth  Staples,  S.  D. ;  Asa  Phillips,  J.  D. ;  Hezekiah  Bryant, 
tyler.  Beside  these  were  present  Lemuel  Nash,  Thomas  Davis,  Leonard 
Richmond,  Cyrus  Clark,  Jacob  Hill,  Reed  Phillips,  Aaron  Bird,  Jonathan  Nash, 
Henry  Jones,  Jr,  Hira  Bradford,  Oliver  Herrick.  Opening  a  lodge  of  master 
Masons  they  voted  to  apply  for  a  charter,  and  a  petition  signed  by  the  nineteen 
Masons  was  forwarded  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  which  acted 
favorably  on  the  petition  and  granted  a  charter,  dated  March  11,  1818. 
March  24,  1819,  occurred  the  first  meeting  after  the  arrival  of  the  charter. 
Officers  were  chosen  and  Nathaniel  Ingalls  was  proposed  as  a  candidate.  He 
was  accepted  and  was  the  first  person  initiated.  From  this  time  monthly 
communications  were  held  until  September  19,  when  the  lodge  was  constituted 
by  the  Grand  Lodge  and  its  officers  installed. 

l^'rom  1820  to  1826  harmony  prevailed,  attendance  was  large,  and  good 
work  was  done.  February  9,  1824,  the  lodge  was  incorporated  as  a  charitable 
institution  by  the  legislature  to  hold  real  estate  to  the  value  of  |6,000,  and 
personal  property  amounting  to  110,000.     The  membership  was  widely  scat- 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  21S 

tered;  some  lived  at  Turner  village  and  neighborhood,  others  at  Levviston 
Falls,  and  others  at  Minot  Corner,  and  several  fruitless  attempts  were  made  to 
divide  the  lodge  or  change  the  place  of  meeting.  No  work  was  done  from 
June,  1829,  to  June,  1847,  although  meetings  were  sustained  until  1831,  and 
August  17, 1843,  a  fire  destroyed  the  charter.  June  23, 1847,  the  last  meeting 
was  held  at  North  Auburn.  Officers  were  elected  and  it  was  voted  to  remove 
the  lodge  to  "  Chamberlain  Hall  in  Auburn,  near  Lewiston  Falls,"  where, 
October  13,  the  officers  were  publicly  installed.  The  new  charter  was  dated 
May  20,  1847.  From  this  time  the  prosperity  of  the  lodge  has  been  contin- 
uous, the  ablest  citizens  being  members,  and  active  in  work.  Among  those 
removed  by  death  in  its  earlier  years  were  Mark  Hill  (1848),  George  W.  Chase 
(D.  D.  G.  M.),  and  Dan  Read  (1853),  Gen.  Alden  Blossom,  of  Turner,  eighty- 
seven  years  old,  a  Past  Master  (1863),  G.  F.  Newell,  Jacob  Herrick,  Edmund 
D.  Covell,  and  (ieorge  C.  C'ross  (18(34),  C.  R.  Bowker,  G.  G.  Robinson,  Joseph 
Freeman,  Joseph  Lufkin,  and  A.  A.  Trueworthy  (1865).  In  1868  died  A.  H. 
Small  and  T.  A.  D.  Fessenden;  in  1869  S.  S.  Bridgham,  Lewis  Phillips,  and  R. 
L.  Andrews ;  in  1870  Hubbard  Lovejoy,  William  Kilbourne,  Isaac  L.  Merrill ; 
in  1871  J.  M.  Blossom  and  J.  K.  Piper ;  in  1872  B.  E.  Lombard  and  Almon  C. 
Pray,  the  last  a  very  zealous  Mason  and  master  of  the  lodge.  John  Penley, 
for  nearly  sixty  years  a  Mason,  died  in  1873.  These  3^ears  have  given  the 
greatest  mortality  among  the  members  in  proportion  to  the  number.  June 
24,  1874,  the  dedication  of  Masonic  Hall  (now  used  by  Burnside  Post  as  a 
G.  A.  R.  Hall)  occurred  with  the  celebration  of  St  John's  Day.  The  Grand 
Lodge,  Ashlar,  Kabboni,  Cumberland,  and  Nezinscot  lodges,  DeMolay,  Trinity, 
Biddeford,  and  Lewiston  commanderies  joining  in  the  services.  In  1876 
an  extensive  history  of  the  lodge,  written  by  Brother  Robert  Martin,  was 
published  in  pamphlet  form  by  the  lodge.  Up  to  January,  1875,  931  commu- 
nications had  been  held,  333  persons  initiated,  and  82  applications  rejected, 
and  at  that  date  the  lodge  numbered  198  members. 

In  1876  George  C.  Wing  was  elected  W.  M.;  John  B.  Jordan,  S.  W. ;  H. 
D.  Donovan,  J.  W.;  John  Pickard,  treasurer;  J.  F.  Atwood,  secretary. 
January  27  Rev.  (xeorge  Bates,  formerly  pastor  of  the  Universalist  church, 
was  buried  with  Masonic  honors.  Past  G.  W.  Reuel  Washburn  acting  as  W.  M. 
Quite  a  mortality  among  the  members  this  year.  In  1877  John  B.  Jordan 
was  chosen  W.  M.;  H.  D.  Donovan,  S.  W.;  Algernon  M.  Roak,  J.  W.  Brother 
Pickard  was  again  chosen  treasurer,  and  Brother  Atwood  secretary.  They 
have  done  their  duty  so  well  that  in  the  wisdom  of  tlie  lodge  there  has  been 
no  change  demanded  in  either  of  these  offices,  and  after  fifteen  years  of  active 
service  they  now  hold  and  wear  the  jewel  insignia  of  the  key  and  pen, 
October  11  a  special  communication  was  called  to  form  an  escort  to  the  pro- 
cession participating  in  the  dedication  of  the  statute  of  Edward  Little  in  the 
Auburn  park.     1878  —  same  officers  as  last  year.     It  appears  to  be  an  almost 

214  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

unbroken  custom  of  the  lodge  to  keep  the  elective  officers  in  place  for  two 
successive  years.  1879  — H.  D.  Donovan,  W.  M.;  Algernon  M.  Roak,  S.  W. ; 
Albert  R.  Savage,  J.  W.  June  24,  St  John's  day,  the  lodge  sent  a  large 
delegation  to  participate  in  the  grand  Masonic  celebration  held  at  Portland. 
1880-1881  — A.  M.  Roak,  W.  M.;  A.  R.  Savage,  S.  W. ;  E.  G.  Heath,  J.  W. 
February  19,  1881,  a  special  communication  was  called  to  conduct  the  funeral 
exercises  of  Worshipful  Brother  Augustus  Callahan,  Past  Master  of  this  lodge. 
Past  District  Deputy  Grand  Master,  and  later  a  member  of  Ashlar  Lodge, 
Lewiston.  His  Masonic  virtues  and  activity  were  great,  and  it  was  with 
intense  sorrow  that  the  sprig  of  acacia  was  planted  at  his  grave.  August  30 
a  number  of  the  members  went  to  Poland  Springs  to  assist  in  the  obsequies  of 
Robert  E.Campbell,  a  temporary  resident  at  the  Springs,  and  a  brother  Mason. 
1882  — Albert  R.  Savage,  W.  M.;  Elbridge  G.  Heath,  S.  W.;  Charles  E.  Darling, 
J.  W.  Brother  Liberty  H.  Hutchinson,  a  young  man  of  brilliant  attainments, 
this  year  was  called  to  the  Grand  Lodge  above.  1883-1884 — -Elbridge  G. 
Heath,  VV.  M. ;  Charles  E.  Darling,  S.  W.;  W.  Freeman  Lord,  J.  W.  August 
3, 18S4,  a  large  number  from  this  lodge  joined  Lewiston  Commandery  in  con- 
ducting the  funeral  rites  of  lirother  Warren  Ward,  a  worthy  and  much 
resijected  brother.  This  year  were  also  attended  two  other  funerals  of  worthy 
brethren:  William  Haskell  (November  7)  and  Charles  E.Smith  (November  18), 
while  close  following  thes^,  January  29,  the  lodge  bore  Brother  Charles  T. 
Davis  to  his  last  earthly  resting-place.  1885-1886  —  Charles  E.  Darling,  W.  M. ; 
W.  F.  Lord,  S.  W.;  Benjamin  F.  Metcalf,  J.  W.  March  29,  1885,  occurred 
the  funeral  of  Brother  Ansel  L.  Lombard,  formerly  the  treasurer  of  the  lodge. 
April  30  the  lodge  was  called  to  mourn  the  death  of  Brother  Joseph  Littlefield, 
for  many  years  identified  with  the  growth  and  activity  of  the  lodge,  and  to 
carry  his  remains  to  the  grave.  June  7  Dr  R.  F.  Harlow,  an  old  and 
prominent  Mason,  was  buried.  June  18  the  oldest  member,  Robert  Martin, 
a  very  enthusiastic  and  valued  Mason,  was  buried.  His  apron,  on  which  the 
Masonic  emblems  were  carefully  painted  and  which  he  wore  from  the  time  he 
was  "made  a  Mason,"  was  presented  to  the  lodge  after  his  death,  and  now, 
appropriately  framed,  hangs  in  the  lodge  room,  a  cherished  souvenir  and 

January  20,  1887,  Brother  Jacob  Robie  was  buried  under  the  auspices  of 
the  lodge.  1887-1888  — W.  F.  Lord,  W.  M.;  B.  F.  Metcalf,  S.  W.;  Everett  M. 
Stevens,  J.  W.  December  28  Brother  J.  Q.  A.  Atwood  received  Masonic 
burial  by  the  lodge.  October  23  the  lodge  attended  the  funeral  of  Brother 
Joseph  Nichols,  at  Lisbon.  September  6,  1888,  Brother  Jacob  B.  Ham  was 
buried,  one  of  the  oldest  members,  for  thirty-four  years  connected  with  this 
lodge  where  he  was  initiated.  He  filled  the  office  of  mayor  of  Lewiston  for 
the  first  two  terms.  December  13  Brother  Rodney  F.  Foss,  a  Past  Master  and 
an  active  working  member,  was  buried.     1889  — B.  F.  Metcalf,  W.  M.;  E.  M. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  215 

Stevens,  S.  W.;  Henry  H.  Hanson,  J.  W.  The  lease  of  the  lodge-room  expir- 
ing, the  tliird  story  of  the  new  Savings  Bank  Block  was  especially  fitted  up 
for  a  Masonic  hall  and  leased  for  twenty  years.  For  its  size  it  is  the  finest  and 
best  hall  in  Maine.  It  is  occupied  and  jointly  owned  by  Tranquil  Lodge, 
Ancient  Brothers  Lodge,  and  Bradford  Chapter,  and  was  dedicated  by  the 
officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  June  24,  1889. 

The  officers  elected  for  1891  were:  E.  M.  Stevens,  W.  M.;  George  B. 
Attwood,  S.  W.;  Harry  L.  Haskell,  J.  W.;  A.  M.  Roak,  treasurer;  J.  F. 
Atwood,  secretary;  D.  W.  Verrill,  trustee  for  Masonic  Association.  The 
reports  were  very  satisfactory  to  the  members,  showing  the  lodge  to  be  in  a 
prosperous  condition,  financially  and  otherwise. 

The  masters  from  the  first  have  been  (in  order  of  service) :  Oliver  Pollard, 
Alden  Blossom,  Joseph  Keith,  Oliver  Pollard,  William  l^ickford,  George  W. 
Chase  (elected  G.  W.  in  1849),  Josiah  Little,  Jr,  Augustus  Callahan,  S.  H. 
Wilson,  George  A.  Gordon,  A.  Callahan,  J.  P.  Fessenden,  S.  H.  Wilson,  O.  H. 
Maxwell,  George  S.  Woodman,   N.  W.  Button,  W.  M.  Emerson,  R.  F.  Foss, 

A.  C.  Pray  (died  in  office),  George  McClure,  G.  S.  Woodman,  George  C.  Wing, 
John  B.  Jordan,  H.  D.  Donovan,  Algernon  M.  Roak,  Albert  R.  Savage, 
Elbridge  G.  Heath,  Charles  E.  Darling,  W.  F.  Lord,  B.  F.  Metcalf,  E.  M. 

Tranquil  Lodge  has  contributed  liberally  to  the  formation  of  many  of  the 
lodges  of  the  county,  while  she  is  numerously  represented  in  the  higher 
Masonic  bodies,  hi  the  pcr^^ontwl  of  its  membership,  in  the  character  of  its 
work,  and  in  the  liberality  of  its  charity  it  is  second  to  no  other  lodge,  and  the 
statement  below  is  as  true  now  as  when  Brother  Martin  wrote  it  in  1870  : 
"Not  only  has  every  needy  call  from  a  distressed  worthy  brother  been  promptly 
answered,  but  objects  of  charity,  whether  brethren,  widows,  or  orphans,  have 
been  sought  out  and  generously  supplied  from  the  funds  of  the  lodge,  and  also 
by  private  contribution." 

Ancient  Brothers  Loth/e,  iV(>.  17S,  Anhurn,  F.  <|'  A.  31.^  ^  was  granted  a 
dispensation  by  M.  W.  Albert  Moore,  G.  M.,  dated  June  25,  1875,  with  these 
officers:  Samuel  O.  Wood,  W.  M. ;  Albert  M.  Penley,  S.  W.;  and  Marcellus 

B.  Preble,  J.  W.  After  working  under  dispensation  for  one  year,  and 
initiating  fourteen  candidates,  a  charter  was  granted,  dated  May  4,  1870,  with 
the  following  charter  members:  Forest  E.  Bisbee,  George  H.  Brown,  DeWitt 

C.  Chase,  Lewis  A.  Cobb,  Francis  Corson,  C.  B.  Eaton,  Enoch  Perkins,  George 
Parker,  Isaac  S.  Robinson,  Edwin  T.  Stevens,  Andrew  M.  Peables,  Milton  J. 
Loring,  Nathaniel  M.  Neal,  Samuel  O.  Wood,  H.  A.  Wallingford,  Albert  M. 
Penley,  M.  B.  Preble,  James  W.  Peables,  Albion  G.  Smith. 

At  a  special  communication,  held  in  Masonic  Hall,  in  Auburn,  June  15, 
1876,  the  following  representatives  of  the  Grand  Lodge  were  present:    Most 

1  By  L.  A.  Cobb. 

216  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Worshipful  Albert  Moore,  G.  M.;  Right  Worshipful  William  J.  Burnham  as 
D.  G.  M.;  Right  Worthy  Fessenden  I.  Day  as  S.  G.  W.;  Worshipful  A.  M. 
Larrabee  as  J.  G.  W.;  Worshipful  W.  W.  Sanborn  as  G.  Treas. ;  Worshipful 
George  A.  Callahan  as  G.  Sec;  Worshipful  H.  E.  Morriscy  as  G.  S.  D.; 
Worshipful  C.  H.  Jumper  as  G.  J.  D.;  Right  Worshipful  Warren  Phillips,  G. 
Tyler.  The  lodge  was  then  formally  constituted  and  the  following  ofifioers 
were  duly  installed  by  the  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master:  Samuel  O.  Wood, 
W.  M.;  Albert  M.  Penley,  S.  W.;  M.  B.  Preble,  J.  W.;  Nathaniel  M.  Neal, 
treasurer;  Edwin  T.  Stevens,  secretary;  G.  M.  Atkins,  chaplain;  J.  W. 
Peables,  M.;  M.  J.  Loring,  S.  D. ;  F.  E.  Bisbee,  J.  D.;  L.  L.  Hersey,  S.  S.; 
C.  H.  Parker,  J.  S.;  Charles  E.  Johnson,  tyler.  At  the  annual  communication, 
held  October  5,  1876,  the  lodge  elected:  A.  M.  Penley,  W.  M.;  M.  J.  Loring, 
S.  W.;  George  Parker,  J.  W.;  N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  E.  T.  Stevens,  secretary; 
and  at  the  annual  communication,  held  October  16,  1877,  the  same  officers 
were  re-elected. 

At  the  annual  communication  held  October  15,  1878,  the  following  were 
elected:  M.  J.  Loring,  W.  M.;  G.  M.  Atkins,  S.  W.;  John  T.  Hale,  J.  W.; 
N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  E.  T.  Stevens,  secretary.  At  the  annual  communica- 
tion held  October  21,  1870,  the  same  officers  were  re-elected.  At  the  annual 
communication,  held  October  19,  1880,  the  following  officers  were  elected: 
George  Parker,  W.  M.;  John  T.  Hale,  S.  W.;  Isaac  S.  Robinson,  J.  W. ;  N.  M. 
Neal,  treasurer ;  E.  T.  Stevens,  secretary.  At  the  annual  communication  held 
October  18,  1881,  elected:  N.  M.  Neal,  W.  M. ;  L  S.  Robinson,  S.  W. ;  C.  H. 
Parker,  J.  W.;  E.  O.  Wells,  treasurer;  E.  T.  Stevens,  secretary.  At  the 
annual  communication  held  October  17,  1882,  elected:  Isaac  S.  Robinson,  W. 
M.;  C.  H.  Parker,  S.  W.;  G.  M.  Atkins,  J.  W.;  N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  E.  T. 
Stevens,  secretary.  A  special  meeting  of  the  lodge  was  called  December  25 
to  attend  the  funeral  of  Isaac  S.  Robinson,  Master  of  the  lodge.  At  the  next 
regular  meeting  suitable  resolutions  were  adopted  and  the  secretary  instructed 
to  inscribe  a  page  of  the  records  to  his  memory.  At  the  annual  communica- 
tion held  October  16,  1883,  elected:  Lionel  O.  Brackett,  W.  M. ;  G.  M. 
Atkins,  S.  W. ;  H.  B.  Sawyer,  J.  W.;  N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  E.  T.  Stevens, 
secretary.  At  the  annual  communication  held  October  21,  1884,  the  officers 
were  re-elected  with  the  exception  of  Brother  E.  T.  Stevens,  who,  having 
served  as  secretary  of  the  lodge  since  its  organization,  declined  a  re-election, 
and  Walter  H.  Jolnison  was  elected.  At  the  annual  communication  held 
October  20,  1885,  elected:  Orrel  Brown,  W.  M. ;  J.  H.  Litchfield,  S.  W.; 
Benjamin  R.  Irish,  J.  W.;  N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  L.  A.  Cobb,  secretary.  At 
the  annual  communication  held  October  19,  1886,  the  same  officers  were 
re-elected.  At  the  annual  communication  held  October  18,  1887,  elected:  J. 
H.  Litchfield,  W.  M.;  H.  L.  Gurney,  S.  W.;  M.  P.  Buchanan,  J.  W.;  N.  M. 
Neal,  treasurer;    J^.  A.  Cobb,  secretary.     At  the  annual  communication  held 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  217 

October  16,  1888,  re-elected  the  officers  of  the  previous  year.  At  the  annual 
communication  held  October  15,  1889,  elected:  Herbert  L.  (Jurney,  W.  M.; 
M.  Perry  Buchanan,  S.  W.;  C.  S.  Stevens,  J.  W. ;  N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  L. 
A.  Cobb,  secretary.  At  the  annual  communication  held  October  21,  1890, 
elected:  Herbert  L.  Gurney,  W.  M.;  M.  Perry  Buchanan,  S.  W.;  Clarence  A. 
Chase,  J.  W.;  N.  M.  Neal,  treasurer;  L.  A.  Cobb,  secretary.  A  public  instal- 
lation was  held  in  Masonic  Hall,  Tuesday,  November  18,  and  the  above  officers 
were  installed  by  M.  W.  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  P.  G.  M.,  assisted  by  M.  W.  Fes- 
senden  I.  Day  as  Grand  Marshal,  and  R.  W.  William  J.  Burnham  as  Grand 
Chaplain . 

Of  the  20  charter  members  13  are  at  present  members,  three  have  died,  and 
four  have  left  the  lodge.  In  addition  to  its  charter  members  the  lodge  has 
gained  78  by  initiation  and  11  by  dimit,  making  the  whole  number  on  its  books 
109.  It  has  lost  by  death,  dimits,  and  other  causes,  19.  Its  present  member- 
ship (November,  1890,)  is  90.  The  meetings  are  well  attended,  and  a  good 
degree  of  interest  is  manifested  by  the  brethren  in  the  advancement  of  masonry 
and  the  prosperity  of  the  lodge. 

Bradford  CJiapter,  No.  38^  R.  A.  M.^  —  This  body  began  its  existence  as 
Auburn  Chapter  under  a  dispensation  granted  May  17,  1874,  to  Companions 
George  S.  Woodman,  Rodney  F.  Foss,  Joseph  Littlefield,  Charles  B.  Merrill, 
Robert  M.  Sykes,  Levi  W.  Sanborn,  Myron  W.  Jones,  George  B.  Stevens, 
Samuel  O.  Wood,  Henry  D.  Donovan,  Cyrus  Hall,  Albert  M.  Penley,  Charles 
C.  Keith,  S.  E.  Wentworth,  Milton  J.  Loring,  Daniel  E.  Hall,  Charles  B. 
Eaton,  Albert  W.  Larrabee,  Isaac  S.  J\obinson,  Daniel  F.  Bean,  and  Edwin  M. 
Leavitt.  Horace  H.  Burbank,  Grand  High  Priest,  apjjointed  Companion 
George  S.  AVoodman  the  first  High  Priest,  Companion  Rodney  F.  Foss  the 
first  King,  and  Companion  Joseph  Littlefield  the  first  Scribe.  May  18  the 
companions  assembled  at  the  probate  court  room  in  Auburn,  and  a  chapter  of 
Royal  Arch  Masons  was  opened.  Present,  M.  E.  George  S.  Woodman,  H.  P.; 
E.  Rodney  F.  Foss,  King;  E.  Joseph  Littlefield,  Scribe;  Companions  C.  B. 
Merrill,  E.  M.  Leavitt,  L.  W.  Sanborn,  A.  W.  Larrabee,  J.  S.  Robinson,  C.  B, 
Eaton,  A.  M.  Penley,  and  S,  O.  Wood.  The  dispensation  was  read  by  the 
H.  P.  and  accepted.  The  M.  E.  H.  P.  appointed  C/ompanions  S.  O.  Wood, 
C.  of  H.;  George  B.  Stevens,  P.  S. ;  A.  M.  Penley,  R.  A.  C;  E.  M.  Leavitt, 
treasurer;  C.  B.  Merrill,  secretary;  D.  F.  Bean,  M.  3d  V.;  H.  D.  Donovan, 
M.  2d  v.;  C.  B.  Eaton,  M.  1st  V.;  C.  C.  Keith,  Sent.  Companions  Leavitt, 
Robinson,  and  Foss  were  chosen  to  procure  a  room  for  meetings,  Companions 
Donovan,  Merrill,  and  Foss  to  prepare  by-laws,  and  Companions  Larrabee, 
Wood,  and  Stevens  to  procure  furniture  and  regalia.  Voted  that  the  stated 
convocations  be  held  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  each  month. 

A  stated  convocation  was  held  June  2,  1874.     Petitions  for  degrees  were 

1  By  Algernon  M.  Roak,  P.  H.  P. 

218  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

received  from  brothers  Algernon  M.  Roak,  James  W.  Peables,  Abram  Atwood, 
John  B.  Jordan,  John  Pickard,  Henry  Little,  George  C.  Wing,  Samuel  F. 
Merrill,  Ansel  L.  Lombard,  George  W.  Curtis,  Andrew  M.  Peables,  Benjamin 
F.  Sturgis.  Later  all  were  elected  to  the  degrees.  Tranquil  Lodge  offered 
the  free  use  of  its  rooms  to  the  chapter,  while  working  under  dispensation, 
and  it  was  voted  to  accept  the  offer.  August  27  the  first  work  was  done, 
Algernon  M.  Koak,  James  W.  Peables,  and  Abram  Atwood  being  advanced 
to  the  honorary  degree  of  Mark  Master  Mason.  February  9,  1875,  a  con- 
vocation was  called  to  confer  the  Mark  Master's,  Past  Master's,  and  Most 
Excellent  Master's  degrees.  Li  the  evening  the  Hoyal  Arch  degree  was 
conferred.  M.  E.  Horace  H.  Burbank,  Grand  High  Priest,  in  his  ofificial 
capacit}^  reviewed  the  work,  and  expressed  himself  as  much  pleased.  There 
was  present  a  large  representation  from  King  Hiram  and  other  chapters.  It 
was  voted  to  change  the  name  of  the  chapter  to  liradford.  At  the  annual 
session  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  May  4,  1875,  the  Grand  High  Priest,  in  his 
communication,  said: 

February  9,  1874,  I  iii^pected  the  work  in  all  the  degrees,  and  with  pleasure  report  it 
eminently  satisfactory.  Accuracy,  deliberation,  and  dignity  characterized  the  entire 
ceremonies.  Their  large  and  elegant  hall  with  its  suitable  appointments,  the  specimens  of 
their  skill,  their  zealous  efforts  to  succeed,  all  afford,  abundant  evidence  that  with  a 
charter  they  would  do  credit  to  themselves  and  honor  to  the  Grand  Chapter. 

The  charter  was  granted  May  5, 1875,  as  Bradford  Chapter,  No.  38,  to  take 
rank  and  precedence  from  May  7, 1874.  June  1, 1875,  the  companions  who  had 
signed  the  petition  assembled  to  accept  the  charter,  and  to  elect  officers.  The 
chapter  was  constituted  by  M.  E.  Henry  L.  Paine,  Grand  High  Priest;  Joseph 
M.  Hayes,  Grand  King;  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Grand  Scribe;  Warren  Phillips, 
Grand  Sentinel;  George  A.  Callahan  and  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  King  Hiram 
Chapter;  N.  Woodbury,  Somerset  Chapter;  F.  1.  Day,  St  Paul  Chapter.  The 
Grand  High  Priest  installed  the  officers:  George  S.  Woodman,  H.  P.;  Rodney 
F.  Foss,  King;  Joseph  Littlefield,  Scribe;  E.  L.  Leavitt,  Treasurer;  Charles  B. 
Merrill,  Secretary;  Samuel  ().  Wood,  C.  of  H.;  Albert  M.  Penley,  P.  S.; 
Henry  D.  Donovan,  R.  A.  C.;  C.  B.  Eaton,  M.  3d  V.;  D.  E.  Hall,  M.  2d  V.; 
L.  W.  Sanborn,  M.  1st  V.;  C.  C.  Keith,  Sentinel.  September  5,  1875,  Comp. 
Daniel  E.  Hall  died.  At  the  annual  convocation  in  Portland,  May  2, 1876,  the 
Grand  High  Priest  in  his  report  said: 

November  2  I  visited  this  chapter  and  inspected  work  on  the  R.  A.  degree,  which  was 
presented  in  a  manner  which  many  of  our  older  chapters  would  do  well  to  imitate. 

June  3, 187t),  the  annual  convocation  was  held.  Up  to  this  time  the  chapter 
had  exalted  thirty-two  companions.  The  following  were  elected  :  M.  E.  Rodney 
F.  Foss,  H.  P.;  Samuel  O.  Wood,  King;  Albert  M.  Penley,  Scribe ;  E.  M. 
Leavitt,  Treasurer;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Secretary;  R.  L.  Harlow,  C.  of  H.;  A.  M. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  219 

Roak,  P.  S. ;  J.  W.  Peables,  R.  A.  C,  and,  June  22,  were  installed  by  M.  E. 
George  S.  Woodman,  P.  H.  P.,  assisted  by  Companion  John  B.  Jordan  as 
Marshal.  March  6,  1877,  R.  E.  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Grand  Scribe,  officially  visited 
the  chapter.  June  5  the  annual  convocation  was  held.  During  the  year 
there  had  been  six  exaltations.  The  officers  elected  were :  M.  E.  Samuel  O. 
Wood,  H.  P. ;  Albert  M.  Penley,  King ;  R.  L,  Harlow,  Scribe  ;  E.  M.  Leavitt, 
Treasurer ;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Secretary  ;  A.  M.  Roak,  C.  of  H. ;  A.R.  Savage,  P.  S. ; 
B.  F.  Metcalf,  R.  A.  C.  July  19  P.  H.  P.  Augustus  Callahan,  assisted  by 
P.  H.  P.  George  S.  Woodman,  as  Grand  Marshal,  publicly  installed  the  officers. 
February  8,  1878,  R.  E.  Joseph  M.  Hayes,  D.  G.  H.  P.,  made  an  official  visit. 
There  were  also  present  M.  E.  John  W.  Ballou,  P.  G.  H.  P.;  R.  E.  F.  T. 
Faulkner,  Grand  King,  and  a  large  number  of  visiting  companions.  June  4, 
1878,  were  elected:  A.  M.  Penley,  H.  P.;  R.  L.  Harlow,  King;  A.  M.  Roak, 
Scribe  ;  A.  R.  Savage,  C.  of  H. ;  B.  F.  Metcalf,  P.  S. ;  W.  F.  Lord,  R.  A.  C. ; 
E.  M.  Leavitt,  Treas. ;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Sec,  who,  June  19,  were  publicly  installed 
by  R.  E.  Jos.  A.  Locke,  Grand  Scribe,  assisted  by  F.  I.  Day,  P.  H.  P.,  as 
Marshal.  March  12,  1879,  R.  E.  Comp.  Locke  again  visited  the  chapter  when 
the  Royal  Arch  degree  was  conferred.  In  his  report  to  the  Grand  Chapter, 
May,  1879,  he  said  : 

The  officers  of  this  chapter  are  determined  not  to  be  excelled,  and  the  large  attend- 
ance showed  that  the  companions  as  well  as  the  officers  felt  a  deep  Interest  in  the  welfare 
and  good  name  of  their  chapter. 

Right  Eminent  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Grand  King,  and  visitors  from  King  Hiram 
St  Paul,  Keystone,  Androscoggin,  Jerusalem,  and  Turner  cliapters  were  also 
present.  June  3, 1879,  were  elected:  Comp.  R.  L.  Harlow,  H.  P.;  A.  M.  Roak, 
King;  A.  R.  Savage,  Scribe;  B.  F.  Metcalf,  C.  of  H.;  W.  F.  Lord,  P.  S ;  J.  F. 
Atwood,  R.  A.  C. ;  George  C.  Wing,  Treas.;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Sec.  June  17  P. 
H.  P.  A.  M.  Penley,  assisted  by  P.  H.  P.  George  S.  Woodman  as  Marshal,  pub- 
licly installed  the  officers.  After  the  installation  a  banquet  was  served.  June 
1,  1880,  were  elected:  A.  M.  Roak,  H.  P.;  A.  R.  Savage,  King;  B.  F.  Metcalf, 
Scribe;  George  C.  Wing,  Treas.;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Sec;  W.  F.  Lord,  C.  of  H. ; 
J.  F.  Atwood,  P.  S.;  C.  E.  Libby,  R.  A.  C.  July  6  P.  H.  P.  R.  L.  Harlow, 
with  the  assistance  of  P.  H.  P.  Geo.  S.  Woodman  as  Marshal,  publicly  installed 
the  officers.  After  the  installation  refreshments  were  served.  January  4, 
1881,  the  committee  appointed  to  present  resolutions  on  the  death  of  Comp. 
Charles  B.  Eaton,  reported  this  among  others:  ^'' Me  solved,  That  in  the  death 
of  Companion  Eaton  this  chapter  has  lost  a  worth}''  member,  —  who,  as  one  of 
its  charter  members,  labored  hard  for  its  success,  —  his  widow,  a  kind  husband, 
and  the  state  a  good  citizen."  March  8,  1881,  M.  E.  Jos.  M.  Hayes,  G.  H.  P., 
made  his  official  visit.     In  his  report  he  said: 

I  visited  Bradford  Chapter,  No.  38,  Auburn,  and  witnessed  work  in  the  Royal  Arch 
degree.     This  chapter,  although  young,  is  one  that  will  rank  high,  for  its  officers  are 

220  History  op  Androscoggin  County. 

interested  in  its  welfare,  are  accurate  ritualists,  and  appreciate  the  spirit  of  the  text.  The 
work  presented  would  have  been  creditable  for  any  chapter. 

June  7,  1881,  were  elected:  A.  R.  Savage,  H.  P.;  B.  F.  Metcalf,  King;  W. 

F.  Lord,  Scribe;  J.  F.  Atwood,  C.  of  H.;  C.  E.  Libby,  P.  S.;  E.  G.  Thompson, 
R.  A.  C;  Geo.  C.  Wing,  Treas.;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Sec.  June  14  the  officers  were 
publicly  installed  by  A.  M.  Roak,  P.  H.  P.,  assisted  by  A.  M.  Penley,  P.  H.  P., 
as  Grand  Marshal.  April  4,  1882',  R.  E.  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  D.  G.  H.  P.,  made 
his  official  visit.     In  his  report  he  said: 

I  visited  Bradford  Chapter  at  Auburn  and  witnessed  work  in  the  M.  M.  M.  degree.  The 
oflScers  and  many  of  the  members  showed  a  very  commendable  zeal  to  ascertain  what  is  the 
correct  wording  of  the  ritual.     The  chapter  is  in  a  prosperous  condition. 

June  G,  1882,  these  officers  were  elected:  B.  F.  Metcalf,  H.  P.;  W.  F. 
Lord,  King;  J.  F.  Atwood,  Scribe;  C.  E.  Libby,  C.  of  H.;  H.  G.  Foss,  P.  S. ; 
E.  G.  Heath,  R.  A.  C.;  George  C.  Wing,  Treas.;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Sec;  and 
June  29  they  were  publicly  installed  by  A.  R.  Savage,  P.  H.  P.,  assisted 
by  A.  M.  Roak,  P.  H.  P.,  as  Marshal.  March  27,  1883,  R.  E.  Manley  G. 
Trask,  Grand  King,  made  his  official  visit.     In  his  report,  he  said: 

I  visited  Bradford  Chapter  at  Auburn,  and  witnessed  most  excellent  work  on  the 
M.  E.  M.  degree.     The  officers  displayed  a  thorough  knowledge  of  their  several  parts. 

June  5,  1883,  the  following  were  elected:  W.  F.  Lord,  H.  P.;  J.  F. 
Atwood,  King  ;  C.  E.  Libby,  Scribe ;  H.  G.  Foss,  C.  of  H. ;  E.  G.  Heath, 
P.  S. ;  L.  O.  Brackett,  R.  A.  C. ;  Geo.  C.  Wing,  Treas. ;  C.  B.  Merrill,  Sec. 
June  12  the  officers  were  publicly  installed  by  A.  M.  Roak,  P.  XL  P.,  assisted  by 
A.  M.  Penley,  P.  H.  P.,  as  Marshal.  March  4, 1884,  resolutions  were  adopted  to 
the  memory  of  our  late  companion,  Marcellus  B.  Preble.  April  22  M.  E.  Frank 
E.  Sleej)er,  G.  H.  P.,  made  his  official  visit.     Li  his  report,  he  said: 

I  visited  Bradford  Chapter  at  Auburn.  Three  candidates  were  exalted.  The  chapter 
has  done  a  large  amount  of  work  during  the  year,  and  I  judge  from  the  specimens  of  skill 
exhibited  at  the  time  of  my  visit,  it  has  been  well  done. 

June  3,  1884,  the  following  officers  were  elected:  J.  F.  Atwood,  H.  P.; 
C.  E.  Libby,  King;  H.  G.  Foss,  Scribe;  E.  G.  Heath,  C.  of  H. ;  L.  O. 
Brackett,  P.  S. ;  L.  W.  Haskell,  R.  A.  C.;  Geo.  C^  Wing,  Treas.;  L.  Linn 
Small,  Sec.  They  were  installed  July  1  by  W.  F.  Lord,  P.  H.  P.,  assisted  by 
A.  M.  Penley,  P.  H.  P.,  as  Marshal.  September  2  resolutions  were  adopted  in 
memory  of  Comp.  Warren  Ward,  who  died  August  1,  1884.  February  3, 
1885,  resolutions  were  reported  to  the  memory  of  Comp.  Charles  E.  Smith, 
who  died    November   15,  1884.      March    31,  1885,  M.  E.  Frank    E.  Sleeper, 

G.  IL  P.,  made  his  official  visit.     Li  his  report,  he  said: 

March  31,  I  visited  Bradford  Chapter  at  Aubm-n.  The  Royal  Arch  degree  was  conferred 
in  accordance  with  the  standard  ritual,  and  in  a  very  correct  manner.     The  High  Priest 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  221 

and  several  of  his  companions  are  thorough  ritualists,  and  have  labored  hard  to  bring  the 
work  to  a  high  state  of  proficiency  in  which  they  have  well  succeeded.  The  records  are 
nicely  kept,  and  the  chapter  is  prospering. 

June  2,  1885,  these  officers  were  elected:  C.  E.  Libby,  H.  P.;  H.  G.  Foss, 
King;  E.  G.  Heath,  Scribe;  L.  O.  Brackett,  C.  H. ;  L.  W.  Haskell,  P.  S.; 
H.  W.  Hutchins,  R.  A.  C. ;  Geo.  (-.  Wing,  Treas. ;  L.  Linn  Small,  Sec.  July  16 
the  officers  were  installed  by  M.  E.  J.  F.  Atwood,  P.  H.  P.,  assisted  by  W.  F. 
Lord  as  Marshal.  August  4  resolutions  were  adopted  on  the  death  of  Conip. 
Ansel  L.  Lombard.  February  19,  1886,  R.  E.  Henry  R.  Taylor,  D.  D.  G.  H.  P. 
made  his  official  visit.  In  his  report  he  said:  "I  visited  Bradford  Royal  Arch 
Chapter  at  Auburn,  and  witnessed  work  in  the  R.  A.  degree,  which  was  very 
correctly  done."  June  1,  1886,  were  elected :  H.  G.  Foss,  H.  P. ;  E.  G.  Heath, 
King;  Geo.  C.  Wing,  Treas.;  L.  Linn  Small,  Sec.  July  6  the  officers  were 
installed  by  M.  E.  Chas  E.  Libby,  assisted  by  Ex.  A.  M.  Roak  as  G.  C.  of  H. 
February  8,  1887,  R.  PI  Chas  I.  Collamore,  Grand  Scribe,  made  his  official 
visit.  In  his  report  he  said:  "At  Auburn  I  saw  the  R.  A.  degree  conferred. 
The  work  was  performed  in  an  impressive  manner.  This  chapter  is  in  good 
condition."  March  1  resolutions  were  presented  on  the  death  of  Comp.  Jacob 
Robie.  June  7  the  following  were  elected:  E.  G.  Heath,  H.  P.;  H.  Wesley 
Hutchins,  King;  Henry  H.  Hanson,  Scribe;  Geo.  S.  Woodman,  Treas.;  A.  M. 
Roak,  Sec. ;  and  July  5,  they  were  installed  by  M.  E.  H.  G.  Foss,  assisted  by 
W.  F.  Lord  as  Grand  Captain  of  Host.  April  3, 1888,  M.  E.  James  M.  Nevens, 
G.  H.  P.,  made  his  official  visit  and  reported: 

April  .3  I  made  my  oflBcial  visit  to  Bradford  Chapter,  and  witnessed  work  in  the  R.  A. 
degree.  The  officers  were  all  new  in  their  stations,  and  this  was  the  first  time  that  they 
had  worked  the  degree,  yet  it  was  very  well  presented. 

June  5  the  following  were  elected:  H.  Wesley  Hutchins,  H.  P.;  Henry 
H.  Hanson,  King;  Geo.  B.  Attwood,  Scribe;  Geo.  S.  Woodman,  Treas.;  A.  M. 
Roak,  Sec.  July  3  the  officers  were  installed  by  R.  E.  A.  M.  Penley,  assisted 
by  E.  G.  Heath  as  Grand  C.  of  H.  April  30,  1880,  M.  E.  Geo.  W.  Goulding, 
G.  H.  P.,  made  his  official  visit.     In  his  report  he  said: 

Bradford  Chapter,  in  the  beautiful  city  of  Auburn,  was  visited  by  me  April  30.  The 
Eoyal  Arch  degree  was  worked  to  my  entire  satisfaction.  Twelve  exaltations  during  the 
year  with  several  applications  pending  will  give  an  idea  of  its  condition. 

June  5  were  elected:  Henry  H.  Hanson,  H.  P.;  Geo.  B.  Attwood,  King; 
E.  H.  Hutchins,  Scribe ;  Geo.  S.  Woodman,  Treas. ;  A.  M.  Roak,  Sec.  August  6 
the  officers  were  installed  b}'^  R.  E.  A.  M.  Penley,  assisted  by  Chas  E.  Libby  as 
G.  C.  of  A.  March  4,  1890,  R.  E.  Judson  B.  Dunbar,  Grand  Scribe,  made  an 
official  visit.  June  3  these  officers  were  chosen:  Geo.  B.  Attwood,  H.  P.; 
E.  H.-  Hutchins,    King;  L.  O.  Brackett,  Scribe;  Geo.  S.  Woodman,    Treas.; 

222  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

A.  M.  Roak,  Sec.  They  were  installed  July  1  by  Henry  H.  Hanson,  assisted 
by  n.  E.  A.  M.  Penley  as  G.  C.  of  H.  The  officers  for  1891  are:  E.  H. 
Hutchins,  H.  P.;  L.  O.  Brackett,  King;  E.  L.  Philoon,  S. ;  Geo.  S.  Woodman, 
Treas.;  A.  M.  Roak,  Sec;  C.  A.  Ring,  C.  of  H.;  L.  O.  Morse,  P.  S. ;  M.  B. 
Watson,  R.  A.  C;  J.  F.  Atwood,  A.  M.  Penley,  D.  W.  Verrill,  Finance 
Committee ;  J.  F.  Atwood,  Trustee.  There  is  no  more  united  or  more  flourishing 
body  in  a  large  region ;  no  better  workers ;  nor  a  band  of  brothers  whose 
mutual  strivings  after  excellence  in  masonic  virtues  have  given  more  satisfactory 
results  than  has  been  the  case  with  our  highly  favored  brotherhood,  and  the 
prospect  seems  pleasant  in  the  future. 

Auhurn  Council  Princes  of  Jerusalem  was  instituted  at  Masonic  Hall  under 
a  dispensation  granted  April  12,  1888.  There  were  26  charter  members : 
Fessenden  I.  Day,  A.  M.  Penley,  Horace  C  Little,  Algernon  M.  Roak,  Wm 
J.  Burnham,  John  Garner,  A.  R.  Savage,  George  C.  Wing,  H.  W.  Hutchins, 
T.  J.  Miller,  Seth  D.  Wakefield,  M.  E.  D.  Bailey,  Fred  H.  White,  Charles  H. 
Jumper,  Frank  H.  Johnson,  Wm  Freeman  Lord,  C.  E.  Libby,  Elbridge  G. 
Heath,  J.  H.  Foss,  Frank  L.  Sleeper,  Charles  L.  Cushman,  Frank  T.  Faulkner, 
Joseph  H.  Stetson,  John  W.  Ballon,  D.  P.  Boynton,  John  B.  Cotton.  The 
first  meeting  was  held  June  28,  1888.  The  officers  then  appointed  and  elected 
are:  Fessenden  I.  Day,  M.-.  E.-,  S.-.  P.-.  Grand  Master;  Albert  M.  Penley, 
G.-.  H.-.  P.-.  Deputy  Grand  Master;  Horace  C.  Little,  M.-.  E.-.  S.-.  Grand 
Warden  ;  Algernon  M.  Roak,  M.-.  E.-.  J.-.  Grand  Warden;  William  J.  Burnham, 
Val.  Grand  Treas.;  Elbridge  G.  Heath,  Val.  Grand  Sec.  K.-.  of  S.-.  &  A.-.; 
Albert  R.  Savage,  Val.  Grand  M.-.  of  C.-. ;  John  B.  Cotton,  Val.  (ira.nd 
Almoner  ;  Wm  Freeman  Lord,  V.-.  G.-.  M.-.  of  E.-. ;  Charles  Libby,  Grand 
tyler.  The  regular  meetings  of  the  council  are  held  on  the  second  Thursdays 
of  January,  April,  July,  and  October,  at  Masonic  Hall,  Auburn.  Regular 
meetings  may  be  called  by  the  Grand  Master  to  meet  on  the  second  Thursday 
of  any  other  month.  November  9,  1888,  the  council  was  visited  by  Portland 
Council  P.  of  J.,  which  exemplified  the  work  for  the  new  council,  and  were 
entertained  at  a  banquet  provided  at  the  Elm  House.  The  number  of 
members,  March,  1891,  was  (36. 

iJichei/  Chapter^  I\<n<e  Croix,  A.  <f  A.  A.,  Scottish  Rite,  Auhurn,  was  organized 
at  Masonic  Hall,  under  a  dispensation  granted  January  5,  1891,  with  these 
charter  members:  Wm  J.  Burnham,  Albert  M.  Penley,  Fessenden  I.  Day, 
Algcniion  M.  Roak,  Wm  F.  Wood,  Charles  E.  Libby,  Wm  Freeman  Lord, 
Elbridge  G.  Heath,  Wm  D.  Pennell,  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Charles  E.  Philoon,  H. 
Wesley  Hutchins,  James  E.  Coombs,  Albert  R.  Savage,  George  C.  Wing,  Wm 
Chandler  Bearce,  Fred  H.  White,  Seth  D.  Wakefield,  Joseph  K.  Stetson,  Wm 
Parkin,  Samuel  Sylvester,  Daniel  Fessenden,  Frank  H.  Johnson,  John  Garner, 
Frank  S.  French,  H.  G.  Foss,  John  A.  Greenleaf,  Frank  E,  Sleeper,  M.  E.  D. 
Bailey,  Charles  L.  Cushman,  Horace  C.  Little,  Daniel  P.  Boynton,  Charles  H. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  223 

Miller.  The  first  regular  meeting  was  held  in  Masonic  Hall,  January  27,  1891. 
The  officers  for  1891  are:  Wm  J.  Buruham,  M.-.  W.-.  e^  P.-.  M.-.;  A.  M.  Penley, 
M.-.  E.-.  &  P.-.  K.-.  S.-.  W.-.;  F.  I.  Day,  M.-.  E.-.  &  P.-.  K.-.  J.-.  W.-.;  A.  M. 
Roak,  M.-.  E.-.  &  P.-.  K.-.  G.-.  ().-. ;  Wm  F.  Wood,  R.-.  &  1\-.  K.-.  T.-. ;  Charles 
E.  Libby,  R.-.  &  P.-.  K.-.  H.-.;  Wm  F.  Lord,  R.-.  &  P.-.  K.-.  M.-.  of  C.-.  ;  E.  G. 
Heath,  R.-.  &  P.-.  K.-.  S.-.  March  26,  1891,  the  work  was  rendered  by  the 
officers  of  Dunlap  Chapter  of  Rose  Croix  of  Portland,  and  the  following 
Valorous  Princes  received  the  degree  of  Knight  of  the  East  and  West,  17°, 
and  Knight  of  the  Eagle  and  Pelican :  Walter  E.  Plummer,  James  H.  Brewster, 
Albert  B.  Nealey,  Edwin  R.  Protheroe,  George  W.  Hutchins,  Melville  W. 
Manter,  George  B.  Bearce,  Arthur  G.  Staples,  H.  Bradford  Hayes,  Sylvester  S. 
Wright,  Willie  A.  Knight,  Augustus  A.  Waite,  Lavator  O.  Morse,  Ernest  W. 
Russell,  John  B.  Wise,  Harry  L.  Haskell,  James  II.  Eacott,  Samuel  Hibbert, 
Abram  Atwood,  James  F.  Atwood,  John  N.  Wood. 

Ashlar  Lodge.,  No.  105.,  F.  cf  A.  M..,  Leivuton.,  had  its  origin  in  a  meeting 
held  at  the  DeWitt  House,  October  24,  1860,  where  Jos.  Pearson  Gill, 
Jos.  P.  Fessendeu,  Samuel  W.  Kilvert,  David  Cowan,  Eli  Fernald,  J.  D. 
Rollins,  Nathaniel  J.  Jackson,  Isaac  J.  Carr,  Geo.  H.  Nye,  Carlos  Nudd,  Geo. 
W.  Wright,  A.  C.  Mitchell,  Wm  Skelton,  H.  H.  Dickey,  Wm  Knowlton,  A.  K. 
P.  Knowlton,  Uriah  Balkam,  Benjamin  I.  Leeds,  signed  a  petition  in  answer 
to  which  a  dispensation  was  granted  November  5,  1860,  by  Josiah  H.  Drum- 
mond,  Grand  Master,  to  the  petitioners  to  work  as  a  lodge  of  F.  &  A.  M.  He 
appointed  Jos.  Pearson  Gill  to  be  the  first  W.  M.,  Jos.  P.  Fessenden,  S.  W., 
and  Eli  Fernald,  J.  W.  The  other  officers  were  S.  W.  Kilvert,  Treas. ;  A.  K. 
P.  Knowlton,  Sec;  N.  J.  Jackson,  S.  D. ;  Wm  Knowlton,  J.  I).;  Wm  Skelton, 
S.  S.;  Geo.  H.  N3^e,  J.  S.;  Rev.  LIriah  Balkam,  Chap.;  David  Cowan, 
Marshal;  A.C.Mitchell,  Sentinel;  Carlos  Nudd,  Tyler.  The  young  lodge 
attracted  much  attention  from  Masons  and  had  many  visitors.  June  9,  1862,  an 
invitation  was  received  from  Portland  Lodge,  No.  1,  to  attend  the  centennial 
anniversary  in  that  city,  on  June  24,  which  was  accepted.  November  3,  the 
lodge  voted  "to  unite  with  King  Hiram  Chapter  in  hiring  the  floor  containing 
the  hall  in  Mr  Dingley's  building  on  Lisbon  street  at  -ij^lOO  per  year."     During 

1863  17  were  initiated.  January  17,  1864,  occurred  the  first  Masonic  funeral, 
conducted  by  the  lodge,  that  of  Josiah  Stimson.  December  27  a  special  com- 
munication was  held  to  attend  the  funeral  of  Brother  Wm  Knowlton.     During 

1864  43  petitions  were  received  and  21  initiated.  May  8,  1865,  the  lodge  gave 
a  vote  of  thanks  to  Bro.  Samuel  W.  Kilvert  for  the  present  of  an  altar.  (Jctober 
30  the  Lewiston  Masonic  Association  was  formed  by  Ashlar  Lodge,  King 
Hiram  Chapter,  Dunlap  Council,  and  Lewiston  Commandery.  By  January  1, 
1866,  the  record  of  the  annual  meeting  had  grown  to  several  pages,  showing 
the  growth  and  importance  of  the  lodge.  Ham  Brooks  and  Samuel  W. 
Kilvert  were  appointed  members  of  the  board  of  trustees  for  Ashlar  Lodge. 

224  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

April  23  a  communication  was  received  from  Charlottestown,  P.  E.  I.,  giving 
information  of  the  death  and  burial  of  Brother  Joseph  Covell.  January  14, 
1867,  the  secretary's  report  says:  "  There  have  been  22  admitted  to  membership 
during  the  year,  and  there  are  now  96  members.  One  brother  has  died,  J.  U. 
Parkinson.  The  amount  of  the  charity  fund  is  1399.86."  In  June  a  committee 
was  appointed  to  have  by-laws  printed.  October  23  the  lodge  attended  the 
funeral  of  Bro.  Noah  C.  Barnes.  January  6, 1868,  annual  meeting.  Seventeen 
have  joined  during  the  past  year,  35  communications  have  been  held,  and  the 
lodge  has  111  members.  The  charity  fund  has  risen  to  $508.16,  and  the 
treasurer  holds  in  cash  1530.  May  11  voted  to  place  the  procuring  of  another 
hall  in  the  hands  of  the  trustees.  July  28  attended  the  funeral  of  Bro.  A.  H. 
Small  of  Tranquil  Lodge.  November  30  R.  W.  Wm  J.  Burnham,  D.  D.  G.  M., 
made  the  lodge  an  official  visit.  December  28  a  petition  for  another  (new) 
lodge  in  Lewiston  was  presented  by  H.  H.  Dickey,  and  petitioners  were 
allowed  permission  to  present  it  to  the  Grand  Lodge  by  a  unanimous  vote. 
The  lodge  also  voted  to  allow  the  new  lodge  the  use  of  the  jewels  and  furniture 
of  Ashlar  Lodge  for  six  months.  January  25,  1869,  annual  meeting.  Seven- 
teen have  joined  during  the  year;  whole  number  of  members,  124;  amount 
of  charity  fund,  $614.69.  J.  P.  Gill,  A.  Callahan,  and  Wm  J.  Burnham  were 
continued  in  their  ver}^  useful  place  as  finance  committee.  Wm  J.  Burnham 
was  also  appointed  trustee  of  the  Masonic  Association. 

Januar}^  17,  1870,  was  held  the  first  annual  meeting  in  the  hall  in  Savings 
Bank  building.  The  lodge  voted  to  procure  new  regalia,  to  authorize  the  loan 
of  the  funds  of  the  lodge  to  the  trustees  of  the  Masonic  Association,  and  $1,000 
was  so  loaned,  also  $400  of  the  charity  fund.  The  officers  were  installed  Jan- 
uary 31,  by  R.  W.  Isaac  G.  Curtis,  D.  D.  G.  M.  April  25  R.  W.  I.  G.  Curtis, 
D.  D.  G.  M.,  made  an  official  visit.  October  3  a  committee  on  history  was 
appointed,  consisting  of  Brothers  John  F.  Putnam,  Augustus  Callahan,  and 
Wm  J.  Burnham.  January  2,  1871,  annual  meeting.  Ten  have  become 
members  during  the  year,  and  there  are  136  members.  The  lodge  has  a  fund 
of  $1,153.59  and  a  charity  fund  of  $788.41.  April  3  received  a  petition  from 
Bro.  Luther  Lombard  and  14  others  asking  permission  to  present  it  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  for  a  dispensation  for  a  lodge  at  Webster.  October  23  the  lodge 
by  vote  approved  of  the  action  of  the  treasurer  and  W.  M.  in  sending  $100  to 
the  sufferers  from  the  fire  in  Chicago.  This  was  sent  on  Tuesday  following 
the  fire  on  Sunday,  and  the  record  says:  "This  was  probably  the  first  remit- 
tance from  New  England  if  not  the  first  made  in  the  country."  The  same 
evening  the  lodge  received  a  novel  and  beautiful  present  from  Bro.  George  B. 
Moore  of  Brownsville,  Neb.,  of  the  square  and  compasses  tastefully  wrought 
in  wax,  which  now  ornaments  Masonic  Hall.  November  5  the  lodge  buried 
the  body  of  Bro.  L.  B.  Roys,  of  Miami  Lodge,  Cincinnati,  O.,  in  Riverside 
Cemetery,  with  Masonic  honors.     January  22,  1872,  annual  meeting.     Seven- 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  225 

teen  members  have  been  added  to  the  lodge  during  the  year,  making  a  total  of 
151.  March  18  intelligence  was  received  of  the  deaths  of  I>rothers  Stephen 
G.  Marden,  at  Palermo,  and  W.  H.  B.  Moore,  F.  C,  at  Rumford.  August  11 
attended  the  funeral  of  Bro.  A.  C.  Pray  of  Tranquil  Lodge.  Annual  meeting 
January  3,  1873.  Twelve  admitted  to  membership  during  the  year.  August 
29  attended  the  funeral  of  IJro.  J.  Frank  Pierce;  December  23  that  of  Bro. 
John  Neal.  March  G,  1874,  attended  the  funeral  of  Rev.  Uriah  Balkam,  a 
member  of  the  lodge,  buried  with  Masonic  rites.  April  27  a  communication 
from  the  Grand  Lodge  received,  ordering  the  altar  and  working  tools  of  the 
lodge  to  be  draped  witli  mourning  for  thirty  days,  as  a  token  of  respect  to  the 
two  Past  Grand  Masters  who  had  died  during  the  year  —  Freeman  Bradford 
and  Jolni  H.  Lynde.  June  24  assisted  in  the  dedication  of  the  new  Masonic 
hall  in  Auburn.  June  29  contributed  -flOO  to  the  Louisiana  sufferers. 
August  24  contributed  -^25  to  Cambridge  Lodge  to  aid  in  repairing  its  hall, 
damaged  by  a  tornado. 

January  18, 1875,  annual  meeting.  R.  W.  P\ancis  T.  Faulkner,  1).  D.  G.  M., 
was  present  in  an  official  capacity.  Nine  members  have  been  admitted  during 
the  year.  The  able  finance  committee-men,  who  have  so  long  served,  are 
continued  in  office,  and  Bro.  Wm  J.  Burnham  continued  trustee.  June  14 
granted  permission  to  have  a  dispensation  granted  to  Ancient  Brothers  Lodge 
to  be  formed  in  Auburn.  November  18  the  lodge  votes  its  thanks  to  Bro. 
John  N.  Wood  for  the  valuable  Bible  he  has  presented.  January  2,  1876,  a 
special  communication  was  held  in  connection  with  Rabboni  Lodge  for  the 
purpose  of  attending  the  funeral  of  Bro.  (^eo.  Hill,  of  Portland  Lodge,  No.  1. 
Annual  meeting  January  10.  The  treasurer  reports  the  amount  on  hand  to  be 
$1,505.34,  and  the  charity  fund  to  be  $1,441. 46.  Eight  members  have  been 
admitted  during  the  year.  March  6  a  committee  of  seven  was  appointed  to  visit 
and  supply  watchers  for  sick  brethren.  March  20  the  lodge  was  visited  by  R. 
W.  F.  T.  Faulkner,  ex-D.  D.  G.  M.,  and  R.  W.  F.  E.  Sleeper,  I).  D.  G.  M.,  of 
the  Fourteenth  Masonic  District,  and  officially  visited  by  R.  W.  F.  I.  Day, 
D.  D.  G.  M.  June  5  accepted  an  invitation  from  Ancient  Brothers  Lodge, 
U.  D.,  Auburn,  to  attend  the  constituting  and  dedicating  of  that  lodge. 
January  29,  1877,  annual  meeting.  Number  of  members,  174.  March  9  Bro. 
Geo.  C.  Leavitt  died  in  Wilton.  Lyman  O.  Goodwin  died  in  Salem,  Mass., 
July  30,  1877.  January  14  annual  meeting.  R.  W.  R.  Wesley  Dunn, 
D.  D.  G.  M.,  of  the  Twelfth  Masonic  District,  was  a  visitant.  The  death  of 
Bro.  Geo.  G.  Carlton,  at  Denver,  Col.,  was  reported  in  February,  1878.  Through 
the  efforts  of  ladies  interested  in  Masonry,  who  furnished  the  most  of  its  cost, 
an  organ  was  bought  and  S.  D.  Wood  made  organist.  The  officers  for  1879 
were  installed  publicly,  January  20,  by  R.  W.  Archie  L.  Talbot,  D.  G.  M., 
installing  officer,  assisted  by  R.  W.  Wm  J.  Burnham  as  Grand  Marshal. 
June  2  accepted  the  invitation  to  attend  the  Masonic  celebration  at  Portland, 

226  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

June  24,  which  was  attended,  and  a  fine  time  enjoyed.  June  30  the  thanks  of 
the  lodge  is  voted  to  several  benefactors.  November  23  a  connnunication  was 
received  from  the  (Irand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  announcing  the  death  of 
R.  W.  Bro.  Moses  Dodge,  Grand  Treasurer. 

January  26,  1880,  annual  meeting.  Nine  members  joined  daring  the  year. 
Installation  February  23,  1880,  was  conducted  by  R.  W.  Archie  L.  Talbot, 
D.  D.  G.  M.,  assisted  by  Wor.  Milton  J.  Loring,  W.  M.,  of  Ancient  Brothers 
Lodge,  Auburn,  as  Grand  Marshal.  April  26  the  funeral  of  Bro.  Elbridge 
L.  Flagg  was  attended.  1881  —  annual  meeting  January  10;  172  members 
reported.  The  officers  were  publicly  installed,  February  14,  by  R.  W.  Charles  R. 
Whitten,  D.  1).  G.  M.,  installing  officer,  assisted  by  R.  W.  Archie  Lee  Talbot, 
J.  G.  W.  The  ceremonies  were  succeeded,  as  has  been  usual  on  such  occasions, 
by  a  bountiful  banquet.  February  10  a  special  communication  was  called  to 
attend  the  funeral  of  W.  Bro.  Augustus  Callahan,  one  of  the  ablest  and  most 
honored  members  of  the  lodge,  who  had  done  great  service  in  various  official 
positions  on  the  finance  committee,  and  as  trustee  of  the  Masonic  Association. 
July  20  the  lodge  attended  the  funeral  of  Bro.  L  N.  Parker.  October  31  a 
contribution  was  sent  to  the  sufferers  from  the  forest  fires  in  Michigan. 
January  2, 1882,  annual  meeting.  Membership,  179;  admitted  during  the  year, 
six;  died,  two  —  A.  Callahan  and  Geo.  W.  Farr.  January  5,  1883,  attended 
the  funeral  services  of  Bro.  Simon  W.  Miller.  January  22  annual  meeting; 
186  members  reported.  The  finance  committee  report  the  lodge  entirely  out 
of  debt  with  a  balance  on  hand.  Public  installation  of  officers  February 
26,  by  R.  W.  A.  M.  Roak,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  who,  April  16,  officially  visited  the 
lodge.  Wm  Skelton  and  Samuel  W.  Kilvert,  charter  members,  and  John 
Jones  died  this  year.  1884  —  January  7,  annual  meeting;  191  members. 
March  5  Masonic  funeral  of  Bro.  Wm  Sheehan.  May  23  occurred  the  last 
rites  over  the  body  of  Bro.  H.  H.  Dickey,  P.  J.  G.  W.  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  a 
charter  member,  conducted  by  M.  W.  Josiah  H.  Drummond,  Grand  Master  of 
the  Grand  Lodge.  To  his  earnest  labors  much  of  the  prosperity  of  the  lodge 
is  due.  1885  —  annual  meeting  January  26.  The  lodge  voted  to  purchase 
crayon  portraits  of  Past  Masters  H.  H.  Dickey  and  Augustus  Callahan. 
Number  of  members,  201.  April  13  R.  W.  N.  U.  Hinkley,  D.  D.  G.  M., 
made  an  official  visit.  Masonic  burial  services  conducted  February  7,  1886, 
over  the  remains  of  Bro.  George  Washburn.  February  18  an  official  visit 
made  by  R.  W.  Lyman  L.  Jones,  D.  D.  G.  M.  April  4,  1887,  R.  W.  Geo.  S. 
Woodman,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  made  an  official  visit.  Officers  installed  publicly, 
February  15,  1888,  by  M.  W.  F.  E.  Sleeper,  Grand  Master.  August  26  a 
special  communication  was  called  to  bury  Bro.  Arthur  Sands  with  Masonic 
ceremonies.  This  year  the  trustees  increased  the  amount  of  crockery  so  as 
to  seat  100  guests.  This  crockery  is  made  for  the  lodge,  and  each  piece  is 
stamped  with  its  name.     June  23  the  lodge  conducted  the  funeral  services  of 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  227 

Bro.  George  A.  Haynes.  1890  —  officers:  Albert  Ring,  W.  M. ;  Henry  A. 
Torsey,  S.  W. ;  Frank  A.  Johnson,  J.  W.;  R.  C,  Pingree,  Treas. ;  Fred  I. 
Morrell,  Sec. ;  Wm  J.  Burnham,Chap. ;  W.  F.  Wood,  Marshal ;  A.  M.  Edwards, 
S.  D.;  H.  A.  Free,  J.  D.;  E.  P.  lirett,  S.  S.;  J.  F.  Pickermg,  J.  S.;  Wm 
Stevens,  Tyler.  Installed  publicly,  February  3,  by  R.  W.  F.  I.  Day,  P.  (i.  M. 
of  the  (Irand  Lodge.  During  tlie  installation  of  Bro.  Wm  J.  Burnham  the 
installing  officer  presented  to  him  on  behalf  of  the  lodge  an  elegant  Past 
Master's  jewel  "  as  a  slight  token  of  their  appreciation,  and  as  a  memento  of 
the  occasion  of  his  twentieth  appointment  as  chaplain."  Granville  L.  Cobb 
was  buried  with  Masonic  ceremonies  in  February.  April  20  the  lodge  conducted 
the  funeral  rites  of  Bro.  G.  Henry  Jordan,  of  Lisbon,  a  member  of  this  lodge. 
June  24  the  lodge  attended  the  Masonic  celebration  at  Portland.  June  2 
George  A.  Callahan,  having  been  appointed  Grand  Standard  Bearer  of  the 
Grand  Lodge,  was  duly  installed  by  the  W.  M.  Bro.  Geo.  I.  Avery  died  at 
Lisbon  in  July.  October  19  the  lodge  attended  the  funeral  of  Bro.  Linneus 
Cheetham.  1891  —  annual  meeting  January  19;  present  membership  189; 
charity  fund  $2,191.41;  lodge  fund  11,647.50.  Officers,  1891:  Albert  Ring, 
W.  M. ;  H.  A.  Torsey,  S.  W. ;  Frank  H.  Johnson,  J.  W.;  R.  C.  Pingree,  Treas.; 
P>ed  I.  Morrell,  Sec;  Wm  J.  Burnham,  Chap.;  Wm  F.  Wood,  S.  D.;  E.  P. 
Brett,  J.  D.;  J.  F.  Pickering,  S.  S.;  Geo.  W.  Belt,  J.  S.;  Wm  Stevens,  Tyler. 

During  the  thirty  years  of  its  existence  Ashlar  Lodge  has  admitted  319 
members,  and  ever  been  in  the  front  rank  of  Masonic  lodges  in  the  state. 
Its  membership  has  embraced  leading  citizens,  and  its  management  has  been  in 
wise  and  conservative  hands.  Its  finances  have  been  carefully  looked  after, 
and,  although  many  generous  donations  to  worthy  objects  and  brethren  have 
been  made,  they  speak  well  for  the  committee  having  them  in  charge. 
Commencing  a  new  decade  of  life  with  nearly  200  members  and  in  prosperous 
circumstances,  its  future  promises  to  be  as  useful  as  has  been  its  past.  The 
masters  have  been  J.  P.  Gill,  H.  H.  Dickey,  W.  J.  Burnham,  I.  G.  Curtis, 
Denison  Harden,  I.  C.  Downes,  A.  E.  Frost,  W.  W.  Sanborn,  George  H. 
Benson,  F.  B.  Sands,  J.  H.  Fisher,  J.  Q.  A.  Jumper,  Fred  I.  Morrell,  Hiram 
Morrell,  C.  H.  Jumper,  Albert  Ring.  The  trustees  of  the  lodge  in  the  Masonic 
Association  from  the  first  have  been  Wm  J.  Burnham,  H.  H.  Dickey,  F.  B. 
Sands.  R.  C.  Pingree  has  been  treasurer  since  1873  when  he  succeeded  H.  H. 

Rahhoni  Lodge.,  No.  150.,  F.  ^  A.  M.,  had  its  origin  in  a  petition  signed  by 
F'.  Bradford,  A.  Callahan,  J.  Pearson  Gill,  H.  H.  Dickey,  Thomas  Tash,  F.  O. 
Sands,  S.  W.  Butterfield,  Chas  A.  Coombs,  David  Cowan,  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton, 
F.  I.  Day,  Peter  Morriscy,  T.  H.  Longley,  W.  W.  Sanborn,  Geo.  I.  Parker, 
J.  K.  Piper,  John  M.  Small,  Isaac  R.  Knowlton,  Milan  Graves,  T.  M.  Varney, 
Chas  Millett,  James  Wrigley,  F.  P.  Weymouth,  Geo.  H.  Benson,  A.  F. 
Sanborn,  C.  O.  Freeman,  Chas  A.  Norcross,  J.  W.  Perkins,  John  Given,  Thos 

228  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

B.  Norris,  E.  P.  Tobie,  Jr,  John  N.  Wood,  John  W.  Farwell,  O.  S.  Brown, 
H.  H.  Williams,  Geo.  O.  Durgin,  Kicliard  Skelton,  and  A.  N.  Tracy,  which 
Ashlar  Lodge  gave  the  petitioners  leave  to  present  to  the  Grand  Master, 
December  28,  1868.  The  petitioners  asked  for  a  dispensation  to  allow  them 
to  meet  as  a  Masonic  lodge  at  Lewiston,  on  the  Wednesday  succeeding 
the  full  moon  of  eacli  month,  under  the  name  of  Rahhoni  Lodne,  and 
recommended  Bro.  David  Cowan  for  the  first  Master,  Bro.  A.  K,  P.  Knowlton 
for  S.  W.,  and  Bro.  Fessenden  I.  Day  for  J.  W.  The  D.  D.  G.  M.  recom- 
mended that  the  prayer  of  the  petitioners  be  granted,  and  the  G.  M.  granted 
a  dispensation,  dating  from  December  28,  1868.  Charter  Members.  —  David 
Cowan,  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  Fessenden  I.  Day,  Thomas  Tash,  C.  A. 
Coombs,  T.  M.  Varney,  George  I.  Parker,  F.  P.  Weymouth,  T.  H. 
Longley,  J.  K.  Piper,  Chas  O.  Freeman,  Isaac  K.  Knowlton,  Frank  O.  Sands, 
Alonzo  F.  Sanborn,  James  Wrigley,  Chas  H  Millett,  Geo.  O.  Durgin,  Thos  B. 
Norris,  John  W.  Farwell,  Peter  Morriscy,  Richard  Skelton,  Chas  A.  Norcross, 
Milan  Graves,  H.  H.  Richardson,  Daniel  P.  Atwood,  M.  T.  Ludden,  John 
Given.  The  first  stated  meeting  was  held  December  30,  1868.  The  full  list  of 
officers  is:  David  Cowan,  W.  M. ;  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  S.  W. ;  Fessenden  I. 
Day,  J.  W.;  Thomas  Tash,  Treas.;  C.A.  Coombs,  Sec;  T.  M.  Varney,  S.  D. ; 
George  I.  Parker,  J.  D. ;  F.  P.  Weymouth,  S.  S. ;  T.  H.  Longley,  J.  S. ;  Augus- 
tus Callahan,  Chap. ;  D.  Harding,  Tyler.  The  preliminary  meetings  were  held 
in  what  are  now  the  editorial  rooms  of  the  Lewiston  Journal.  Arrangements 
were  soon  made  with  Ashlar  Lodge,  and  meetings  held  in  the  hall  in  the  upper 
story  of  27  Lisbon  street.  September  22,  1869,  the  lodge  sent  a  contribution 
to  the  building  fund  of  the  Masonic  Temple  in  Washington,  D.  C,  and 
appointed  a  committee  to  arrange  for  the  use  of  the  new  Masonic  Hall,  which 
they  occupied  January  1,  1870.  February  9,  1870,  a  special  communication 
was  held  to  consecrate  and  constitute  Rabboni  Lodge,  No.  150,  and  install  its 
officers  for  the  term.  They  were:  David  Cowan,  W.  M. ;  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton, 
S.  W.;  Fessenden  I.  Day,  J.  W.;  Thomas  Tash,  T.;  C.  A.  Coombs,  S.;  M.  T. 
Ludden,  Chap.  April  20,  1870,  the  lodge  accepted  the  act  of  incorporation  of 
the  Masonic  Board  of  Trustees,  and  became  parties  to  the  contract.  Septem- 
ber 28  occurred  the  installation  of  officers :  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  W.  M. ;  F.  I. 
Day,  S.  W.;  T.  M.  Varney,  J.  W.;  D.  Cowan,  Chap. ;  C.  A.  Coombs,  Sec. 
January  11, 1871,  Charles  O.  Freeman  was  buried  at  Minot  Corner  with  Masonic 
rites.  April  12,  1871,  E.  H.  C'ummings  was  chosen  proxy  for  the  lodge  at  the 
Grand  Lodge.  September  11,  1871,  these  officers  were  elected:  A.  K.  P. 
Knowlton,  W.  M.;  F.  I.  Day,  S.  W. ;  G.  I.  Parker,  J.  W. ;  Thomas  Tash,  T.; 
H.  N.  Emery,  Sec;  F.  O.  Sands,  C.  A.  Coombs,  Ai  Brooks,  Jr,  Finance  Com- 
mittee. October  31  a  funeral  was  conducted,  that  of  J.  K.  Piper.  January  10, 
1872,  Albert  N.  Tracy  was  buried,  and  F.  O.  Sands  (a  charter  member,  agent 
Lewiston  Mills,)   July  3,  1872.     Annual  election  September  18,  1872.     The 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  229 

new  officers  were  :  F.  I.  Da}^  W.  M. ;  F.  P.  Weymouth,  S.  W.;  T.  H.  Longley, 
J.  W. ;  Thomas  Tash,  Treas.  (superintendent  of  Lewiston  schools);  H.  N. 
Emery,  Sec.  The  officers  elected  September  10,  1873,  were  the  same  except 
H.  E.  Morriscy,  chosen  J.  W.  June  24  the  lodge  joined  in  the  dedication 
services  of  the  new  Masonic  Hall  in  Auburn.  Officers  for  1874-5:  H.  E. 
Morriscy,  W.  M. ;  E.  V.  Daly,  S.  W. ;  O.  G.  Douglass,  J.  W. ;  Cyrus  Greely, 
Treas.;  H.  N.Emery,  Sec;  John  Garner,  Chaplain;  Wm  D.  Pennell,  Marshal; 
Fred  Kelly,  S.  D.;  Horace  C.  Little,  J.  D.  Alba  C.  Nichols  died  at  Lancaster, 
N.  H.,  in  November.  September  15,  1875,  were  elected:  George  G.  Hartwell, 
W.  M.;  E.  V.  Daly,  S.  W.;  O.  G.  Douglass,  J.  W. ;  C.  Greely,  Treas.;  H.  N. 
Emery,  Sec;  Fessenden  I.  Day,  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  L.  E.  Timberlake,  Finance 
Committee;  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  representative  to  the  Grand  Lodge.  Septem- 
ber 6,  187(3,  George  G.  Hartwell  was  chosen  W.  M. ;  O.  G.  Douglass,  S.  W. ; 
Fred  Kelly,  J.  W.;  C.  Greely,  Treas.;  H.  N.  Emery,  Sec.  The  finance  com- 
mittee was  continued.  June  26, 1877,  the  funeral  of  I>ro.  John  Thompson  was 
attended.  September  26, 1877,  were  elected:  Oscar  G.  Douglass,  W.  M.;  Fred 
Kelly,  S.  W.;  F.  W.  Parker,  J.  W.;  C.  Greely,  Treas.;  L.  E.  Timberlake,  Sec 
The  first  public  installation  and  banquet  of  the  lodge  occurred  October  18, 
1877.     December  26  the  death  of  C.  F.  Ranks  was  reported. 

The  officers  elected  in  September,  1878,  were:  O.  G.  Douglass,  W.  M. ;  Fred 
Kelly,  S.  W.  ;  F.  W.  Parker,  J.  W.  ;  C.  Greely,  Treas. ;  Lewis  Garner,  Sec ; 
F.  I.  Day,  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  George  G.  Hartwell,  Finance  Committee. 
Installation  November  13.  June  21  assisted  in  laying  the  corner-stone  of 
Trinity  (Episcopal)  Chapel,  also  voted  to  attend  St  John's  Day  celebration, 
at  Portland,  in  full  Masonic  dress.  Officers  elected  in  1879  and  1880  were : 
Fred  Kelly,  W.  M. ;  Frank  W.  Parker,  S.  W. ;  Albert  S.  Plummer,  J.  W. ; 
C.  Greely,  Treas. ;  Lewis  Garner,  Sec.  H.  H.  Richardson,  of  Livermore,  a 
charter  member,  and  ex-city  marshal  of  Lewiston,  died  in  October,  1879. 
Nathan  Woodbury  was  chaplain,  and  held  the  position,  from  1880,  for  many 
years.  In  1881  and  1882  the  officers  were:  Frank  W.  Parker,  W.  M. ; 
A.  S.  Plummer,  S.  W. ;  Frank  L.  Hoyt,  J.  W. ;  V.  Greely,  Treas. ;  Eugene 
E.  Ham,  Secretary.  October  11,  1881,  attended  the  funeral  services  of 
Rrother  George  A.  Chandler.  September  23  was  buried  M.  T.  Ludden,  a 
charter  member,  a  prominent  lawyer,  and  ex-mayor  of  Lewiston.  September 
19,  1883,  were  elected:  Albert  S.  Plummer,  W.  M.  ;  F.  L.  Hoyt,  S.  W.  ;  C. 
V.  Emerson,  J.  W. ;  C.  (Treely,  Treas. ;  E.  E.  Ham,  Sec  September  10,  1884, 
the  same  officers  elected.  November  2  attended  the  funeral  of  T.  J.  Ridley, 
of  King  David  Lodge,  Taunton,  Mass.  April  19,  1885,  attended  funeral  of 
Wm  F.  Goulding ;  July  25, 1885,  that  of  Alonzo  F.  Sanborn.  Officers  elected 
in  1885  and  in  1886  were:  F.  L.  Hoyt,  W.  M.;  C.  V.  Emerson,  S.  W. ;  E.  K. 
Smith,  J.  W. ;  C.  Greely,  Treas.;  E.  E.  Ham,  Sec;  and  November  3,  1885, 
occurred  the  second  public  installation  of  officers.     December  30,  1886,  a  large 

230  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

number  of  members  and  visitors  witnessed  the  conferring  of  the  degrees 
upon  Daniel  H.  Day  by  his  father,  M.  W.  Fessenden  I.  Day,  Grand  Master 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine,  assisted  by  other  officers  of  the  Grand 
Lodge.  April  10,  1887,  David  Cowan  (a  charter  member,  past  master,  a 
mayor  of  Lewiston)  was  buried  with  the  honors  of  Masonry,  M.  W.  Fes- 
senden I.  Day,  Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  conducting  the  services. 
The  officers  elected  in  1887  were:  C.  V.  Emerson,  W.  M. ;  E.  K.  Smith,  S.  W.; 
D.  B.  Stevens,  J.  W. ;  C.  Greely,  Treas. ;  E.  E.  Ham,  Sec.  The  next  year  no 
change  occurred  except  G.  F.  Turner  was  chosen  secretary.  The  third  public 
installation  occurred  October  25,  1887.  S.  C.  Wyman  and  Daniel  Allen  died 
in  1888.  September  26  a  contribution  was  made  to  the  suffering  brethren  in 
Florida.  Officers  elected  in  1889  and  in  1890:  E.  K.  Smith,  W.  M.;  D.  B. 
Stevens,  S.  W.;  W.  H.  Judkins,  J.  W.;  C.  Greely,  Treas.;  George  F.  Turner, 
Sec;  N.  Woodbury,  Chap.     The  lodge  visited  Portland  June  24,  1890. 

This  lodge,  though  young  in  years,  lias  a  good  record,  and  has  many  promi- 
nent citizens  on  its  rolls.  It  has  now  (April  15,  1891,)  a  membership  of  165, 
is  prosperous,  and  owns  its  portion  of  Masonic  Hall,  which  is  paid  for.  During 
the  last  Masonic  year  it  has  admitted  thirteen  members,  and  conferred  the 
third  degree  on  11  candidates.  Kegular  meetings  are  held  Wednesday  evening 
after  the  full  moon. 

Kinfi  Hiram  Chapter,  No.  9,  R.  A.  M.,  Lewiston.'^  —  In  pursuance  of  a 
petition  presented  to  Timothy  Chase,  Grand  High  Priest  of  the  Grand  Royal 
Arch  Chapter  of  Maine,  signed  by  Comps.  Alonzo  Andrews,  Thurston  Libby, 
William  White,  Levi  Bates,  Albert  H.  Kelsey,  George  Moore,  Samuel  Soule, 
J.  W.  Littlefield,  Samuel  B.  Hutchins,  and  Joseph  Covell,  a  dispensation  was 
granted  November  28, 1854,  instituting  King  Hiram  Chapter.  Alonzo  Andrews 
Avas  appointed  Most  Excellent  High  Priest;  Thurston  Libby,  King;  and 
William  White,  Scribe.  At  this  time  but  eight  chapters  held  charters  in 
Maine,  and  but  two  had  been  constituted  since  1829.  These  were  at  Portland, 
Brunswick,  Wiscasset,  Gardiner,  Saco,  Bangor,  Belfast,  and  Rockland.  The 
territorial  limits  of  King  Hiram  Chapter  extended  north  to  Canada,  west  and 
south  half  way  to  Brunswick  and  Portland,  and  east  to  the  jurisdiction  of 

The  first  meeting  of  the  new  chapter  was  held  December  15,  1854,  at  the 
house  of  Comp.  Thurston  Libby,  in  Lewiston,  for  organization.  Comps. 
Andrews,  Libby,  White,  Bates,  Kelsey,  Hutchins,  and  Covell  were  present,  and 
the  organization  was  perfected  with  these  officers:  M.  E.  Alonzo  Andrews,  H. 
P.;  Thurston  Libby,  E.  K. ;  Wm  White,  E.  S. ;  A.  H.  Kelsey,  Treas.;  George 
Moore,  C.  H.;  Levi  Bates,  P.  S. ;  S.  B.  Hutchins,  R.  A.  C;  Joseph  Covell, 
M.  3d  v.;  Samuel  Soule,  M.  2d  V.;  J.  W.  Litchfield,  M.  1st  V.  The  chapter 
met  December  22  at  the  office  of  the  Bates  corporation,  where  petitions  for 

1  Chiefly  condensed  from  the  history  written  by  George  A.  Callahan,  P.  H.  P. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  231 

membership  were  received  from  Thos  C.  Upton,  Augustus  Callahan,  George 
Webb,  Robert  H.  Hose,  Jos.  P.  Gill,  and  John  G.  Cook,  who  were  elected. 
The  chapter  was  incorporated  by  the  legislature  March  1,  1855.  January  19, 
1855,  the  first  meeting  was  held  in  the  hall  of  the  DeWitt  House,  which  was 
occupied  until  the  one  in  Journal  Block  was  leased  in  1862.  At  this  meeting 
the  first  work  was  done,  Thos  C.  Upton,  Augustus  Callahan,  Geo.  Webb, 
Robert  H.  Rose,  J.  Pearson  Gill,  and  John  G.  Cook  being  advanced  to  the 
degree  of  M.  M.  M.  January  2(3  the  P.  M.  degree  was  conferred,  Bros.  Reuel 
Washburn,  Uriah  Balkam,  and  Augustus  Callahan  being  present  as  visitors. 
February  2  the  M.  M.,  P.  M.,  and  M.  E.  M,  degrees  were  conferred,  the  first 
time  the  latter  one  was  worked.  February  16  the  R.  A.  degree  was  first  con- 
ferred, the  candidates  being  Thos  C.  Upton,  Augustus  Callahan,  Robert  H. 
Rose,  J.  Pearson  Gill,  and  John  G.  Cook. 

The  chapter  asked  for  a  charter,  and  June  15  the  chapter  was  duly  con- 
stituted by  the  Most  Excellent  Puissant  General  Grand  High  Priest  of  the 
General  Grand  Chapter  of  the  United  States,  Robert  P.  Dunlap,  under  the 
charter  granted  May  3.  At  this  meeting  the  following  were  elected  members : 
Thomas  C.  Upton,  Augustus  Callahan,  Robert  H.  Rose,  Joseph  P.  Gill,  George 
Webb,  Geo.  L.  Drinkwater,  Thomas  F.  Lamb,  Robert  Blacker,  Samuel  H. 
Wilson,  Thomas  A.  D.  Fessenden,  Jacob  Herrick,  Wm  Skelton,  Geo.  W.  Chase, 
John  G.  Cook.  These  officers  were  elected:  Alonzo  Andrews,  H.  P.;  Thurston 
Libby,  K.;  Joseph  Co  veil,  S.;  Joseph  P.  Gill,  C.  H. ;  Augustus  Callahan,  P.  S.; 
Thomas  C.  Upton,  R.  A.  C;  S.  H.  Wilson,  M.  3d  V.;  Robert  H.  Rose,  M.  2d 
v.;  John  G.  Cook,  M.  1st  V.;  A.  H.  Kelsey,  Treas. ;  Geo.  L.  Drinkwater,  Sec; 
Robert  Blacker,  Chap.;  T.  A.  D.  Fessenden,  S.  S.;  Thomas  F.  Lamb,  J.  S.; 
Geo.  Webb,  Tyler. 

June  6,  1856,  the  annual  convocation  was  held.  The  chapter  had  now 
exalted  18  companions.  During  the  second  year  four  companions  were  exalted. 
At  the  annual  session  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  May  5,  1857,  M.  E.  Alonzo 
Andrews  was  elected  Deputy  Grand  High  Priest,  Comp.  J.  P.  Gill  Grand 
Captain  of  the  Host,  and  Comp.  Joseph  Covell  Grand  Master  of  the  3d  Vail. 
Li  1857  two  valuable  companions  removed  from  Lewiston,  Comp.  Andrews, 
P.  H.  P.,  and  C.  C.  Niebuhr,  Sec.  At  the  Grand  Chapter  in  May,  1858,  Comp. 
Joseph  Covell  was  appointed  Grand  Master  of  the  3d  V^ail,  and  Comp.  J.  P. 
Gill  Grand  Captain  of  the  Host.  March  18,  1859,  the  death  of  Comp.  Wm 
White  was  announced,  and  the  committee  appointed  to  draft  resolutions  were 
also  directed  to  prepare  resolutions  on  the  death  of  Comp.  Alonzo  Andrews,  to 
whom  was  preeminently  due  the  erection  of  King  Hiram  Chapter.  January  6, 
1860,  a  preamble  and  resolutions  in  memory  of  the  late  M.  E.  Robert  P.  Dunlap 
was  received  from  Mount  Vernon  R.  A.  Chapter  of  Portland,  and  appropriate 
action  was  taken.  The  chapter  was  represented  at  the  Grand  Chapter  by 
A.  Callahan,  J.  G.  Cook,  and  I.  E.  Libby.     Comp.  Covell  was  made  a  member 

232  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

of  the  finance  committee,  chairman  of  committee  on  grievances  and  appeals, 
and  Grand  Master  of  the  3d  Vail.  Comp.  A.  Callahan  was  appointed  on  the 
committee  on  warrants  and  dispensations. 

October  26,  1860,  it  was  voted  to  grant  the  use  of  the  chapter  rooms  to 
Ashlar  Lodge  for  six  months,  free  of  charge.  February  22,  1861,  the  death  of 
Isaac  H.  Weston  was  announced.  At  the  Grand  Chapter  Comps.  Gill,  Libby, 
and  Joseph  Covell  were  present.  June  24,  1862,  the  chapter  participated  in 
the  Masonic  Centennial  celebration  at  Portland.  July  22  a  dispensation  was 
granted  to  confer  the  degrees  upon  Colonel  N.  J.  Jackson  in  less  time  than 
required  by  law.  October  31  it  voted  to  rent  the  hall  in  Journal  Block  in 
connection  with  Ashlar  Lodge.  January  30,  1863,  a  committee  was  appointed 
to  revise  the  by-laws.  May  29  the  death  of  Comp.  Alvarez  V.  Teague  was 
announced.  Comps.  Gill  and  Thurston  Libby  represented  the  chapter  in  the 
Grand  Chapter,  and  Comp.  Covell  was  Grand  Master  of  the  3d  Vail  and  mem- 
ber of  the  finance  committee.  October  23,  1863,  it  was  voted  to  grant  the  free 
use  of  the  hall  to  Dunlap  Council,  R.  &  S.  M.  December  18  voted  to  purchase 
the  organ  with  Ashlar  Lodge.  January  22,  1864,  A.  J.  Fuller,  D.  G.  H.  P., 
officially  visited  the  chapter  and  reported : 

This  chapter  is  in  fine  condition  and  tlie  work  was  well  done ;  it  is  well  fitted 
with  regalia,  the  officers  appeared  perfectly  familiar  with  their  several  duties,  and  the 
revised  work  is  strictly  adhered  to.  This  chapter  is  doing  a  fine  work  and  making 
valuable  acquisitions  to  its  members.  From  the  known  ability  of  its  officers  its  success 
is  sure. 

March  18,  1864,  the  fees  were  raised  from  't26  to  135.  In  the  Grand  Chap- 
ter, Comps.  J.  P.  Gill  and  H.  H.  Dickey  represented  the  chapter,  while  Comp. 
Covell  was  one  of  the  grand  officers.  This  year  was  one  of  great  prosperity; 
14  members  were  admitted  and  18  companions  exalted.  The  finances  were 
placed  on  a  solid  basis,  which  has  continued  to  the  present.  The  total  mem- 
bership is  48.  June  24,  1864,  26  membei-s  represented  the  chapter  at  the 
Masonic  celebration  at  Livermore  Falls.  January  13,  1865,  voted  to  pay  -^15 
towards  a  new  altar.  At  the  Grand  Chapter  convocation  Comp.  J.  P.  Gill  was 
Grand  R.  A.  Captain,  Comp.  H.  H.  Dickey  Grand  Steward,  and  Comp.  Covell 
elected  member  of  finance  committee.  The  Grand  Hiffh  Priest  said  in  his 
address:  "April  5  I  officially  visited  King  Hiram  IL  A.  Chapter,  Lewiston.  It 
is  in  fine  condition  and  the  work  was  well  done."  This  year  26  members  were 
admitted.  June  9, 1865,  action  was  taken  toward  the  establishment  of  a  board 
of  trustees  or  directors  for  the  general  business  management  of  all  the  Masonic 
bodies  in  the  city.  The  chapter  was  represented  in  the  Grand  Chapter  by 
Comp.  Aug.  Callahan,  H.  P.,  appointed  (irand  Master  of  the  3d  Vail  p-o  tern, 
Comp.  H.  H.  Dickey  Grand  Steward,  and  Comp.  J.  P.  Gill,  Grand  Captain  of 
the  Host.     This  year  13  brothers  received  the  M.  M.  degree,  11  passed  the 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  233 

chair,  14  received  and  acknowledged  M.  E.  M.,  and  14  exalted,  15  signed  the 
by-laws,  two  were  dimitted,  and  1  deceased.^ 

July  6,  186G,  the  chapter  donated  $100  for  the  best  interest  of  the  Royal 
Arch  Masons  in  Portland,  sufferers  of  the  late  fire.  At  the  session  of  the 
Grand  Chapter,  May,  1867,  King  Hiram  Chapter  had  M.  E.  Wm  J.  Burnham, 
H.  P.;  H.  H.  Dickey,  K.;  A.  L.  Dresser,  proxy  for  Scribe;  Coinp.  J.  P.  Gill 
was  chosen  Grand  Scribe ;  Comp.  Burnham  appointed  Grand  Chaplain,  and 
Comp.  Dickey  appointed  on  Committee  on  Credentials.  The  number  of 
members  is  now  90,  11  being  received  this  year,  three  dimitted,  and  two 
deceased.  Petitions  being  received  from  Bethel  and  South  Paris,  asking 
recommendations  for  the  creation  of  R.  A.  charters  at  these  places,  in 
December,  1867,  it  was  voted  to  recommend  the  granting  of  a  dispensation  to 
the  petitioners  from  Bethel.  At  the  yearly  session  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  Wm 
J.  Burnham,  T.  M.  Varney,  D.  Harden,  and  Jos.  P.  Gill,  Grand  Scribe,  repre- 
sented King  Hiram  Chapter.  J.  P.  Gill  was  elected  D.  G.  H.  P.,  and  T.  M. 
Varney  appointed  Grand  Steward.     The  membership  is  now  102. 

Comp.  Albert  H,  Small  died  July  28,  1868,  "a  valued  and  respected 
officer,"  and  September  28  died  Comp.  T.  A.  D.  Fessenden,  one  of  the 
prominent  members  and  a  Mason  of  much  influence.  At  the  annual  convoca- 
tion of  the  Grand  Chapter  were  present:  R.  E.  Joseph  P.  Gill,  D.  G.  H.  P. ; 
M.E.Theodore  M.  Varney,  Grand  Steward;  Dennison  Harden,  King;  and 
H.  H.  Dickey,  proxy  for  Scribe.  J.  P.  Gill  was  elected  Grand  High  Priest. 
October  8,  1869,  it  was  decided  to  place  the  funds  of  the  chapter  in  the  hands 
of  the  Board  of  Masonic  Trustees.  January  14,  1872,  it  was  voted  to 
purchase  a  photograph  album  and  to  request  each  member  to  furnish  his 
photograph.  M.  E.  J.  P.  Gill,  G.  H.  P.,  presided  over  the  Grand  Chapter  at 
the  annual  convocation,  where  Carlos  Nudd  represented  this  chapter.  The 
G.  H.  P.  reports:  "  King  Hiram  Chapter  adds  to  its  former  reputation.  Much 
to  the  credit  of  the  presiding  and  all  its  officers,  it  can  be  said  that  it  is  in 
better  working  condition  than  ever  before."  The  number  of  members  is  117. 
During  the  year  24  petitions  for  degrees  have  been  received,  and  one  for 
membership,  live  petitions  for  degrees  were  rejected,  18  were  advanced  to  the 
degree  of  M.  M.,  15  passed  the  chair,  16  were  received  as  M.  E.  M.,  15  ^Vere 
exalted,  two  died,  and  two  were  dimitted. 

November  11,  1870,  the  chapter  granted  consent  to  the  formation  of 
Androscoggin  Chapter  at  Canton.  February  10,  1871,  M.  E.  Stephen  J. 
Young,  G.  H.  P.,  visited  the  chapter  officially  and  witnessed  work  in  the  R.  A. 
degree.  April  11  the  deaths  of  C'omps.  Edw.  Bisbee  and  Edw.  G.  Hawkes 
were  announced.     Clothing  and  paraphernalia  of  consideral)le  expense  were 

iComp.  Joseph  Covell  died  at  Prince  Edward  Island,  March  7,  1S6G,  while  American  consul.  He 
was  exalted  in  Jerusalem  Chapter  at  Augusta,  about  1850.  His  zeal  as  a  Royal  Arch  Mason  was 
unwearied;  and,  though  residing  for  several  years  fifty  miles  from  his  chapter,  he  seldom  neglected  to 
attend  its  regular  meetings.    He  was  elected  High  Priest  of  King  Hiram  Chapter  in  1858. 

234  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

provided  this  year,  enabling  the  degrees  to  be  presented  in  a  manner  much 
superior  to  previous  efforts.  The  chapter  sent  to  the  annual  convocation  of 
the  Grand  Chapter:  Carlos  Nudd,  H.  P.;  C.  A.  Coombs,  K.;  and  F.  T.  Faulkner, 
S.  M.  E.  Carlos  Nudd  was  appointed  G.  M.  1st  V.  The  number  of  members 
is  now  132.  Comp.  T.  B.  Rowell  removed  from  Maine  early  in  1871,  and 
Comp.  David  Cowan  performed  the  duties  of  the  G.  of  H.  for  the  year. 
This  year  Comp.  Thurston  Libby,  P.  H.  P.,  a  charter  member,  died.  Number 
of  members,  134.  In  the  annual  convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  this 
chapter  had  as  members  Comps.  Isaac  G.  Curtis  and  Francis  T.  Faulkner. 
R.  E.  D.  G.  H.  P.  J.  W.  Ballou  in  his  report  says: 

I  visited  King  Hiram  Chapter  aud  witnessed  the  conferring  of  the  Royal  Arch  degree 
in  a  very  intelligent  and  creditable  manner  by  the  scribe,  acting  as  high  priest.  By  a 
combination  of  circumstances  entirely  unusual,  the  high  priest  had  been  called  away  to 
another  state,  and  the  king  to  a  distant  part  of  our  own  state,  leaving  the  onerous  work 
pertaining  to  the  work  and  general  management  of  the  chapter  to  the  scribe,  Comp. 
Francis  T.  Faulkner.  And  while  the  companions  of  King  Hiram  Chapter  cannot  but 
deplore  the  loss  of  two  such  valuable  officers  as  the  high  priest  and  king,  still  they  may  as 
well  congratulate  themselves  upon  their  sagacity  and  good  fortune  in  electing  an  officer  so 
eminently  fit  for  the  important  duties  required  of  him  as  the  present  acting  high  priest. 

September  13,  1872,  the  chapter  recommended  the  organization  of  Union 
Chapter  at  Mechanic  Falls.  The  Grand  King,  R.  E.  Henry  L,  Paine,  officially 
visited  the  chapter  March  14,  1873.  He  reports  witnessing  "  work  in  the  R. 
A.  degree,  excellently  well  performed."  At  the  annual  convocation  of  the 
Grand  Chapter  M.  E.  F.  T.  Faulkner  was  appointed  Grand  Steward.  Number  of 
members,  144.  June  13,  1873,  thanks  were  voted  to  the  retiring  H.  P.  Comp. 
F.  T.  Faulkner  "  for  the  marked  interest  he  has  taken  in  the  chapter,  and  the 
highly  creditable  manner  in  which  he  has  performed  the  work  and  duties  of  the 
chair."  Although  residing  12  miles  from  Lewiston  he  was  present  at  every 
convocation  except  one.  December  12  the  chapter  was  officially  visited  by 
Horace  H.  Burbank,  G.  IT.  P.  Work  was  done  in  the  R.  A.  degree.  Seventy- 
one  companions  were  present,  representing  12  chapters.  In  1874  permission 
was  asked  for  a  chapter  at  Auburn,  which  was  granted  with  a  recommendation 
in  favor  thereof  to  the  Grand  Chapter.  At  the  annual  convocation  of  Grand 
Chapter  Comp.  G.  A.  Callahan  was  appointed  G.  M.  of  1st  V.  pro  frrn.  Comp. 
F.  T.  Faulkner,  (r.  S.,  was  present.  This  chapter  was  represented  also  by  S. 
Stone  and  F.  E.  Sleeper.  June  12,  1874,  there  were  140  members  in  the 
chapter.  January  8,  1875,  the  chapter  was  visited  officially  by  M.  E.  Horace 
H.  Burbank,  G.  H.  P.,  who  reported:  "In  the  presence  of  95  members  and 
visitors  the  officers  of  King  Hiram  Chapter  exhibited  excellent  Royal  Arch 
degree  work.  ...  I  am  confident  that  no  superior  work  can  be  presented  in 
our  jurisdiction."  This  year  the  chapter  was  represented  by  Comps.  Geo.  A. 
Callahan,  H.  P. ;  A.  W.  Larrabee,  proxy  for  K. ;  F.  E.  Sleeper,  S.      Comp.  F. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  235 

T.  Faulkner  was  elected  Grand  Scribe,  G.  A.  Callahan  appointed  Grand 
Steward,  and  Comps.  R.  E.  Paine,  E.  P.  Burnham,  and  G.  A.  Callahan  were 
appointed  on  the  standing  committee  on  history. 

Twenty  years'  work  under  the  charter  expired  with  the  annual  convocation, 
June  11,  1875.  Uninterrupted  prosperity  has  marked  the  whole  period. 
There  are  now  140  members,  a  noble  hall,  well  fitted  up,  a  good  financial 
condition,  and  a  harmony  and  interest  in  the  work  unexcelled  by  any  chapter 
in  the  state.  November  12  the  revision  and  printing  of  the  by-laws  was 
ordered.  Comp.  F.  T.  Faulkner,  G.  S.,  and  A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  H.  P., 
attended  the  annual  convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter.  Frank  E.  Sleeper, 
K.,  was  representative  in  187(3  to  the  Grand  Chapter  and  was  made  Grand 
Steward.  Comp.  F.  T.  Faulkner,  G.  S.,  was  in  attendance  and  chosen  Grand 
King.  F.  E.  Sleeper  and  A.  W.  Larrabee  attended  the  Grand  Chapter 
in  1877,  where  Comp.  Sleeper  was  reappointed  G.  S.  During  the  year  two 
brothers  received  the  M.,  P.,  and  M.  E.  M.  degrees,  three  were  exalted,  one 
was  dimitted,  and  one  died;  139  members.  A.  Callahan,  Wm  J.  Burnham, 
Wm  D.  Pennell,  John  Given,  Geo.  A  Callahan  were  appointed  a  committee 
on  history  in  1878.  At  the  annual  convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  there 
were  present  Comps.  F.  E.  Sleeper  and  A.  W.  Larrabee.  Comp.  Sleeper  was 
elected  Grand  Scribe.  During  the  year  two  candidates  received  all  the 
degrees  and  two  were  dimitted ;  140  members.  The  chapter  was  represented 
in  the  Grand  Chapter,  in  1879,  by  Comps.  H.  H.  Dickey,  C.  H.  Jumper,  L. 
E.  Timberlake.     Comp.  Sleeper  was  re-elected  G.  S. 

The  first  quarter  of  a  century  of  the  chapter  under  charter  expired  June 
11,  1880,  when  143  were  in  active  membership.  During  the  past  year  three 
candidates  received  the  degrees,  one  member  died,  and  one  was  dimitted.  At 
the  annual  convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  were  present  Comps.  H.  H. 
Dickey,  C.  H.  Jumper,  L.  E.  Timberlake,  and  F.  E.  Sleeper.  The  annual  con- 
vocation was  held  June  10,  1881.  No  work  wa^  done  during  the  past  year; 
two  petitions  were  received  for  degrees  and  one  for  membership;  three  were 
dimitted,  and  one,  Augustus  Callahan,'  died;  members,  141.     The  expense  of 

iM.  E.  Augustus  Callahan,  P.  H.  P.,  died  February  16,  1881.  He  was  born  in  Andover,  Mass., 
April  12,  1815,  and  resided  there  until  1847,  when  he  removed  to  Lewiston.  His  business  was  woolen 
manufacturing,  and  he  was  accounted  skillful.  .January  19,  1848,  he  became  a  Mason  in  Tranquil 
Lodge.  He  was  elected  Worshipful  Master  in  December,  184'.>,  He  occupied  the  East  until  January 
21,  1852,  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  lodge.  January  11,  1854,  he  was  again  elected  and  occupied 
the  East  from  that  time  until  1858.  He  was  not  a  charter  member  of  Ashlar  Lodge,  being  away  when 
it  was  constitiited,  but  became  a  member  October  6,  1862.  He  was  one  of  the  first  candidates  in  King 
Hiram  Chapter,  his  petition  being  received  at  the  first  meeting.  He  was  elected  High  Priest  in  1859, 
18G0,  and  1865.  During  a  short  residence  in  Vassalboro  he  dimitted,  and  was  elected  High  Priest  of 
Dunlap  Chapter,  at  China,  but  again  became  a  member  of  King  Hiram  Chapter  on  his  return.  He 
was  an  officer  of  the  chapter  from  the  first  election  until  his  death  (with  the  exception  of  the  time 
when  dimitted),  being  chaplain  and  chairman  of  the  finance  committee  at  the  time  of  decease.  He 
was  among  the  first  members  of  Dunlap  Council,  and  was  Thrice  Illustrious  Master.  He  was  one  of 
the  early  members  of  Lewiston  Commandery,  Eminent  Commander  of  that  body  in  1871,  and  later, 

236  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

the  chapter  in  furnishing  the  Masonic  hall,  was  #700.  The  chapter  was  repre- 
sented in  the  Grand  Chapter  by  A.  W.  Larrabee,  L.  E.  Timberlake,  E.  E. 
Pomeroy,  and  R.  E.  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  D.  G.  H.  P.  Annual  convocation,  June 
8,  1882.  Seventeen  candidates  received  the  degrees  in  the  past  year  and  one 
was  dimitted,  making  now  158  members.  The  Grand  Chapter  this  year  made 
Comp.  H.  E.  Morriscy  Grand  Steward  and  re-elected  F.  E.  Sleeper  Grand  High 

The  year  opened  June  8, 1883,  with  162  members.  During  the  year  M.  E.  F.  E. 
Sleeper  officiated  as  Grand  High  Priest  with  great  satisfaction  to  the  fraternity. 
He  accomplished  the  revision  of  the  ritual  and  its  excellence  must  be  largely 
attributed  to  him  and  his  able  assistant,  Comp.  A.  W.  Larrabee.  M.  E.  F.  E. 
Sleeper,  G.  H.  P.,  presided  at  the  annual  convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  in 
1884,  and  was  re-elected  ;  Comp.  A.  W.  Larrabee  was  G.  C.  of  H.;  C-omp.  D.  B. 
Stevens  was  G.  M.  of  3d  Vail ;  Comp.  Larrabee  was  appointed  Grand  Lecturer, 
and  Comp.  Callahan  Grand  Steward.  This  year  died  Comp.  H.  H.  Dickey, 
P.  H.  P.,'^  a  most  valued  member  and  earnest  and  faithful  worker,  whose  life 
and  character  gave  emphasis  to  Masonic  principles,  and  March  13,  1885,  the 
chapter  voted  to  act  in  conjunction  with  Ashlar  Lodge  in  procuring  crayon 
portraits  of  Comp.  Augustus  Callahan  and  Comp.  H.  H.  Dickey,  Past  High 
Priests,  for  Masonic  Hall.  February  17,  1887,  R.  E.  Henry  R.  Taylor,  D.  D. 
G.  H.  1^.,  made  an  official  visit.  This  year  died  Comps.  Samuel  E.  May,  David 
Cowan,  Charles  D.  Starbird.  Deaths  in  1888 :  March  27,  Daniel  Allen ; 
August  5,  Arthur  Sands;  September  3,  Jacob  B.  Ham.  Frank  E.  Severance 
also  died,  date  not  given.  June  13,  1890,  officers  chosen  :  G.  W.  Furbush, 
H.  P.;  E.  K.  Smith,  K.;  W.  F.  Wood,  S.;  Wm  J.  Burnham,  Treas.;  John  F. 
Putnam,  Sec;   A.  M.  Edwards,  C.  of  H.;   H.  B.  Warner,  P.  S.;  Samuel  Hib- 

Prelate.  He  received  the  Order  of  the  Red  Cross  of  Constantine,  May  5,  1875,  was  a  charter  member 
of  Eusebius  Conclave,  and  was  its  presiding  officer  at  his  decease.  He  was  a  charter  member  of  Lew- 
iston  Lodge  of  Perfection,  holding  the  highest  office  in  1879  and  1880.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Cliapter  of  Rose  Croix,  Princes  of  Jerusalem,  and  Maine  Sovereign  Consistory,  S.  P.  R.  S.  o2°.  He 
was  I).  D.  CJ.  M.  in  IS-W,  held  varioiis  offices  and  appointments  in  the  Grand  Bodies,  but  always  declined 
high  honors.  As  a  ritualist  he  probably  had  no  sup«!rior.  His  knowledge  was  comprehensive  and 
exact,  and  his  attainments  in  Masonic  jurisprudence  and  history  were  profound  and  accurate.  He 
was  imbued  with  the  whole  spirit  of  Masonry,  and  his  words  and  actions  were  governed  by  that 
benign  intluence.  He  was  a  firm  believer  in  the  Christian  religion,  and  a  constant  attendant  upon 
divine  service.    Ife  was  buried  with  Masonic  honors  by  Ashlar  Lodge. 

2  Mr  Dickey  was  born  in  Amherst,  N.  H.,  May  14,  181(1.  He  came  to  Lewiston  in  1854,  and  com- 
menced business  as  a  top-roll  coverer  in  the  basement  of  the  Hill  Mill.  He  afterward  occupied  a  part 
of  the  red  shop  on  Cross  Canal,  and  then  a  fioor  in  Cowan's  Mill.  In  ISOit  he  erected  the  shop  on  the 
river  bank  which  has  since  l>een  occupied  by  himself  and  sou  William.  He  was  school  agent  in  the 
village  district,  while  Lewiston  was  a  town  ;  and  in  1874  was  mayor.  He  gave  dignity  to  the  office  and 
an  acceptable  administration.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Council  of  the  Scottish  rite  of  the  3."°  of 
Masonry,  and  the  only  Mason  in  this  vicinity  who  at  that  time  had  attained  that  distinction.  Mr 
Dickey  had  been  Master  of  Ashlar  I>odge,  High  Priest  of  King  Hiram  Chapter,  Master  of  Dunlap 
Council,  Eminent  Commander  of  Lewiston  Commandery  of  Knights  Templar,  Junior  Grand  Warden 
and  Grand  Commander  of  the  (Jrand  Lodge  of  Maine,  and  Grand  Commander  of  the  Grand  Com- 
mandery of  Maine  Knights  Templar.    He  died  in  May,  1884. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  237 

bert,  R.  A.  C;    H.  G.  Ripley,  M.  3d  V.;   W.  H.  Judkins,  M.  2d  V.;    E.  F. 

Scruton,  M.  1st  V.  This  year  died  Nathan  W.  Dutton,  Sullivan  C.  Andrews, 
G.  Henry  Jackson.  The  number  of  members  April  1,  1891,  was  173.  The 
High  Priests  from  organization  have  been  Alonzo  Andrews,  Thurston  Libby, 
Joseph  Covell,  Augustus  Callahan,  J.  P.  Gill,  Augustus  Callahan,  Wm  J. 
Burnham,  T.  M.  Varney,  Carlos  Nudd,  Francis  T.  Faulkner,  Geo.  A.  Callahan, 
A.  K.  P.  Knowlton,  Frank  E.  Sleejjer,  Henry  H.  Dickey,  H.  E.  Morriscy,  Charles 
H.  Jumper,  A.S.  Plummer,  I).  I>.  Stevens,  F.  L.  Hoyt,  Albert  Ring,  Frank  H. 
Johnson,  H.  A.  Torsey,  (j.  W.  Furbush. 

Diinlap  Council,  Wo.  <S,  Jlo//al  <in(l  Select  Mnsfers,  Lewiston,  was  instituted 
October  19,  1863,  at  Lewiston,  Me,  by  M.  I.  Timothy  J.  Murray,  Grand 
Puissant  of  the  Grand  Council  of  R.  and  S.  Masons  of  the  State  of  Maine, 
with  the  following  charter  members:  Joseph  Covell,  William  Atwood,  (iordon 
R.  Gardew,  Augustus  Callahan,  11.  H.  Dickey,  Joseph  P.  Gill,  Aurin  L.  Dresser, 
John  G.  Cook,  Dorville  J^ibby.  The  officers  appointed  at  the  first  organization 
of  the  Council  were:  Augustus  Callahan,  T.  1.  Master;  H.  H.  Dickey,  R.  I. 
Master;  and  John  G.  Cook,  I.  Master.  At  the  meeting  on  above  mentioned 
date  the  degrees  were  conferred  upon  three  candidates,  viz.:  Comps.  Levi 
Bates,  Oliver  11.  Maxwell,  and  David  Cowan. 

The  membership  of  the  Council  now  (March  16,  1891,)  numbers  238. 
Present  officers:  Algernon  M.  ivoak,  T.  I.  Master;  Geo.  A.  Callahan,  Dept. 
Master;  Lionel  O.  Brackett,  P.  C-.  of  Work;  Joseph  II.  Stetson,  Treas.;    John 

F.  Putnam,  Recorder;  Henry  A.  Torsey,  C.  of  Guard;  Frank  H.  Johnson,  C. 
of  Council;  Samuel  Hibbert,  Steward;  Charles  H.  Jumper,  Sentinel.  The 
following  are  the  living  Past  Thrice  Illustrious  Masters:  Theodore  M.  Varney, 
Timothy  B.  Rowell,  Warren  E.  Pressey,  M.  E.  D.  Bailey,  Chas  H.  Jumper, 
Frank  E.  Sleeper,  Chas  E.  Libby,  Wm  J.  Burrdiam,  Albert  W.  Larrabee, 
Archie  L.  Talbot,  Albert  M.  Penley,  Albert  S.  Plummer,  Frank  L.  Hoyt. 

Lewiston  Commandery,  No.  6\  KniyJits  Templar  was  opened  under  a  dispen- 
sation by  Grand  Commander  Timothy  J.  Murray,  granted  December  17,  1864,  to 
Freeman   Bradford,   H.  H.  Dickey,  S.  D.  Wakefield,   Aurin  L.  Dresser,  John 

G.  Cook,  T.  M.  Varney,  Jos.  Pearson  Gill,  A.  B.  Jones,  F.  I.  Day,  Geo.  W. 
Garcelon,  Wm  J.  Burnham,  Jos.  Covell,  M.  E.  D.  Bailey,  David  Cowan. 
Sir  Henry  H.  Dickey  was  appointed  Eminent  Commander,  Sir  Joseph  P.  Gill, 
Generallissimo,  and  Sir  David  Cowan,  Captain-General.  January  12,  1865, 
Sir  Knight  Freeman  Bradford  was  appointed  Prelate  and  Seth  D.  Wakefield, 
Recorder.  January  19  these  appointments  were  made:  Theodore  M.  Varney, 
S.  W.;  Fessenden  I.  Day,  J.  W.;  Wm  J.  Burnham,  Treas.;  Augustus  B. 
Jones,  Sw.  B.;  Aurin  L.  Dresser,  St.  B.;  M.  E.  D.  Bailey,  W. ;  Robert  M. 
Sykes,  C.  of  G.  The  commandery  was  first  officially  visited  by  R.  E.  Timothy 
J.  Murray,  Grand  Commander  of  the  Grand  Commandery  of  Maine,  April  27. 
The  first  election  of  officers  occurred  November  30,  when  were  chosen:    H.  H. 

238  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Dickey,  E.  C;  Wm  J.  Burnhain,  Gen.;  Augustus  (Callahan,  C.  G.;  Freeman 
Bradford,  Prelate  ;  David  Cowan,  Treas.;  Seth  D.  Wakefield,  Recorder;  T.  M. 
Variiey,  S.  W.;  Fessenden  I.  Day,  J.  W.  At  this  conclave  Lev^iston  Com- 
niandery  was  constituted  by  Sir  Moses  Dodge,  D.  G.  Commander  of  the  Grand 
Commandery  of  Maine,  assisted  by  Sir  Knight  Chas  F.  King  as  Grand  Marshal, 
after  which  the  officers  were  installed.  Sir  Knight  I.  H.  Maxwell  was 
appohited  St.  B.  December  28,  and  Sir  Knights  A.  Callahan  and  Jos.  P.  Gill 
appointed  Trustees.  July  4,  1860,  a  special  conclave  was  held,  which  was 
visited  by  a  large  delegation  of  Maine  Commandery.  March  2(3,  18(58,  there 
were  37  members.  September  30,  1868,  attended  the  funeral  of  Sir  Knight 
Thomas  A.  D.  Fessenden.  August  24,  1869,  the  commandery  attended  the 
yearly  parade  and  encampment  at  Cushing's  Island.  April  7,  1870,  the 
commandery  was  officially  visited  by  R.  E.  C.  H.  McClellan,  Grand  Commander, 
and  H.  H.  Dickey,  (xrand  Generallissimo,  who  installed  the  officers  elect. 
September  27  the  commandery  went  to  Lisbon  Falls  to  aid  in  constituting 
Ancient  York  Lodge.  Edw.  Bisbee  died  March  20,  1871.  August  7  attended 
the  funeral  of  P.  G.  C.  Abner  Thompson  at  Brunswick  and  assisted  in  escort 
duty.  In  the  year  ending  March  26, 1874, 17  members  were  admitted,  making 
the  membership  96.  May  28,  1874,  accepted  an  invitation  from  Tranquil 
Iwodge  of  Auburn  to  perform  escort  duty  at  the  dedication  of  its  new  hall 
June  24.  March  23,  1876,  113  members  were  reported.  February  22,  1877, 
R.  E.  Seth  C.  Gordon,  Grand  Commander,  officially  visited  the  commandery 
and  complimented  it  highly,  and  stated  that  he  had  never  visited  a  command- 
ery before  where  the  17  officers  were  all  present  and  in  their  places. 
April  26  the  retiring  commander.  Sir  Francis  T.  Faulkner,  was  presented  with 
an  elegant  gold  Past  Eminent  Commander's  jewel.  April  18  an  official  visit 
was  made  by  R.  E.  John  Bird,  Grand  C.  G.  G.  Commander  of  Maine,  who 
said  that  the  manner  in  which  the  work  was  done  gave  him  great  pleasure, 
and  that  it  had  been  done  as  nearly  correct  as  by  any  commandery  he  had 
visited.     Forty-eight  Knights    marched  out  of  Masonic  Hall  Memorial    Day, 

1878,  in  a  pouring  rain  to  do  escort  duty  for  the  Grand  Army.  July  4  the 
commandery  did  escort  duty  for  the  Lewiston  City  Government.     April  10, 

1879,  R.  E.  J.  H.  Drummond  made  an  official  visit,  and  spoke  words  of  praise 
find  encouragement.  May  22  accepted  an  invitation  from  Belfast  Freemasons 
to  assist  in  the  dedication  of  their  new  hall  July  4.  One  hundred  and  thirty- 
one  members  reported  March  25,  1880.  September  26,  1880,  attended  the 
memorial  services  of  President  Garfield,  at  City  Hall.  R.  E.  Edward  P. 
Burnham,  Grand  Commander  of  Maine,  and  a  large  delegation  from  Dunlap 
Commandery,  visited  the  commandery  December  8,  1881. 

October  26,  1882,  a  petition  was  received  from  Knights  Templar  residing 
in  Auburn  and  vicinity,  asking  permission  to  form  a  commandery  at  Auburn, 
which  was  not  favored.     April  5,  1883,  commandery  was  officially  visited  by 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  239 

R.  E.  Charles  B.  Morton,  Grand  Captain  General  of  the  Grand  Commandery. 
June  7  was  a  gala  day.  A  special  conclave  was  held,  and  R.  E.  Sir  Isaac  S. 
Bangs,  of  Waterville,  Grand  Commander  of  the  Grand  Commandery  of  Maine, 
was  present  as  a  guest  and  installed  the  officers-elect  in  a  public  instaUation. 
The  ceremonies  were  interspersed  with  vocal  and  instrumental  music  of  a  high 
order,  and  readings  by  Mrs  J.  'i\  Waterhouse,  of  Boston.  Afterwards  a 
banquet  was  served,  followed  by  one  of  the  most  elegant  society  entertainments 
ever  given  in  the  state.  March  20,  18<S4,  V.  E.  John  O.  Shaw,  D.  G.  Com- 
mander of  the  Grand  Commandery  of  Maine,  made  an  official  visit.  He  was 
accompanied  by  large  delegations  from  Maine  Commandery  No.  1,  of  Gardiner, 
Portland  Commandery  No.  2,  Portland,  Bradford  Commandery  No.  4,  Bidde- 
ford,  Dunlap  Commandery  No.  5,  Bath,  Trinity  Commandery  No.  7,  Augusta, 
St  Alban  Commandery  No.  8,  of  Portland,  Claremont  Commander}^  No.  9, 
Rockland,  and  St  Omer  Commandery  No.  12,  Waterville.  There  were  64 
visitors  present.  April  15,  36  Knights  visited  Dunlap  Commandery  No.  5, 
Bath.  June  2  an  order  was  issued  by  the  Grand  Commander  ordering,  as  a 
tribute  of  respect  to  the  memory  of  R.  E.  Sir  Henry  H.  Dickey,  P.  G.  C.  of  the 
Grand  Commandery,  that  the  asylum  of  each  subordinate  commandery  in  this 
grand  jurisdiction  be  draped  in  mourning  for  60  days.  June  23  and  24  a 
pilgrimage  was  made  to  Lake  Winnipesaukee  and  Dover,  N.  H.  Number  of 
members  reported  March  26,  1885,  was  175.  May  28  Past  Commander  Wm 
J.  Burnham  was  installed  into  the  office  of  Grand  Senior  Warden  of  the 
Grand  Commandery  of  Maine,  by  E.  C.  Frank  E.  Sleeper.  July  7  a  special 
conclave  was  held  to  extend  a  complimentary  escort  and  banquet  to  St 
Alban  Commandery  No.  8,  of  Portland.  November  26  an  invitation  was 
received  from  the  Grand  Encampment  of  Knights  Templar  of  the  United 
States  for  this  commandery  to  assist  in  escorting  the  Grand  Encampment  at  its 
Twenty-third  Triennial  Conclave  at  St  Louis  in  September.  Caleb  Blake  and 
Alonzo  F.  Sanborn  have  died  this  year. 

January  7,  1886,  E.  G.  C.  G.  Joseph  Y.  Hodsdon  made  an  official  visit, 
escorted  by  Portland,  Dunlap,  and  St  Alban  commanderies.  During  this 
conclave  E.  S.  Albro  E.  Chase,  on  behalf  of  the  Knights  of  St  Alban 
Commandery,  presented  Lewiston  Commandery  with  an  elegantly  engraved 
memorial  as  a  token  of  appreciation  of  Knightly  courtesies  extended  them 
and  their  ladies  on  July  7.  April  10,  1887,  attended  the  obsequies  of  the  late 
Prelate  David  Cowan,  who  died  April  6.  Among  the  visitors.  May  19,  were 
E.  I.  Garfield,  P.  G.  Commander  of  Michigan  and  Past  Commander  of  Detroit. 
February  2,  1888,  number  of  members  reported,  106.  April  5  R.  E.  Wm  J. 
Burnham,  Grand  Commander  of  the  Grand  Commandery  of  Maine,  returned 
thanks,  in  behalf  of  himself  and  suite,  for  the  recent  reception  tendered  them 
by  this  commandery  at  City  Hall.  June  22  entertained  St  Johns  Commandery 
of  Bangor,  and  escorted  them  to  Poland  Springs.     Sir  Knights  Arthur  Sands 

240  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

and  Rodney  F.  Foss  died  in  1888.  January  17,  1889,  official  visit,  as 
inspecting  officer,  of  V.  E.  Sir  Edwin  M.  Fuller,  D.  G.  C.  of  the  Grand 
Commandery.  He  was  accompanied  by  his  suite  and  distinguished  Knights 
from  various  commanderies.  Sir  Knight  Daniel  M.  Teague  died  December  9. 
January  28,  1890,  R.  E.  Joseph  A.  Locke,  G.  C.  of  the  Grand  Commandery, 
accompanied  by  liis  suite  and  prominent  Knights  of  Dunlap,  Portland,  and 
St  Alban  commanderies,  made  an  official  visit  of  inspection.  Two  hundred 
and  thirteen  members  were  reported  February  H.  February  27  Past  E.  C. 
Alo"ernon  M.  Roak  was  presented  with  a  Past  Commander's  jewel  as  a  token 
of  appreciation  of  his  services.  September  4  procured  a  testimonial  to  be 
presented  to  De  Molay  Commandery.  January  15,  1891,  inspecting  officer, 
I\.  E.  Sir  Edwin  M.  Fuller,  G.  C,  visited  the  commandery  with  his  suite. 
February  5  accepted  an  invitation  from  Sir  Knight  C.  A.  Hayden  to  attend,  in 
a  body,  divine  service  at  Elm  Street  Church,  Auburn,  on  Easter  Sunday. 

The  commanders  have  been:  Henry  H.  Dickey,  1865-1868;  William  J. 
Burnham,  1868-1870  ;  Augustus  Callahan,  1870-1871 ;  David  Cowan,  1871- 
1872;  Fessenden  I.  Day,  1872-1874;  Frank  T.  Faulkner,  1874-1877  ;  George 
S.  Woodman,  1877-1878;  Theodore  M.  Varney,  1878-1880;  Charles  H.  Jumper, 
1880-1882;  Albert  M.  Penley,  1882-1884;  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  1884-1886; 
William  F.  Wood,  1880-1888;  Algernon  M.  Roak,  1888-1890;  Danville  IJ. 
Stevens,  present  commander.  The  recorders  have  been  :  Seth  I).  Wakefield 
until  April,  1868;  George  S.  Woodman  until  April,  1869;  F.  O.  Sands  elected 
April,  1870;  M.  E.  D.  Bailey  elected  March,  1872;  Jol)n  F.  Putnam  elected 
March,  1873  ;  F.  I.  Day  elected  March,  1874 ;  Horace  C.  Little  elected  March, 
1883.  The  treasurers  have  been  :  Wm  J.  Burnham  until  November  16,  1865, 
when  David  C'owan  was  elected.  George  H.  Nye  was  chosen  March  28,  1867 ; 
he  left  the  city,  and  July  25,  1867,  John  W.  Farwell  was  appointed  and  held 
the  office  until  April  7, 1870,  when  Wm  J.  Burnham  was  elected.  The  officers 
for  1891  are:  Danville  B.  Stevens,  E.  C. ;  W.  Freeman  Lord,  G.;  Charles  E. 
Libby,  C.  G. ;  Fessenden  L  Day,  P. ;  Elbridge  G.  Heath,  S.  W. ;  Albert  S. 
Plummer,  J.  W. ;  Wm  J.  Burnham,  Treas. ;  Horace  C.  Little,  R. ;  Lavater  O. 
Morse,  St.  B. ;  Frank  H.  Johnson,  Sw.  B. ;  Samuel  Hibbert,  W. ;  Henry  L.  Has- 
kell, 3d  G.;  Roscoe  E.  Atwood,  2d  G. ;  Eben  W.  Dresser,  1st  G. ;  Charles  H. 
Jumper,  S.  The  stated  conclaves  are  held  in  Masonic  Hall  on  the  first  Thurs- 
day of  each  month ;  the  annual  conclaves  in  February.  This  commandery 
has  had  a  brilliant  and  prosperous  existence,  and  never  were  its  prospects 
better  for  a  long  term  of  activity  and  usefulness.  The  number  of  members 
at  last  report  was  231. 

Lewiston  Lodge  of  Perfection,  A.  A.  S.  Rite,  was  organized  January  27, 
1876,  under  a  dispensation  granted  by  the  Supreme  Council,  January  19,  1876, 
to  Henry  Holden  Dickey,  Fessenden  Irving  Day,  Augustus  Callahan,  Joseph 
Harvey    Stetson,  David  Cowan,   George  Stoves   Follensbee,  Francis  Thomas 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  241 

Faulkner,  John  W.  Ballon,  Charles  Albert  Coombs,  William  Jackson  Burn- 
ham,  and  Theodore  Murray  Varney.  The  first  officers  elected  were  :  Wm  J. 
Burnham,  T.  P.  G.  Master;  F.  I.  Day,  D.  G.  M. ;  Augustus  Callahan,  V.  S.  G. 
Warden;  F.  T.  Faulkner,  V.  J.  G.  W.;  H.  H.  Dickey,  G.  Orator;  Joseph  H. 
Stetson,  G.  Treas.  and  Sec. ;  T.  M.  Varney,  G.  M.  of  C. ;  Geo.  S.  Follensbee, 
G.  C.  of  G. ;  David  Cowan,  G.  Hospitaler;  John  W.  Ballou,  G.  Tyler.  Wm 
J.  Burnham  was  T.  P.  G,  Master  from  January  27,  1876,  to  February,  1(S7H; 
Augustus  Callahan  from  February,  1878,  to  February,  1879;  Fessenden  I.  Day 
from  February,  1879,  to  February,  1883;  T.  M.  Varney  from  February,  1883, 
to  February,  1885;  Charles  H.  Jumper  from  February,  1885,  to  February,  1887  ; 
A.  M,  Penley  from  February,  1887,  to  February,  1889;  F.  F^.  Sleeper  from  Feb- 
ruary, 1889,  to  February,  1891,  when  the  present  officers  were  elected:  Elbridge 
G.  Heath,  T.  P.  (J.  Master;  Charles  E.  Libby,  D.  G.  M.;  Wm  F.  Wood,  V.  S. 
G.  Warden;  A.  M.  Roak,  V.  J.  G.  W.;  Wm  F.  Lord,  G.  Orator;  Joseph  H. 
Stetson,  G.  Treas.;  John  Garner,  G.  Sec;  James  T.  Tarbox,  G.  M.  of  C;  F. 
H.  Johnson,  G.  C.  of  G. ;  Samuel  Hibbert,  G.  Hospitaler;  C.  H.  Jumper,  G. 
Tyler.  Joseph  H.  Stetson  has  been  G.  Treasurer  ever  since  its  organization; 
John  Garner  G.  Secretavy  since  February,  1883.  There  were  105  members. 
May  1,  1891. 

Tyrian  Lodye.,  No.  73,' F.  tf  A.  M.,  Mechanic  Falls.  —  A  dispensation  was 
granted  by  G.  M.  John  C.  Humphrey,  January  21,  1853,  to  Geo.  Moore,  Daniel 
W.  True,  Nathaniel  Bray,  Augustus  Golderman,  George  Hathaway,  Josiah 
Carr,  and  Samuel  Atwood,  to  open  and  hold  a  Freemason's  lodge  to  be  known 
as  Fraternal  Lodge;  George  Moore  was  named  as  first  Master,  D.  W.  True  as 
Senior  Warden,  Nathaniel  Bray  as  Junior  Warden.  The  first  meeting  U.  D. 
was  held  January  24,  1853,  with  the  original  members  all  present  and  two 
visitors.  Bros.  True,  Carr,  and  Moore  were  chosen  to  draft  by-laws  which 
were  reported  and  adopted  January  27.  These  are  preserved  and  show  a  clear 
knowledge  of  Masonic  and  parliamentary  law  on  the  part  of  the  framers.  At 
this  meeting  five  applications  were  received.  February  10,  at  the  sixth 
communication,  Ellis  D.  Moore  was  initiated  and  "passed."  He  is  now  the 
oldest  Mason  of  the  lodge.  The  next  oldest  is  Lorenzo  Edgecorab,  initiated 
and  "passed"  March  17.  Fraternal  Lodge  held  but  19  communications,  for 
when  a  charter  was  granted.  May  10,  1853,  it  was  to  Tyrian  Lodge,  No.  78, 
with  rank  of  precedence  from  January  1,  1853.  The  meetings  U.  D.,  and 
until  the  fitting  up  of  the  hall  now  occupied,  were  in  Moore's  Hall,  in  Minot. 
June  18,  1853,  M.  W.  G.  M.  Freeman  Bradford  opened  a  grand  lodge  in  the 
building  in  which  the  lodge  held  its  meetings,  and  proceeding  to  the  hall 
consecrated  Tyrian  Lodge  and  installed  its  officers.  They  were  George  Moore, 
W.  M.;  S.  B.  Hutchins,  S.  W.;  D.  P.  Atwood,  J.  W.;  Josiah  Carr,  Treas.; 
A.  Golderman,  Sec;  and  subordinates.  Twenty-two  Masons  were  made 
during  the  year.     The  officers  elected  for  1854  were  those  of  1853,  with  W.  F. 

242  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Milliken  secretary  in  place  of  Golderman.  Nine  Masons  were  made  during 
the  year  and  two  diniitted.  Seven  received  the  third  degree  in  1855,  and  the 
officers  elected  were  D.  P.  Atwood,  W.  M.;  S.  B.  Hutchins,  S.  W.;  Clement 
Phinney,  J.  W.;  Josiah  Carr,  Treas. ;  W.  F.  Milliken,  Sec.  June  24  occurred 
the  first  expulsion  from  the  lodge.  In  1856  four  were  made  Masons  and  two 
dimitted.  D.  P.  Atwood  was  W.  M.;  S.  B.  Hutchins,  S.  W.;  Josiah  Carr, 
J.  W.;  Tristram  Durell,  Treas.;  W.  W.  Knight,  Sec.  This  year  died  Nathaniel 
Bray,  May  29,^  and  Otis  Waterhouse,  October  12.^ 

The  elective  officers  for  1857  and  1858  were:  Josiah  Carr,  W.  M.;  Augus- 
tus Golderman,  S.  W.;  A.  P.  Lamb,  J.  W. ;  T.  Durell,  Treas.;  O.  B.  Dwinal, 
Sec.  Eight  Masons  were  made  and  one  added  by  dimit  in  1857,  and  five  were 
added  in  1858  and  one  dimitted.  January  28,  1858,  a  large  Bible,  square,  and 
compasses  for  altar  service,  were  presented  to  the  lodge  by  the  ladies  of  Poland 
and  Minot  interested  in  its  welfare.  In  1859  three  were  initiated.  The  officers 
in  1859  were:  Augustus  Golderman,  W.  M.;  A.  P.  Lamb,  S.  W. ;  C.  D. 
Hackett,  J.  W.;  W.  C.  Dwinal,  Treas.;  E.  G.  Hawkes,  Sec.  In  1860  the  same, 
except  treasurer,  D.  P.  Atwood,  being  chosen.  This  year  a  public  installation 
was  held  and  a  banquet  followed,  enjoyed  by  many.  Five  were  initiated, 
passed,  and  raised  this  year.  1861  —  the  same  officers  were  chosen.  Eleven 
were  made  Masons,  one  dimitted,  and  one  (John  Stinchfield)  died.  The  lodge 
was  incorporated  this  year  by  legislative  enactment.  1862  —  Alonzo  P.  Lamb, 
W.  M.;  C.  D.  Hackett,  S.  W.;  J.  M.  Eveleth,  J.  W.;  D.  P.  Atwood,  Treas.; 
E.  G.  Hawkes,  Sec.  June  24  attended  the  centennial  celebration  of  the  intro- 
duction of  Masonry  into  Maine,  held  at  Portland.  Four  were  made  Masons 
this  year,  and  eight  in  1863.  In  1863  C.  D.  Hackett  was  W.  M.;  John  M. 
Eveleth,  S.  W.;  G.  W.  Seaverns,  J.  W.;  same  secretary  and  treasurer.  Bro. 
Burbank  Spiller  was  buried  with  Masonic  honors  April  15.  Enlisting  in  the 
Fifth  Maine  in  the  spring  of  1861  he  rose  rapidly  from  private  to  a  captaincy, 
and  died  from  disease  contracted  in  service.  1864  —  J.  M.  Eveleth,  W.  M. ; 
G.  W.  Seaverns,  S.  W. ;  F.  H.  Cobb,  J.  W.;  A.  T.  Denison,  Treas.;  E.  G. 
Hawkes,  Sec,  with  other  officers  were  publicly  installed.  Twenty-five  were 
initiated  this  year  and  three  died  —  Levi  Verrill,  Willard  W.  Woodman, 
Charles  W.  Jordan.  1865  —  elective  officers,  except  secretary,  same  as  1864. 
W.  C.  Dwinal  now  assumes  the  pen.  August  12  was  buried  Bro.  Mark  D. 
Curtis,  and  September  15  Augustus  B.  Dwinal.^     Twenty-seven  were  made  this 

1  Brother  Bray  was  made  a  Mason  in  Cumberlaud  Lodge  January  20, 1826,  was  a  charter  member  of 
Tyrian  Lodge,  a  worthy  and  faithful  brother. 

-Brother  Waterhouse  was  son  of  Benjamin  Waterhouse,  and  was  born  in  Poland  in  1831.  Educated 
by  his  own  efforts,  he  bcseame  a  successful  teacher,  studied  law  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1856. 
He  gave  promise  of  a  brilliant  career. 

s  He  was  son  of  Alexander  Dwinal  of  Minot.  Instead  of  entering  college,  for  which  he  fitted,  he 
was  one  of  the  first  to  enlist  as  a  Union  soldier,  was  promoted  to  lieutenant  and  wounded,  from  the 
effects  of  which  he  died. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  243 

year.  1866— E.  G.  Hawkes,  W.  M.;  P.  R.  Cobb,  S.  W. ;  Geo.  W.  Slioles,  J. 
W. ;  G.  W.  Seaverns,  Treas.;  W.  G.  Millett,  Sec.  Eight  were  initiated, 
passed,  and  raised.  1867  — Prescott  R.  Cobb,  W.  M.;  G.  W.  Sholes,  S.  W. ; 
H.  B.  King,  J.  W.;  S.  G.  Spurr,  Treas.;  W.  G.  Millett,  Sec.  Fourteen  joined 
this  year  by  election  and  initiation.  1868  —  P.  R.  Cobb,  W.  M.;  G.  W.  Sholes, 
S.  W.;  E.  F.  Ross,  J.  W.;  S.  G.  Spurr,  Treas.;  W.  G.  Millett,  Sec.  This  year 
were  buried  Bros.  W.  C.  Dwinal^  and  Simeon  W.  Hawkes.  1869  —  Geo.  W. 
Sholes,  VV.  M.;  E.  F.  Ross,  S.  W.;  D.  B.  Perry,  J.  W. ;  F.  H.  Cobb,  Treas.; 
E.  A.  Gammon,  Sec.  Ten  Masons  were  made  and  one  (William  Cousens) 
buried  this  year.  1870  — E.  F.  Ross,  W.  M. ;  D.  B.  Perry,  S.  W.;  C.  H. 
Dwinal,  J.  W. ;  John  Richardson,  Treas. ;  E.  A.  Gammon,  Sec.  February  10 
a  Masonic  Board  of  Trustees  having  been  incorporated,  the  lodge  voted  to 
surrender  its  civil  charter  and  transfer  its  funds  to  the  treasurer  of  the  board 
of  trustees.  Bro.  Samuel  Atwood,  a  charter  member  and  a  Mason  since  1815, 
died  February  10,  aged  82.     By  this  time  179  members  have  been  admitted. 

So  far  we  have  followed  the  manuscript  history  prepared  for  the  Grand 
Lodge.  November  30  Past  Master  Dimon  B.  Perry  presented  the  lodge  with 
large  photographs  of  all  Past  Masters.  These  hang  on  the  walls  of  the  lodge 
room  in  substantial  frames,  and  from  this  year  it  has  been  an  unwritten  law  of 
the  lodge  that  each  Master  shall  add  his  framed  photograph  to  the  number. 
Nine  were  made  Masons  this  year,  four  dimitted,  one  died.  In  1871  Edward 
Ross  was  W.  M. ;  D.  B.  Perry,  S.  W.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  J.  W.;  John  Richardson, 
Treas.;  F.  C.  Whitehouse,  Sec.  In  1872, 1873, 1874,  Dimon  B.  Perry,  W.  M.  ; 
Hiram  B.  King,  S.  W. ;  J.  Richardson,  J.  W.;  F.  C.  Whitehouse,  Treas.;  J.  S. 
Merrill,  Sec.  February  1,  1872,  was  held  the  first  meeting  of  Tyrian  Lodge  in 
its  present  well-arranged  and  convenient  hall  in  Denison  Block,  Poland,  when 
the  lodge  room  was  dedicated  under  the  auspices  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  repre- 
sented by  M.  W.  Henry  H.  Dickey,  P.  G.  M.,  who  publicly  installed  the 
officers.  October  9,  1873,  the  lodge  assisted  in  constituting  Union  R.  A. 
Chapter.  Thirty-seven  were  initiated,  11  dimitted,  and  seven  died  in  these 
three  years.  1875  — H.  B.  King  was  W.  M.;  J.  Richardson,  S.  W. ;  E.  F. 
Stevens,  J.  W.;  A.  J.  Weston,  Treas.;  T.  S.  Turner,  Sec.  In  1876,  J.  Rich- 
ardson, W.  M. ;  E.  F.  Stevens,  S.  W.;  C.  E.  Stoddard,  J.  W. ;  A.  J.  Weston, 
Treas.;  H.  C.  Bray,  Sec.  April  6,  1876,  the  time  of  the  annual  meeting  was 
changed  from  January  to  October.  In  1877,  J.  Richardson,  W.  M.;  E.  F. 
Stevens,  S.  W.;  John  F.  Briggs,  J.  W.;  A.  J.  Weston,  Treas.;  E.  F.  Edge- 
comb,  Sec.  1878-1879  — E.  F.  Stevens,  W.  M. ;  J.  M.  Libby,  S.  W. ;  H.  N. 
Whittle,  J.  W.;  A.J.  Weston,  Treas.;  E.  F.  Edgecomb,  Sec.  1880  — Jesse  M. 
Libby,  W.  M  ;  H.  M.  Whittle,  S.  W.;  Charles  H.  Adams,  J.  W.;  A.  J.  Weston, 
Treas.;  E.  F.  Edgecomb,  Sec.     1881  —  same  officers  as  1880  except  James  H. 

iWinfield  C.  Dwinal,  son  of  Jacob.    He  was  prominent  in  Minot  business  affairs,  was  a  mercliant 
aud  paper  manufacturer,  and  later  a  member  of  the  mercantile  house  of  D.  W.  True  &  Co.,  of  Portland. 

244  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Harper  is  J.  W.     1882— H.  N.  Whittle,  W.  M. ;  John  F.  Briggs,  S.  W.;  Hollis 

C.  Bray,  J.  W.;  I).  B.  Perry,  Treas.  (which  office  he  has  since  held);  E.  F. 
Edgecomb,  Sec.  1883  — H.  N.  Whittle,  W.  M.;  H.  C.  Bray,  S.  W.;  D.  R. 
Greenwood,  J.  W. ;  C.  E.  Stoddard,  Sec.  1884— H.  C.  Bray,  W.  M.;  E.  F. 
Edgecomb,  S.  W.;  J.  H.  King,  J.  W.;  C.  E.  Stoddard,  Sec.  1885,  1886— E. 
F.  Edgecomb,  W.  M.;  J.  H.  King,  S.  W.;  Thos.  B.  Davis,  J.  W.;  E.  F.  Ross, 
Sec.  1887,  1888  — J.  H.  Kifig,  W.  M.;  F.  R.  Harmon,  S.  W. ;  H.  E.  Dennen, 
J.  W.;  O.  H.  Guptill,  Sec.  1889  — Frank  R.  Harmon,  W.  M.;  H.  E.  Dennen, 
S.  W.;  T.  B.  Davis,  J.  W. ;  O.  H.  Guptill,  Sec.  1890— F.  R.  Harmon,  W. 
H.  E.  Dennen,  S.  W. ;  J.  H.  DeCoster,  J.  W. ;  P.  R.  Cobb,  Sec.  1891  —  H.  E. 
Dennen,  W.  M. ;  O.  H.  Guptill,  S.  W. ;  F.  O.  Purington,  J.  W.;  D.  B.  Perry, 
Treas. ;  F.  C.  Bucknam,  Sec. 

Tyrian  I^odge  has  had  a  most  prosperous  existence.  Twelve  candidates 
have  been  initiated  this  year,  and  the  membership  in  March,  1891,  was  201. 
The  lodge  has  an  invested  fund  of  't2,300,  owns  the  furnishings  and  finishings 
of  its  hall,  which  was  fitted  up  by  the  lodge.  Many  pleasant  things  have 
occurred  to  strengthen  the  bonds  of  fraternity,  and  one  incident  shows  the 
far-extending,  watchful  care  of  the  brotherhood.  A  letter  was  received  by  the 
secretary  from  W.  M.  James  Smith,  of  Monumental  Lodge  of  Baltimore,  under 
date  of  July  31,  1804,  stating  that  several  trunks  had  been  picked  up  at  sea 
off  Cape  Henry,  and  on  opening  them  in  one  was  found  a  diploina  purporting 
to  belong  to  Frank  M.  Cobb,  a  member  of  this  lodge,  and  the  letter  was  written 
to  give  him,  or  members  of  his  family,  notice  that  the  trunk  was  safely  cared 
for  and  requesting  orders  for  its  disposition.  The  work  of  this  lodge  has  ever 
been  complimented  highl}^  by  the  visiting  officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  and  its 
record  stands  second  to  none  in  its  district,  and  the  attendance  has  always  been 
large.  But  few  have  held  office  in  the  Grand  Lodge:  Daniel  P.  Atwood  in 
1857  and  1861,  John  M.  Eveleth  in  1871,  Dimon  B.  Perry  in  1876,  Edward  F. 
Stevens  in  1881  and  1882  have  been  District  Deputy  Grand  Masters,  and  E.  F. 
Edgecomb  was  a  member  of  the  standing  committee  on  returns  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  in  1886  and  1887.  Daniel  W.  True  and  W.  F.  Milliken,  made  Masons 
in  this  lodge,  later  became  prominent  business  men  of  Portland.  The  lodge 
has  a  select  library  of  several  hundred  volumes. 

Union  Moijul  Arch  Chapter,  JSfo.  36,  Merhanic  Falls.  —  In  1872,  ninth 
month,  twenty-sixth  day,  G.  H.  P.  John  W.  Ballou  granted  to  J.  M.  Eveleth, 

D.  B.  Perry,  C.  H.  Dwinal,  J.  L.  Tenney,  Josiah  Carr,  A.  Golderman,  D.  H. 
McCann,  Adna  T.  Denison,  E.  F.  Stevens,  W.  B.  Bucknam,  S.  G.  Hatch,  F. 

E.  Crockett,  A.  O.  Noyes,  M.  M.  Fuller,  Calvin  E.  Evans,  H.  D.  Smith,  S. 

F.  Sargent,  George  Moore,  Zenas  Thompson,  John  Hooper,  W.  G.  Lowell, 
Luther  Perkins,  D.  S.  Perkins,  Mark  Crockett,  Ceylon  Watson,  and  George  E. 
Hawkes,  a  dispensation  for  a  chapter  of  Royal  Arch  Masons  at  Mechanic  Falls. 
J.  M.  Eveleth  was  appointed  H.  P.;   E.  F.  Stevens,  K.;   and  D.  B.  Perry,  S. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies,  245 

The  chapter  held  its  first  meeting  October  8,  1872.  The  charter  was  granted 
May  7,  1873.  The  charter  members  were  D.  B.  Perry,  E.  F.  Stevens,  J.  L. 
Tenney,  Josiah  Carr,  A.  Golderman,  D.  N.  McCann,  G.  E.  Hawkes,  Mark 
Crockett,  C.  H.  Dwinal,  A.  T.  Denison,  W.  G.  Lowell,  W.  B.  Bucknam,  A. 
Oscar  Noyes,  Fred  E.  Crockett,  David  G.  Millett,  S.  G.  Hatch,  L.  B.  Weeks, 
C.  F.  Durell,  J.  M.  Eveleth,  George  Moore,  Zenas  Thompson,  Luther  Perkins, 
H.  D.  Smith,  James  S.  Merrill,  Wm  H.  Pierce,  Thos  S.  Turner,  Geo.  H. 
Butler,  Moses  S.  Jordan,  Jeffrey  Parsons,  Geo.  W.  Hobbs,  Charles  A.  Pierce, 
Albert  E.  Sawyer,  Hiram  B.  King.  G.  H.  P.  Horace  H.  Burbank  constituted 
the  chapter  October  9,  1873,  and  these  officers  were  installed:  J.  M.  Eveleth, 
H.  P.;  E.  F.  Stevens,  K.;  D.  B.  Perry,  S.;  W.  B.  Bucknam,  Treas.;  C.  H. 
Dwinal,  Sec;  Zenas  Thompson,  Chap.;  D.  N.  McCann,  C.  H.;  A.  T.  Denison, 
P.  S.;  H.  B.  King,  R.  A.  C;  J.  L.  Tenney,  M.  3d  V.;  J.  S.  Merrill,  M.  2d  V.; 
S.  H.  Hutchinson,  M.  1st  V.;  Charles  A.  Pierce,  Sent.  Officers  for  1874:  J. 
M.  Eveleth,  H.  P.;  E.  F.  Stevens,  K.;  D.  B.  Perry,  S.;  W.  B.  Bucknam, 
Treas.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Sec;  1875  — E.  F.  Stevens,  H.  P.;  D.  B.Perry,  K.; 
Thomas  S.  Turner,  S.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Treas.;  Hollis  C.  Bray,  Sec;  1876  — 
E.  F.  Stevens,  H.  P.;  P.  R.  Cobb,  K.;  J.  S.  Merrill,  S.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Treas.; 
J.  E.  Adams,  Sec;  1877  — E.  F.  Stevens,  H.  P.;  P.  R.  Cobb,  K.;  S.  H. 
Hutchinson,  S.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Treas.;  J.  S.  Merrill,  Sec;  1878  — P.  R.  Cobb, 
H.  P.;  J.  M.  Eveleth,  K.;  J.  F.  Briggs,  S.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Treas.;  J.  S. 
Merrill,  Sec;  1879-1880  — P.  R.  Cobb,  H.  P.;  J.  F.  Briggs,  K.;  W.  Waters, 
S.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Treas.;  E.  F.  Stevens,  Sec;  1881  — J.  F.  Briggs,  H.  P.; 
Wm  Waters,  K.;  H.  C.  Bray,  S.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Treas.;  E.  F.  Stevens, 
Sec  John  F.  Briggs,  H.  P.,  was  buried  with  Masonic  honors  March  15, 
1882.  A  dispensation  was  given  this  year  changing  the  place  of  meeting  to 
Norway,  and  in  1883  that  place  was  continued  as  the  home  of  the  chapter. 

Nezinscof  Ludf/e,  JVo.  101,  Turner.  —  In  1859  several  members  of  the 
Masonic  fraternity,  residing  in  this  town,  desiring  more  of  the  benefits  of  the 
order  than  could  be  given  by  the  lodges  to  which  they  held  allegiance 
conceived  the  idea  of  a  lodge  in  I'nruer,  which  was  fostered  by  informal 
meetings  held  in  the  law  office  of  M.  T.  Ludden,  and  culminated  in  a  petition 
to  the  Grand  Lodge  for  a  dispensation  signed  by  Geo.  W.  Turner,  Hira 
Bradford,  H.  M.  Mayo,  Philo  (lark,  Seth  D.  Andrews,  Deering  Farrar,  F.  M. 
Mayo,  M.  T.  Ludden,  Wm  Bray,  Henry  Turner,  Chas  E.  Bradford,  Gilbert 
Phillips,  Rufus  Prince,  Lewis  A.  Farrar.  Tliey  were  vouched  for  "by  lYanquil 
Lodge  of  Danville,"  and  the  petition  was  countersigned  by  R.  W.  Augustus 
Callahan,  D.  D.  G.  M.  of  the  second  Masonic  district. 

A  dispensation  was  granted  March  1,  1860,  and  the  first  regular  communi- 
cation was  held  at  Masonic  Hall,  March  3,  1860.  There  were  present  Geo.  W. 
Turner,  W.  M. ;  Seth  D.  Andrews,  S.  W.  ;  Horatio  M.  Mayo,  J.  W.  — the 
officers  named  in  the  dispensation,  and  these  brethren,  Hira  Bradford,  Deering 

246  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Farrar,  Lewis  A.  Farrar,  F.  M.  Mayo,  M.  T.  Ludden,  Hufus  Prince,  Charles 
E.  Bradford,  Henry  Turner,  Gilbert  Phillips.  Deering  Farrar  was  chosen 
treasurer;  Kufus  Prince,  Sec;  C.  E.  Bradford,  S.  D. ;  H.  Turner,  J.  D. ; 
G.  Phillips,  S.  S.;  F.  M.  Mayo,  J.  S. ;  Philo  Clark,  M.;  M.  T.  Ludden,  Tyler. 
Five  petitions  for  membership  were  presented  and  the  new  lodge  started  under 
very  favorable  auspices.  June  2,  1860,  occurred  the  first  election  of  officers: 
G.  W.  Turner,  W.  M.;  S.  D.  Andrews,  S.  W.;  H.  M.  Mayo,  J.  W. ;  D.  Farrar, 
Treas.;  Kufus  Prince,  Sec.  June  23  was  a  great  day  for  the  new  lodge.  A 
past  master's  lodge  was  opened  by  M.  W.  Josiah  H.  Drummond,  Grand 
Master,  W.  M. ;  M.  W.  Keuel  Washburn,  S.  W.;  Joseph  Covell,  J.  W.;  other 
officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge  filling  the  other  stations.  The  degree  of  past 
master  was  then  conferred  on  G.  W.  Turner,  the  master-elect,  after  which  the 
Grand  Lodge  officers  "consecrated,  constituted,  and  dedicated  Nezinscot 
Lodge  in  ample  form,"  and  the  officers  were  publicly  installed  in  the  Baptist 
church.  June  26,  1861,  were  elected  Geo.  W.  Turner,  W.  M.;  S.  D. 
Andrews,  S.  W. ;  Silas  Morse,  J.  W. ;  D.  Farrar,  Treas. ;  11.  Prince,  Sec. ; 
M.  T.  Ludden,  S.  S.;  H.  Turner,  J.  D.  December  14  a  contribution  was  sent 
to  the  erection  fund  of  the  Dunlap  monument.  In  1862  the  officers  of  1861 
were  re-elected.  The  celebration  of  the  anniversary  of  the  introduction  of 
Masonry  into  Maine,  held  at  Portland,  June  24,  was  attended  as  a  lodge. 
January  3,  1863,  a  committee  was  chosen  "  to  procure  a  legislative  charter. " 
January  24,  Masonic  rites  were  held  in  memory  of  Thomas  W.  Davis,  who  died 
in  the  army.  June  17  Hira  Bradford's  funeral  services  were  conducted. 
June  27,  1863,  elected  Seth  D.  Andrews,  W.  M.;  Charles  E.  Bradford,  S.  W.; 
M.  T.  Ludden,  J.  W.;  Phillips  Bradford,  Treas.;  Jas.  P.  Waterman,  Sec; 
H.  C.  Haskell,  S.  D.;  Eland  Fuller,  J.  D.  July  25  officers  installed  by  R.  W. 
D.  D.  G.  M.  Joseph  P.  Gill.  August  12  the  burial  services  of  Gen.  Alden 
Blossom  were  attended.  April  16,  1864,  G.  W.  Turner  was  chosen  rep- 
resentative to  the  Grand  Lodge.  May  21  voted  to  attend  the  celebration 
of  St  John's  day  to  be  held  at  Livermore  Falls.  June  8  a  special  meeting 
was  held  at  the  house  of  Timothy  Pratt  to  bury  Major  Archibald  D.  Leavitt 
with  Masonic  honors.     Charles  E.  Bradford  was  W.  M.  this  year. 

Up  to  this  period  much  good  material  had  been  incorporated  into  the  lodge. 
October  11  the  funeral  services  of  Bro.  W.  H.  Torrey,  "died  in  battle,"  were  held. 
November  15  the  funeral  of  Bro.  W.  M.  Bridgham  was  attended.  Officers, 
18(55 :  M.  T.  Ludden,  W.  M. ;  L.  P.  Bradford,  S.  W. ;  Thomas  W.  Bowman, 
J.  W.;  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Treas.;  J.  B.  Waterman,  Sec;  Charles  Blake,  S.  I).; 
Gilbert  Piiillips,  J.  D.  August  5  the  lodge  instructed  tlie  W.  M.  to  pay  Cyrus 
Cole  i|500  for  a  deed  of  the  hall,  building,  and  land.  August  25,  1866,  voted 
1800  for  repairs.  M.  T.  Ludden  was  Master  in  1866;  D.  H.  Teague,  Sec;  L. 
P.  Bradford,  S.  W.;  T.  W.  Bowman,  J.  W.  Bro.  G.  W.  Turner  is  now  D.  D.  G. 
M.;  Philo  Clark,  Representative.     1867  — officers  elected,  L.  P.  Bradford,  W. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  247 

M.;  Henry  Turner,  S.  W.;  H.  C.  Haskell,  J.  W.;  D.  H.  Teague,  Sec.  April  4, 
1868,  the  petition  for  a  new  lodge  at  Buckfield  was  voted  upon  and  decided 
adversely.  I'be  lodge  was  finally  established,  taking  21  members  from  this  lodge. 
Officers  elected,  1868:  L.  P.  Bradford,  W.  M.;  Henry  Turner,  S.  W. ;  Charles 
Blake,  J.  W.;  S.  D.  Andrews,  Sec.  F.  T.  Faulkner  elected  representative  to 
the  Grand  Lodge.  Officers  for  1869:  L.  P.  Bradford,  W.  M.;  Charles  Blake, 
S.  W. ;  F.  T.  Faulkner,  J.  W. ;  James  A.  Cary,  Treas.  July  24  the  funeral  of 
Charles  B.  Blake  was  attended.  June  11,  1870,  chose  F.  T.  Faulkner,  W.  M.; 
Charles  Blake,  S.  W. ;  C.  H.  Thayer,  J.  W.;  J.  A.  Cary,  Treas.  The  lodge 
was  invited  to  participate  in  the  dedication  at  Bangor  by  the  Grand  Lodge. 
In  November,  P.  M.  S.  I).  Andrews  and  W.  M.  F.  T.  Faulkner  were  chosen 
committee  on  history.  March  4,  1871,  the  deaths  of  Asa  Phillips,  D.  H. 
Teague,  and  H.'  D.  Irish  were  reported.  March  9  the  lodge  gave  Masonic 
burial  to  the  remains  of  Bro.  Joseph  Ludden  of  Temple  Lodge.  March  28  R. 
W.  I.  G.  Curtis,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  witnessed  work  on  the  M.  M.  degree,  and  gave 
remarks  complimentar}'  to  the  lodge.  June  17  R.  W.  Dura  Bradford,  D.  D. 
G.  M.  installed  the  officers  elect.  These  were:  F.  T.  Faulkner,  W.  M.; 
Chas  Blake,  S.  W.;  L.  B.  Perry,  J.  W.;  J.  A.  Cary,  Treas.;  C.  E.  Kempton, 
S.  D.;  W.  L.  Loring,  J.  D.  July  29  occurred  the  first  suspension  since  the 
organization  of  the  lodge.  September  23  many  visiting  brethren  from  Tran- 
quil, Rabboni,  Oriental  Star,  and  Evening  Star  lodges  were  present  to  witness 
work  on  the  M.  M.  degree,  and  when  "called  from  labor  to  refreshment"  58 
Masons  were  present.  October  28  Bro.  Faulkner  appointed  to  procure  new 
regalia  and  jewels.  October  24  the  lodge  went  to  North  Turner  to  bury  with 
Masonic  honors  Bro.  Charles  W.  Willard  (non-affiliated).  December  13  the 
death  of  Bro.  J.  Eldridge  occurred.  He  was  the  first  tyler  of  the  lodge  after 
receiving  its  charter. 

February  2,  1872,  a  large  number  of  visiting  brethren  present  from  Ashlar, 
Tranquil,  Rabboni,  Oriental  Star,  Polar  Star,  and  Lancaster  lodges.  April  18 
Brothers  Faulkner  and  Andrews  appointed  to  revise  the  by-laws  and  have 
them  printed.  Officers  for  1872:  F.  T.  Faulkner,  W.  M. ;  L.  B.  Perry, 
S.  W.;  C.  H.  Thayer,  J.  W.;  S.  P.  Bradford,  Treas.;  C.  E.  Kempton,  S.  D. ; 
I.  N.  Loring,  J.  D.  August  15  the  lodge  attended  the  consecration  of  Whitney 
Lodge  of  Canton.  July  5,  1873,  public  installation  of  officers,  by  R.  W.  F. 
T.  Faulkner,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  which  were:  Carlos  E.  Kempton,  W.  M.;  C.  H. 
Thayer,  S.  W.;  C.  D.  Ford,  J.  W.;  Lewis  P.  Bradford,  Treas.;  S.  S.  Merrill, 
S.  D. ;  I.  N.  Loring,  J.  I).  June  24,  1874,  by  invitation  the  lodge  joined  in 
the  dedication  of  the  new  hall  of  Tranquil  Lodge  and  participated  in  the 
celebration  of  St  John's  Day.  The  historian  says :  "  As  the  guests  of 
Tranquil  Lodge,  we  shall  not  soon  forget  the  fraternal  and  hospitable  manner 
in  which  we  were  entertained."  June  27  the  lodge  appropriated  #40  for 
suffering    Masons    in    Louisiana.      The    officers   for  1874    were:    Carlos   E. 

248  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Kerapton,    W.  M.;    Chas  H.   Thayer,  S.  W. ;    Perkins,    J.    W.;    F.    T. 

Faulkner,  Treas.;  S.  S.  Merrill,  S.  D.;  I.  N.  Loring,  J.  D.  March  16,  1875, 
attended  the  funeral  of  Brother  J.  A.  Gary.  August  14  the  officers-elect  were 
installed  by  R.  W.  F.  I.  Day,  D.  D.  G.  M.;  Carlos  E.  Kempton,  W.  M. ;  S.  S. 
Merrill,  S.  W.;  J.  E.  Ashe,  J.  W.;  F.T.  Faulkner,  Treas.;  F.  K.  Jack,  S.  D.; 
I.  N.  Loring,  J.  D.  November  27  Bro.  Robert  Lindsey,  of  Leeds,  was 
reported  as  very  ill,  and  Bro.  R.  Jennings  was  appointed  to  convey  to  him  the 
sympathy  of  the  lodge.  December  11  Bro.  Philo  Clark  by  request  delivered  a 
lecture  on  "The  Duties  of  Masons,"  which  for  beauty,  sound  sense,  and 
instruction  has  never  been  excelled  in  this  lodge.  January  8,  1876,  Bro. 
Jennings  on  invitation  delivered  a  timely  and  well-written  lecture  on  "Our 
Characters  as  Masons."  January  27  a  special  meeting  was  called  to  receive 
and  bury  the  remains  of  Bro.  George  Bates,  of  Oriental  Lodge,  who  died  at 
Auburn  and  was  buried  in  the  cemetery  at  Turner.  The  ceremony  was 
conducted  by  P.  M.  George  W.Turner.  February  6  Bro.  Roscoe  Smith,  M.D., 
delivered  a  lecture  on  "The  Origin  of  Masonry"  —  very  interesting  and 
displaying  much  research.  A  contribution  was  sent  to  aid  a  Mississippi  lodge. 
Officers  for  1876:  S.  S.  Merrill,  W.  M.;  Chas  Blake,  S.  W.;  J.  E.  Ashe,  J.  W.; 
F.  K.  Jack,  S.  D.;  W.  L.  Loring,  J.  D.  Officers  for  1877:  S.  S.  Merrill, 
W.  M.;  Chas  Blake,  S.  W.;  John  E.  Ashe,  J.  W.;  Roscoe  Smith,  Sec; 
F.  K.  Jack,  S.  D.;  W.  L.  Loring,  J.  D.  September  21,  1877,  attended  the 
funeral  of  Bro.  B.  F.  Perry  at  West  Auburn.  March  15,  1878,  conducted  the 
funeral  services  of  P.  M.  George  W.  Turner  at  Turner  Center.  Bro.  Turner 
was  the  first  Master  serving  three  years  under  the  charter,  and  declined  to 
serve  after  being  again  elected.  He  held  many  distinguished  positions  in 
Masonry.  Officers  for  1878:  S.  S.  Merrill,  W.  M.;  C.  H.  Thayer,  S.  W.; 
John  E.  Ashe,  J.  W. ;  F.  K.  Jack,  S.  D. ;  W.  L.  Loring,  J.  D.  August  10  the 
thanks  of  the  lodge  were  presented  to  the  ladies  (especially  Mrs.  C.  E. 
Kempton)  who  have  so  generously  given  their  aid  to  beautify  and  adorn  the 
hall.  The  lodge-room  has  been  carpeted,  painted,  papered,  and  otherwise 
improved.  February  1,  1879,  the  death  of  P.  M.  Charles  E.  Bradford  (third 
master  of  the  lodge)  was  announced.  He  had  held  many  prominent  positions 
in  civil  Hfe.  In  1870  the  officers  were:  Charles  Blake,  W.  M.;  C.  H.  Thayer, 
S.  W.;  W.  L.  Loring,  J.  W. ;  Roscoe  Smith,  S.  D.;  C.  H.  Barrell,  J.  D. 
Public  installation,  August  30.  September  27  death  announced  of  Bro.  W.  H. 
Jewett,  M.I).  February  14,  1880,  officially  visited  by  D.  D.  G.  M.  Archie  L. 
Talbot.  An  organ  was  purchased  in  April.  Officers  elected  June  19:  C.  H. 
Thayer,  W.  M. ;  W.  L.  Loring,  S.  W. ;  Roscoe  Smith,  J.  W. ;  Levi  B.  Perry, 
S.  D.;  C.  H.  Barrell,  J.  D.  February  26  an  official  visit  from  R.  W.  C.  R. 
Whitton,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  who  stated  that  "Nezinscot  Lodge  sustained  her  high 
reputation  for  correctness  of  work."  April  9,  1881,  the  death  of  Bro.  W.  R. 
Bradford  was  announced.     August  31  attended  the  funeral  services  of  the  late 


Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  249 

Master,  C.  H.  Thayer.  Officers  elected  September  3:  Levi  B.  Perry,  W.  M.; 
W.  L.  Loring,  S.  W.;  Roscoe  Smith,  J.  W.  December  3  S.  D.  Andrews, 
F.  T.  Faulkner,  and  Roscoe  Smith  appointed  to  write  the  history  of  the  lodge. 
April  29,  1882,  the  death  of  Bro.  O.  D.  Turner  announced.  May  27  Levi  B. 
Perry  chosen  W.  M.;  W.  L.  Loring,  S.  W.;  C.  H.  Barrell,  J.  W.  Officers, 
1883:  David  N.  Osgood,  W.  M.;  H.  C.  Haskell,  S.  W.;  C.  H.  Barrell,  J.  W.; 
J.  F.  Quimby,  S.  D.;  H.  A.  Hildreth,  J.  D.  1884  — D.  N.  Osgood,  W.  M.; 
C.  H.  Barrell,  S.  W. ;  J.  N.  Donham,  J.  W.;  J.  F.  Quimby,  S.  D.;  H.  A. 
Hildreth,  J.  D.  June  22,  1884,  attended  the  funeral  of  Bro.  Philo  Clark. 
August  30  public  installation.  February  27  an  official  visit  from  R.  W.  N.  U. 
Hinkley,  D.  D.  (I.  M.  Officers,  1885:  Charles  H.  Barrell,  W.  M.;  J.  N. 
Donham,  S.  W.;  J.  W.  Newell,  J.  W. ;  Elisha  Pratt,  S.  D. ;  E.  P.  Ramsdell, 
J.  D.  July  22  the  lodge,  escorted  by  I^ewiston  Commandery,  attended  the 
funeral  services  of  Bro.  Caleb  Blake,  an  old  and  honored  member.  In 
December  a  contribution  was  sent  to  the  suffering  brethren  of  Galveston, 
Texas.  Bro.  H.  M.  Humphrey  buried  with  Masonic  honors  February  2,  1886. 
March  17  another  Masonic  funeral  attended,  that  of  Bro.  Asa  Bradford.  July 
7  attended  the  centennial  celebration  of  the  settlement  of  the  town,  in  regalia. 
Officers,  1886:  C.  H.  Barrell,  W.  M. ;  J.  M.  Donham,  S.  W.;  J.  W.  Newell, 
J.  W.;  E.  P.  Ramsdell,  S.  D. ;  Geo.  W.  Snell,  J.  D.,  who  were  publicly 
installed.  November  6  voted  to  grant  Turner  R.  A.  Chapter  the  free  use  of  the 
hall  and  anterooms  for  five  years.  March  S,  18(S7,  the  late  honored  Master, 
Charles  H.  I>arrell,  was  buried  with  Masonic  rites.  Officers  chosen  June  4: 
James  N.  Donham,  \V.  M. ;  E.  P.  Ramsdell,  S.  W.;  Harvey  W.  Burdin,  J.  W. ; 
F.  S.  French,  S.  D.;  A.  W.  Roberts,  J.  D.  Officers,  1888:  James  N.  Donham, 
W.  M.;  E.  P.  Ramsdell,  S.  W.;  F.  S.  French,  J.  W.;  A.  W.  Roberts,  S.  D.; 
E.  V.  Stevens,  J.  D.  June  8,  1889,  elected  E.  P.  Ramsdell,  W.  M.;  Frank  S. 
French,  S.  W. ;  Albion  W.  Roberts,  J.  W.;  E.  V.  Stevens,  S.  D.;  W.  H.  French, 
J.  D.  July  27  attended  the  Masonic  funeral  of  our  cherished  brother,  Phillips 
Bradford,  at  Auburn.  May  3,  1890,  announcement  was  made  of  the  death  of 
Bro.  C.  A.  Coombs.  The  lodge  attended  the  Masonic  celebration  at  Portland, 
accompanied  by  the  Turner  band.  The  officers  elected  June  28  were:  E.  P. 
Ramsdell,  W.  M.;  F.  S.  French,  S.  W.;  A.  W.  Roberts,  J.  W. ;  Wm  H.  Downing, 
S.  D. ;  Wm  H.  French,  J.  D.,  and  they  were  publicly  installed  August  23. 
October  25  the  secretary  was  appointed  to  write  the  history  of  tlie  lodge. 
January  13,  1891,  the  Masonic  funeral  of  Bro.  Benjamin  Keen  was  attended  at 
North  Turner.  The  death  of  Bro.  Rufus  Prince  was  announced  May  23,  and 
since  then  have  passed  to  the  Grand  Lodge  above  Charles  A.  Coombs  and 
Henry  Turner.  The  officers  for  1891  are:  E.  P.  Ramsdell,  W.  M. ;  Frank  S. 
French,  S.  W.;  A.  W.  Roberts,  J.  W.;  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Treas.;  S.  D.  Andrews, 
Sec;  Wm  H.  Downing,  S.  D.;  W.  H.  French,  J.  D.;  H.  C.  Haskell,  Mar.; 
S.  D.  Thomas,  S.  S.;   Wm  B.  Bradford,  J.  S.;   Wm  L.  Blake,  Tyler. 

250  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

The  membership  is  now  100,  scattered  from  Aroostook  county  to  the 
Pacific  coast.  The  lodge  has  been  composed  of  the  best  possible  material,  of 
citizens  eminent  in  intellectual  and  moral  virtues,  and  has  always  held  high 
place  for  its  correct  rendition  of  the  "work,"  and  the  reports  of  the  D.  D. 
(Irand  Masters  concerning  it  have  been  uniformly  highly  eulogistic.  It  has 
been  financially  well  conducted ;  it  owns  its  hall  of  three  stories  (the  lower 
part  is  rented  for  -K^lOO  per  annum),  and  it  has  a  fund  of  $1,200.  F.  T.  Faulkner 
has  been  treasurer  from  1865  excepting  1871-2-3-1,  and  S.  D.  Andrews  has 
been  secretary  since  1868  except  one  year. 

Turner  Royal  Arch  Chapter,  No.  Jfl-,  Turner}  —  Those  Masons  who  had 
received  the  Royal  Arch  degree,  living  in  Turner  and  vicinity,  being  12  miles 
from  a  chapter  were  practically  deprived  of  the  advantages  pertaining  to 
capitulary  Masonry.  There  were  other  Master  Masons  who  desired  the  degrees 
but  did  not  feel  able  to  go  so  far  for  them.  So,  after  due  consideration,  it  was 
decided  to  establish  a  chapter  in  Turner.  Accordingly,  on  January  15,- 1876, 
the  first  meeting  was  held  in  Masonic  Hall,  Turner  village,  with  these  ofificers : 
M.  E.  Geo.  W.  Turner,  H.  P.;  E.  Carlos  E.  Kempton,  K.;  E.  Jas  A.  Ridlon, 
S.;  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Sec.  ;  Chas  Jones,  C.  H.;  H.  A.  Ellis,  P.  S. ;  J.  H.  Ellis, 
R.  A.  C;  H.  M.  Pratt,  M.  2d  V.;  S.  H.  Wilson,  Sent.  At  this  meeting  the 
chapter  received  the  petitions  of  ten  candidates  for  the  capitular  degrees.  Com- 
mittees were  chosen  to  draft  a  code  of  by-laws,  on  chandeliers,  wood,  aprons,  and 
repairs.  A  dispensation  was  read  from  M.  E.  Henry  L.  Paine,  G.  H.  P.  of  the 
M.  E.  G.  R.  A.  Chapter  of  the  State  of  Maine,  dated  January  6,  1876,  "to  form 
and  open  a  chapter  of  R.  A.  Masons  in  the  town  of  Turner,  by  the  name  of 
Turner  Chapter."  This  dispensation  was  granted  to  Comps.  F.  T.  Faulkner, 
C.  E.  Kempton,  Geo.  W.  Turner,  Caleb  Blake,  H.  C.  Munson,  Jas  A.  Ridlon, 
S.  H.  Wilson,  Milton  J.  Loring,  and  C.  E.  Bradford,  and  Bradford  R.  A.  Chapter, 
of  Auburn,  favored  the  dispensation.  Geo.  W.  Turner  was  appointed  to  be  the 
first  High  Priest;  C.  E.  Kempton,  King;  and  Jas  A.  Ridlon,  Scribe. 

At  the  stated  meeting,  February  12,  two  petitions  were  received  and  nine 
candidates  accepted.  The  committee  on  by-laws  reported  a  code  which  was 
accepted.  The  M.  M.  Mason's  degree  was  conferred  on  nine  candidates.  March 
11  one  application,  and  two  candidates  accepted.  At  a  special  meeting,  April  1, 
the  R.  A.  degree  was  first  worked,  and  six  were  exalted.  April  13  three  candi- 
dates were  exalted.  At  the  stated  meeting,  April  15,  the  chapter  voted  to  petition 
for  a  charter.  April  29  three  candidates  were  exalted.  May  13  two  petitions 
were  received,  also  report  made  that  the  Grand  Chapter  had  granted  a  charter. 
The  following  resolution  was  presented  by  Comp.  H.  C.  Munson,  and  adopted: 

Whereas,  We  are  greatly  indebted  to  Companion  Faulliner  for  bis  persistent  and  suc- 
cessful efforts  in  establishing  Turner  Chapter  of  Royal  Arch  Masons; 

Resolved,  That  wo  extend  to  him  our  heartiest  thanks  in  recognition  of  bis  interest  in 

iRy  S.  D.  Andrews. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  251 

Masonry  in  general  and  in  Turner  Chapter  in  particular,  and  that  our  acknowledgment  of 
indebtedness  to  him  as  a  chapter  be  placed  upon  the  secretary's  book  of  records. 

At  a  special  meeting,  June  30,  1876,  the  chapter  was  duly  constituted  by 
M.  E.  Henry  L.  Paine,  G.  H.  P.,  assisted  by  R.  E.  F.  T.  Faulkner,  G.  Scribe 
as  D.  G.  H.  P.;  R.  E.  Joseph  M.  Hayes,  G.  King,  as  G.  Scribe;  Comp.  J.  W 
Ballou,  P.  G.  H.  P.,  as  G.  C.  of  H.;  Comp.  Charles  Jones  as  G.  R.  A.  C. 
Comp.  Warren  Phillips,  G.  Sent.  The  first  officers  under  the  charter  were 
C.  E.  Kempton,  H.  P.;    H.  M.  Pratt,   K.;    Philo   Clark,   S.;    H.  C.  Haskell 

C.  of  H.;  C.  H.  Thayer,  P.  S.;   F.  K.  Jack,  R.  A.  C;  S.  S.  Merrill,  M.  3d  V. 
W.  L.  Loring,  M.  2d  V.;  J.  E.  Ashe,  M.  1st  V.;  S.  D.  Andrews,  Treas.;  F.  T 
Faulkner,  Sec;  H.  C.  Munson,  Chap.;  Asa  Bradford,  S.  S.;  F.  M.  Loring,  J.  S. 
H.  W.  Humphrey,  Sent.     July  8  committees  were  appointed  to  procure  a  seal 
and  on  printing  by-laws.     June  30,  1877,  election  of  officers :     C.  E.  Kempton, 
H.  P.;   H.  C.  Haskell,  K.;   Philo  Clark,  Scribe;   S.  D.  Andrews,  Treas.;   F.  T. 
Faulkner,  Sec;    C.  H.  Thayer,  C.  of  H.;    F.  K.  Jack,  P.  S.;    S.  S.  Merrill,  R. 
A.  C;   W.  L.  Loring,  M.  MY. ;  J.  E.  Ashe,  M.  2d  V.;   P.  C.  Torrey,  M.  1st  V. 
Voted  to  invite  F.  T.  Faulkner,  Grand  King,  to  install  the  officers-elect  at  the 
next  stated  meeting  (July  28),  which  he  did.      October  27  three    petitions 
for  degrees. 

February  7,  1878,  three  candidates  exalted.  The  official  visit  of  R.  E. 
Joseph  M.  Hayes,  D.  G.  H.  P.,  occurred  this  evening.  There  were  many 
distinguished  Masons  present.  Refreshments  were  served  and  a  delightful 
evening  passed.  June  15,  election  of  officers.  August  17,  officers  installed 
by  R.  E.  F.  T.  Faulkner.  February  8,  1879,  the  death  of  Comp.  C.  E. 
Bradford  was  announced,  and  appropriate  action  was  taken.  He  died  January 
22,  in  Massachusetts,  where  he  was  teaching.  March  11  official  visit  of  a 
grand  officer;  other  distinguished  members  of  the  order  were  present.  Sep- 
tember 6  officers  installed. 

February  19,  1880,  M.  E.  J.  M.  Hayes,  G.  H.  P.,  witnessed  work  in  M.  M. 
M.  degree.  Remarks  by  Comps.  Hayes,  J.  W.  Ballou,  and  others.  Refreshments 
were  served.  June  26  election  of  officers.  September  25,  1880,  two  applica- 
tions for  degrees;  officers  installed.  February  19,  1881,  official  visit  by  R.  E. 
Frank  E.  Sleeper,  G.  S.  June  18  election  of  officers:  H.  C.  Haskell,  H.  P.; 
S.  D.  Andrews,  King;  Philo  Clark,  Scribe;  Henry  Turner,  Treas.;  F.  T. 
Faulkner,  Sec;  C.  H.  Thayer,  C.  of  H.;  S.  S.  Merrill,  P.  S.;  W.  L.  Loring, 
R.  A.  C.;  John  E.  Ashe,  M.  3d  V.;  Thos  J.  Owen,  M.  2d  V.;  H.  W.  Copeland, 
M.  1st  V.  I  give  the  names  of  this  list  of  officers  because  some  of  the  principal 
ones  have  been  re-elected  annually  for  10  years.  September  10  the  death  of 
Comp.  C.  H.  Thayer  was  announced.  He  died  August  29.  November  12  a 
committee  on  history  of  the  chapter,  consisting  of  Comps.  C.  E.  Kempton,  S. 

D.  Andrews,  and  W.  L.  Loring,  was  chosen. 

August  9, 1884,  the  death  of  Comp.  Philo  Clark,  Scribe  of  this  chapter,  was 

252  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

announced.  Comp.  Clark  had  held  many  civil  offices  in  the  town  and  county, 
and  had  been  long  a  Mason  honored  and  respected.  August  29, 1885,  the  death 
of  Comp.  Caleb  Blake  was  reported.  He  died  July  20.  He  was  a  well-known 
business  man,  a  genial  companion,  and  much  esteemed.  February  20,  1886, 
Comp.  H.  W.  Humphrey  was  reported  as  having  passed  over  to  the  majority. 
March  20  the  death  of  Comp.  Asa  Bradford  was  announced.  September  11 
the  officers  were  publicly  installed  by  Comp.  F.  T.  Faulkner,  on  the  same 
evening  with  Nezinscot  Lodge.  Ivefreshments  were  served  by  the  lodge. 
January  30,  1891,  the  death  of  Benj.  Keen  was  reported. 

The  growth  of  the  chapter  has  been  of  late  years  slow  ;  our  jurisdiction 
has  been  very  limited.  Other  organizations  have  sprung  up  around  us  and  by 
great  promise  of  sick  benefits  and  pecuniary  aid  have  drawn  from  the  chapter. 
It  is  not  the  practice  of  Masons  to  solicit  men  to  join  their  various  bodies ; 
indeed,  they  are  forbidden  to  do  it.  Our  members  are  scattered  over  a  wide 
territory,  from  Maine  to  Florida,  so  that  we  find  it  difficult  to  get  a  quorum  at 
our  meetings;  but  we  have  a  good  chapter,  and  have  always  received  the 
highest  encomiums  from  the  representatives  of  the  Grand  Chapter  for  the 
correctness  of  our  work,  and  we  expect  to  do  good  work  in  the  years  to  come. 

Acacia  Loil[n\  No.  121^  F.  ^  A.  il/.,  Durliam.,  was  organized  under  a  dispen- 
sation granted  May  7,  1803,  and  the  first  meeting  was  held  June  24,  1803.  A 
charter  was  granted  May  4,  1865,  by  Wm  P.  Preble,  G.  M.,  to  Geo.  W.  Wagg, 
Wm  R.  Wright,  David  O.  S.  Stetson,  Stephen  C.  Stetson,  Isaac  S.  Brown,  Wm 
Wording,  Jas  W.  Webber,  Parmenio  C.  Shaw,  E.  G.  Parker,  Wm  S.  Michaels. 
About  the  time  of  the  granting  of  the  charter  a  dwelling  was  purchased  and 
altered  into  a  convenient  Masonic  hall.  Its  cost  with  repairs  was  'f  1,000.  The 
number  of  members  in  May,  1891,  was  80.  Bro.  Charles  W.  Harding  was 
D.  D.  G.  M.  in  1888-9. 

Officers  from  Organization.  — 1863— Geo.  W.  Wagg,  W.  M.;  I.  S.  Brown,  S.  W.;  W.  R. 
Wright,  J.  W.;  P.  C.  Shaw,  Treas. ;  J.  W.  Webber,  Sec;  Wra  Wording,  J.  I).;  E.  G. 
Parker,  Tyler.  1864  (appointed  by  G.  M.)  — Asa  P.  Moore,  W.  M.;  Win  R.  Wright,  S.  W.; 
Wm  W.  Beals,  J.  W.;  Geo.  W.  Rico,  Sec;  Wm  H.  Haskell,  S.  D.;  Nelson  Strout,  J.  D. 
186.'>— W.  R.  Wright,  W.  M.;  Nelson  Strout,  S.  W.;  H.  B.  Strout,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren, 
Treas.;  Geo.  W.  Rice,  Sec;  P.  R.  Strout,  S.  D.;  Wm  B.  Newell,  J.  D.  1866  — W.  R. 
Wright,  W.  M.;  Nelson  Strout,  S.  W.;  H.  B.  Strout,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  Geo.  W. 
Rice,  Sec;  Z.  Fickett,  S.  D.;  Elmer  W.  Randall,  J.  D.  1867  — W.  R.  Wright,  W.  M. ; 
Nelson  Strout,  S.  W.;  W.  S.  Michaels,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  Geo.  W.  Rice, 
Sec;  B.  I.  Small,  S.  D.;  Elmer  W.  Randall,  J.  D.;  1868  — Wra  R.  Wright,  W.  M.; 
I.  S.  Brown,  S.  W. ;  B.  I.  Small,  J.  W. ;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  W.  F.  Morrell,  Sec; 
1869  — Benj.  I.  Small,  W.  M.;  P.  R.  Strout,  S.  W. ;  Alfred  Lunt,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren, 
Treas.;  W.  D.  Roak,  Sec;  Fred  W.  Elder,  S.  D.;  C.  W.  Harding,  J.  D.  1870— B.  I. 
Small,  W.  M.;  P.  R.  Strout,  S.  W.;  Alfred  Lunt,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  W.  D. 
Roak,  Sec;  I.  N.  Beals,  S.  D.;  Chas  W.  Harding,  J.  D.  1871  — B.  I.  Small,  W.  M.;  Alfred 
Lunt,  S.  W.;  S.  B.  Libby,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  W.  D.  Roak,  Sec;  C.  W.  Harding, 
S.  D.;  Josiah  L.  Vining,  J.  D.     1872  — Alfred  Lunt,  W.  M.;  S.  B.  Libby,  S.  W.;  Elmer  W. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  253 

Randall,  J.  W. ;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  J.  H.  Davis,  Sec;  Wm  B.  Newell,  Chap.;  C.  W. 
Harding,  S.  D.;  True  Tuttle,  J.  D.  1873  — S.  B.  Libby,  W.  M.;  C.  W.  Harding,  S.  W.; 
E.  0.  Tyler,  J.  W.;  E.  S.  Warren,  Treas.;  Alfred  Luut,  Sec;  W.  D.  Roak,  Marshal;  A.  H. 
Parker,  S.  D.;   True  Tuttle,  J.  D.     1874  — S.  B.  Libby,  W.  M.;   C  W.  Harding,  S.  W.; 

E.  0.  Tyler,  J.  W.;  A.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Alfred  Luut,  Sec;  E.  S.  Warren,  Chap.;  1875  — C. 
W.  Harding,  W.  M.;  E.  0.  Tyler,  S.  W. ;  Jos.  H.  Davis,  J.  W.;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Alfred 
Lunt,  Sec.  1876  — C.  W.  Harding,  W.  M.;  E.  0.  Tyler,  S.  W.;  J.  H.  Davis,  J.  W.;  W.  D. 
Roak,  Treas.;  Alfred  Lunt,  Sec.  1877— Jos.  H.  Davis,  W.  M.;  A.  H.  Parker,  S.  W.;  C.  S. 
Fenlason,  J.  W. ;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas. ;  Alfred  Lunt,  Sec. ;  Wm  R.  Wright,  Chap.  1878  —  J. 
H.  Davis,  W.  M.;  A.  H.  Parker,  S.  W.;  C.  S.  Fenlason,  J.  W.;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  W.  B. 
Newell,  Sec;  W.  H.  Douglass,  Chap.;  1879— J.  H.  Davis,  W.  M ;  A.  H.  Parker,  S.  W.; 
C.  S.  Fenlason,  J.  W. ;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Wm  B.  Newell,  Sec;  I.  A.  Paine,  Chap.; 
C.  W.  Harding,  S.  D.  ;  W.  H.  Merrill,  J.  D. ;  1880  — A.  H.  Parker,  W.  M. ;  C.  S.  Fenlason, 
S.  W. ;  True  Tuttle,  J.  W. ;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Lora  Newell,  Sec;  C.  W.  Harding, 
S.  D. ;  Wm  H,  Merrill,  J.  D. ;  1881  —A.  H.  Parker,  W.  M.  ;  C.  S.  Fenlason,  S.  W.;  True 
Tuttle,  J.  W. ;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Lora  Newell,  Sec;  1882— Alfred  Lunt,  W.  M.;  L.  O. 
Morse,  S.  W. ;  S.  S.  Parker,  J.  W.;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Lora  Newell,  Sec;  1883  — 
Alfred  Lunt,  W.  M. ;  E.  0.  Tyler,  S.  W. ;  W.  H.  Douglass,  J.  W. ;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas. ;  Lora 
Newell,  Sec;  S.  B.  Libby,  S.  D.;  F.  A.  Harding,  J.  D.;  1884  — E.  0.  Tyler,  W.  M.;  S.  B. 
Libby,  S.  W.;  W.  H.  Douglas,  J.  W.;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  Lora  Newell,  Sec;  F.  A. 
Harding,  S.  D.;  J.  L.  Wright,  J.  D. ;  1885  — E.  O.  Tyler,  W.  M.;  S.  B.  Libby,  S.  W.;  F.  A. 
Harding,  J.  W. ;  W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  J.  L.  Wright,  Sec;  Geo.  H.  Hatch,  S.  D. ;  L  S. 
Trufant,  J.  D.;  1886  — S.  B.  Libby,  W.  M. ;  F.  A.  Harding,  S.  W.;  Geo.  L.  Sylvester,  J.  W. ; 
W.  D.  Roak,  Treas.;  J.  L.  Wright,  Sec;  Jos.  H.  Davis,  S.  D. ;  1.  S.  Trufant,  J.  D.; 
1887— S.  B.  Libby,  W.  M.;  F.  A.  Harding,  S.  W.;  Geo.  L.  Sylvester,  J.  W.;  Wm  P.  Water- 
house,  Treas. ;  J.  L.  Wright.  Sec. ;  1888  — S.  B.  Libby,  W.  M.;  F.  A.  Harding,  S.  W. ;  J.  W. 
Thomas,  J.  W.;  J.  L.  Wright,  Sec;  I.  S.  Trufant,  S.  D.;  E.  L.  Macomber,  J.  D.;  1889  — 

F.  A.  Harding,  W.  M.;  H.  M.  Beal,  S.  W.;  J.  W.  Thomas,  J.  W. ;  W.  P.  Waterhouse,  Treas. ; 
J.  L.  Wright,  Sec.  ;  J.  H.  Davis,  S.  D. ;  J.  L.  Viniug,  J.  D. :  J.  S.  Lang,  S.  S. ;  G.  W. 
Nichols,  J.  S.;  A.  S.  Dinglcy,  Tyler;  1890  — F.  A.  Harding,  W.  M. ;  H.  M.  Beal,  S.  W. ;  E.  L. 
Macomber,  J.  W.;  W.  P.  Waterhouse,  Treas.;  J.  L.  Wright,  Sec;  E.  R.  Miller,  Chap.; 
L.  B.  Small,  Marshal;  J.  L.  Viniug,  S.  D. ;  J.  H.  Williams,  J.  D.;  J.  S.  Lang,  S.  S. ;  G.  W. 
Nichols,  J.  S.;  A.  S.  Dingley,  Tyler. 

Ancient  York  Lod(/e,  JVo.  ISS,  F.  (|'  A.  M.,'^  Lisbon  Falls,  was  granted  a 
dispensation  January  1,  1870,  by  M.  W.  J.  H.  Lynde,  G.  M.  of  the  M.  W. 
Grand  Lodge  of  the  State  of  Maine.  The  petitioners  were:  David  S.  Dunlap, 
S.  P.  Crosman,  Geo.  C.  Wing,  Geo.  W.  Coombs,  Samuel  Sylvester,  Geo.  F. 
Alexander,  C.  TI.  Douglass,  Tobias  T.  Goddard,  S.  Estes,  E.  B.  Webber,  A.  T. 
Crosman,  Edw.  Plummer,  N.  L.  Shea,  L.  Harden,  F.  A.  Small,  J.  H.  Eacott, 
T.  C.  liogers,  Simeon  Stone,  Geo.  B.  Shorey,  Abram  H.  Nason,  H.  A.  Small, 
E.  Day,  Silas  Plummer,  H.  C.  White,  and  O.  R.  Small.  The  first  meeting  was 
held  January  17,  1870.  The  G.  M.  appointed  Tobias  T.  Goddard,  W.  M.; 
Horace  C.  White,  S.  W. ;  N.  L.  Shea,  J.  W.  The  Grand  Lodge  granted  a 
charter  on  May  4,  1870,  and  on  September  27,  1870,  at  the  adoption  of  the 
constitution  and  installation  the  following  officers  were  installed:    Tobias  T. 

1  By  William  Parkin,  Secretary. 

254  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Cxoddard,  W.  M. ;  Horace  C.  White,  S.  W.;  N.  L.  vShea,  J.  W.;  Edw.  Plummer, 
Treas. ;  Cephas  H.  Douglass,  Sec.;  Simeon  Stone,  S.  D.;  Geo.  W.  Coombs, 
J.  D.;  David  S.  Dunlap,  S.  S.;  Thos  C.  Rogers,  J.  S.;  O.  R.  Small,  Marshal; 
Sumner  Estes,  Chap.;  Silas  Plummer,  Tyler.  The  lodge  has  been  very 
successful,  both  financially  and  otherwise,  from  its  first  meeting.  The  following 
are  names  of  members  admitted:  Otis  S.  Vining,  Wra  Rhodes,  Chas  B. 
Plummer,  John  L.  Gardner,  Geo.  D.  Frost,  Samuel  J.  White,  Joshua  S.  Newell, 
Alfred  Webber,  Wm  Maines,  Frank  M.  Hacker,  T.  Alvah  Moore,  Joseph  G. 
Small,  Geo.  A.  Pettingill,  Roscoe  G.  Green,  Frank  H.  Ambach,  Edward  R. 
Warren,  N.  J.  Wedgwood,  J.  Reid  Edgecomb,  Lafayette  E.  Dennison,  Seward 

A.  Parker,  John  A.  Smith,  Jas  E.  Edgecomb,  Abram  Healey,  E.  M.  Shaw, 
Geo.  W.  Gould,  Nathaniel  S.  Purinton,  Alonzo  S.  Purinton,  Wm  S.  Merrill, 
Chas  A.  Ambach,  Frank  B.  Potter,  Eugene  B.  Earl,  Addison  Slater,  Robert  N. 
Callahan,  Jas  W.  Card,  Levi  C.  Gould,  Wm  S.  Cotton,  Jr,  Jas  W.  Farrin,  John 
H.  Coombs,  Jas  L.  Atwood,  H.  J.  Hutchinson,  Lewis  Lander,  Wm  H.  Gilmore, 
Edwin  R.  Small,  Webster  Nevins,  Samuel  H.  Goody,  Chas  F.  Edgecomb,  Thos 

B.  Fish,  Jos.  S.  Potter,  Chas  H.  Keopka,  John  W.  Dufton,  John  H.  Potter, 
Frank  H.  Abbott,  Elbridge  G.  Rideout,  Simeon  W.  Goodwin,  John  H. 
Tomlinson,  Wm  A.  Lewis,  H.  M.  Harmon,  Freeman  C.  Hall,  L.  R.  Ross, 
Albion  Chase,  Nathaniel  R.  Williams,  L.  B,  Burrill,  Wm  Parkin,  Geo.  H. 
Whittier,  Pennell  P.  Woodard,  Fred  C.  Worth,  Geo.  W.  Jordan,  Hibbert 
Lockhart,  Chas  W.  Girard,  John  Cornish,  Millard  C.  Webber,  Aaron  H. 
Goodwin,  Thos  F.  Millett,  Benjamin  F.  Christopher,  Robert  N.  Barbrick, 
Wilbur  H.  Judkins,  Enoch  Tibbetts,  E.  A.  Durille,  Benjamin  W.  Card,  Alfred 
D.  Sawyer,  George  W.  Curtis,  Cyril  O.  Abell,  Charles  L.  Osborne,  C.  W. 
Girard,  Wm  H.  Douglass,  James  A.  Underwood,  James  H.  Eacott,  Jr,  H. 
W.  Pike,  Daniel  Fessenden,  W.  E.  Plummer,  C.  F.  A.  Stuebing,  Otis  S.  White, 
Fenton  Haigh,  George  Canham,  George  Turnbull,  K.  M.  Small,  John  Rawstrom, 
Wm  E.  Stevens,  A.  J.  Small,  F.  E.  Greissenger,  George  W.  Beal,  F.  A.  Jordan, 
W.  F.  Rogers,  Samuel  W.  Smith.  The  Past  Masters  have  been :  Tobias  T. 
Goddard,  Horace  C.  White,  Simeon  Stone,  O.  R.  Small,  George  W.  Coombs, 
Samuel  J.  White,  Wm  S.  Cotton,  Jr,  Otis  S.  Vining,  Simeon  Stone,  Alonzo  S. 
Purinton,  Millard  C.  Webber,  James  W.  Card,  James  A.  LTnderwood.  The 
meetings  are  held  on  the  Mondays  on  or  immediately  before  the  full  moon,  in 
Masonic  Hall,  Perkin  Block,  Main  street. 

Webster  Lodge,  No.  164,  ^'-  #  -4-  M.,  Sahath.  —  lw  the  winter  of  1870-71 
Luther  Lombard,  Stetson  L,  Hill,  Bradford  D.  Farnham,  John  Shore,  Cyrus 
Hackett,  Calvin  D.  Bubier,  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  Eugene  D.  Greenleaf,  being 
desirous  of  establishing  a  lodge  of  Masonry  at  Sabatis,  and  believing  that  good 
work  in  extending  Masonic  influence  in  the  vicinity  would  be  done  thereby, 
secured 'the  co-operation  of  Andrew  J.  Harris,  H.  S.  Harris,  and  James  H. 
Thompson,  of  (ireene,  and  Joseph  G.  Bragg,  Augustus  C.  Frost,  and  Stephen 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  255 

R.  Raynes,  of  Wales,  in  sending  a  petition  for  the  organization  of  a  lodge  here. 
In  answer,  M.  W.  John  H.  Lynde,  then  Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Maine,  granted  a  dispensation,  empowering  theni  to  form  and  open  a  lodge  in 
Webster,  and  appointing  Bro.  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  first  Master;  Stetson  L.  Hill, 
first  Senior  Warden;  and  Bradford  D.  Farnham,  first  Junior  Warden.  Bro. 
Frank  E.  Sleeper  was  a  native  of  Lewiston,  a  graduate  of  the  first  class  of 
Bates  College,  and  of  Maine  Medical  School,  and  had  recently  located  in  Sabatis 
as  a  physician.  He  was  24  years  of  age,  and  a  member  of  Ashlar  Lodge,  Lew- 
iston. He  was  the  mainspring  in  organizing  and  regulating  the  lodge,  and  to 
his  energy  and  tact  it  is  largely  indebted  for  the  many  complimentar}^  notices 
from  the  several  district  deputies  and  other  visitors  who  have  witnessed  its 
work.  He  has  held,  among  others,  these  Masonic  offices :  Master  of  Webster 
Lodge  10  3^ears,  District  Deputy  Grand  Master  three  years.  Senior  Grand  War- 
den, Deputy  Grand  Master,  Grand  Master  of  Masons  in  Maine  (by  unanimous 
election  serving  two  terms),  and  is  Grand  Lecturer  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  High 
Priest  of  King  Hiram  Chapter,  Grand  High  Priest  of  the  Grand  Royal  Arch 
Chapter  of  Maine  and  its  Grand  Lecturer,  Thrice  Illustrious  Master  of  Dunlap 
Council  Royal  and  Select  Masters,  Commander  of  Lewiston  Commandery 
Knights  Templar,  Grand  Lecturer  of  the  Grand  Commandery,  and  Thrice 
Potent  Grand  Master  of  Lewiston  Lodge  of  Perfection,  A.  A.  S.  R.  He  is  author 
of  the  monitorial  portion  of  the  "Maine  Ro3^al  Arch  Text-book,"  authorized 
text-book  for  chapters  in  Maine.  Bro.  Stetson  L.  Hill  was  a  native  of  Web- 
ster, and  a  member  of  Tianquil  Lodge,  Auburn.  He  studied  law  with  his 
father,  Jacob  Hill,  had  followed  that  profession  for  several  years,  and  was  about 
50  years  of  age,  and  the  owner  of  considerable  property.  Bro.  Bradford  D. 
Farnham,  belonging  to  Ashlar  Lodge,  Lewiston,  was  junior  })artner  in  the  firm 
of  Davis  &  Farnham,  merchants.  He  never  attended  a  lodge  meeting,  as  he 
moved  from  town.  Bro.  Luther  Lombard,  a  native  of  Wales,  had  been  a  resi- 
dent of  Sabatis  for  30  years,  and  was  engaged  in  farming,  owning  quite  an 
extensive  property.  Capt.  Lombard  received  his  degrees  in  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  active  and  efficient  members.  liro.  Joseph  G.  Bragg 
was  a  member  of  Monmouth  Lodge,  a  ship-joiner  by  trade,  but  farming  in 
Wales.  He  was  one  of  our  most  highly  esteemed  members.  Bro.  John  Shore 
was  a  native  of  Yorkshire,  England,  a  wool-carder  in  charge  of  the  carding- 
room  of  the  Webster  Woolen  Mill.  Bro.  Shore  was  41  years  of  age,  a  member 
of  Ashlar  Lodge,  and  a  just  and  upright  man.  He  was  of  great  assistance  to 
the  lodge,  and  his  removal  to  Lisbon  was  greatly  regretted.  Bro.  Eugene  D. 
Greenleaf  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard,  and  agent  of  Webster  Woolen  Mill.  He 
removed  to  Boston  three  years  later,  remaining^  however,  a  member  of  the 
lodge.  Bro.  Calvin  D.  Bubier,  a  native  of  Lewiston,  35  years  of  age,  was  a 
clerk  of  Davis  &  Farnham.  He  received  his  degrees  in  Princeton.  Bro. 
Augustus  C.  Frost  was  27  years  of  age,  and  a  member  of  Morning  Star  Lodge 

25G  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

of  Litchfield.  Though  living  at  a  great  distance  he  set  an  excellent  example 
of  punctuality.  Bro.  Cyrus  Hackett,  aged  49,  was  a  native  of  Greene,  a  mill- 
wright and  a  member  of  Tranquil  Lodge. 

Perhaps  a  more  rusty  body  of  Masons  never  gathered  together,  but  all 
went  to  work  with  energy,  and  under  Bro.  Sleeper's  instruction  rapid  progress 
was  made.  Previous  to  organization,  they  met  frequently  in  secure  places  to 
practice  Masonic  work,  thus  enabling  them  to  acquit  themselves  very  well  at 
the  first  communication  of  the  lodge.  Bro.  Luther  Lombard  advanced  1300, 
taking  the  joint  note  of  the  other  members  as  security.  This  note  was  after- 
wards signed  by  several  of  the  first  admitted  members.  With  this  money  the 
brethren  leased,  finished,  painted,  and  furnished  the  second  story  of  the 
school-house  in  Sabatis,  making  a  neat  and  tasty  hall,  and  September  23, 
1871,  held  the  first  stated  communication.  At  this  meeting  Bro.  Sleeper 
congratulated  the  lodge  on  the  excellent  progress  made,  promising  the 
continuance  of  his  own  exertions,  requesting  earnest  endeavors  by  the  others, 
and  predicting  a  useful  future.  Two  applications  were  received.  October  28, 
1871,  four  applications  were  received,  the  two  previous  applicants  accepted, 
and  Edwin  H.  Johnson  initiated.  At  the  next  meeting  the  members'  dues 
were  fixed  at  two  dollars,  and  the  Master  appointed  these  officers:  Luther 
Lombard,  Treas.;  Eugene  D.  Greenleaf,  Sec;  J.  G.  Bragg,  Marshal;  Augustus 
C.  Frost,  S.  D.;  Cyrus  Ilackett,  J.  D. ;  C.  D.  Bubier,  S.  S.;  John  Shore,  J.  S.; 

A.  J.  Harris,  Sent. ;  W.  B.  Cutler,  T3der.     The  lodge  was  officially  visited  by 

B.  W.  Dura  Bradford,  1).  D.  G.  M.,  February  20,  1872.  There  were  many 
visitors  present.  After  witnessing  work  in  the  second  degree,  Bro.  Bradford 
complimented  the  officers  very  highly.  April  20,  1872,  the  lodge  voted  to 
petition  for  a  charter;  a  code  of  by-laws  was  acce[)ted,  and  ordered  to  be 
submitted  to  tlie  Grand  Lodge  for  approval. 

Authority  having  been  obtained  June  15,  1872,  tlie  lodge  elected:  Frank 
E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  Stetson  L.  Hill,  S.  W. ;  J.  G.  Bragg,  J.  W.;  Luther  Lombard, 
Treas.:  Alden  S.  Potter,  Sec.  Eleven  brethren  who  had  taken  their  degrees 
in  this  lodge  were  admitted  to  membership,  and  a  committee  apj)ointed  to  make 
arrangements  for  constituting  Webster  Lodge.  August  1,  1872,  M.  W.  David 
Cargill,  G.  M.,  assisted  by  Bro.  Eaton,  of  United  Lodge  No.  8,  of  Brunswick, 
as  Sen.  G.  W.,  Bro.  Geo.  Swift,  of  Acacia  Lodge  No.  121,  of  Durham,  as  Jun. 
G.  W.,  Bro.  Chase,  of  Morning  Star  Lodge  No.  141,  of  Litchfield,  as  Grand 
Chaplain,  and  Bro.  Warren  Phillips,  of  Portland,  Grand  Tyler,  dedicated  and 
constituted  Webster  Lodge,  No,  164,  after  which  the  M.  W.  G.  M.  publicly 
installed  the  officers.  January  0, 1873,  the  officers  were  re-elected  (except  E.  D. 
(ireenleaf,  chosen  secretary),  and  installed  by  R.  W.  Joseph  M.  Hayes,  D.  D. 
G.  M.  of  the  Fourteenth  Masonic  District  (to  which  the  lodge  was  assigned 
November  6,  1872),  assisted  by  W.  James  B.  Westcott  of  Solar  Lodge,  No.  14, 
Bath,  as  Grand  Marshal. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  257 

January  1,  1874,  were  elected:  F.  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  A.  C.  Frost,  S.  W.; 
J.  G.  Bragg,  J.  W. ;  L.  Lombard,  Treas.;  Stetson  L.  Hill,  Sec;  and  they  were 
installed  by  Wor.  Bro.  Geo.  S.  Woodman,  assisted  by  Geo.  C.  Wing.  In  May 
liro.  Sleeper  was  appointed  D.  D.  G.  M.,  and  for  the  remainder  of  the  year  the 
Master's  station  was  filled  by  the  Senior  Warden,  although  Bro.  Sleeper 
attended  the  meetings  and  took  an  active  part. 

January  21,  1875,  choice  was  made  of  A.  C.  Frost,  W.  M.;  Jos.  G.  Bragg,  S. 
W. ;  Edwin  H.  Johnson,  J.  W. ;  L.  Lombard,  Treas.;  S.  L.  Hill,  Sec.  Feb- 
ruary 13  these  officers  were  publicly  installed  by  R.  W.  Bro.  F.  E.  Sleeper,  D. 
D.  G.  M.  This  year  the  annual  meeting  was  changed,  and  December  9,  1875, 
were  chosen:  Edwin  H.  Johnson,  W.  M. ;  James  F.  Heney,  S.  W.;  Retiah  D. 
Jones,  J.  W. ;  L.  Lombard,  Treas.;  S.  L.  Hill,  Sec.  They  were  publicly 
installed  by  K.  W.  Frank  E.  Sleeper.  June,  1876,  II.  W.  Simeon  Stone,  D.  D. 
G.  M.,  visited  the  lodge,  witnessed  work  in  the  M.  M.  degree,  and  compli- 
mented the  lodge  very  highly  for  its  proficiency  in  the  ritual.  The  note 
against  the  lodge  was  paid  this  year,  and  committed  to  the  flames  —  a  most 
acceptable  burnt  offering  to  the  Masonic  "goat."  December  25,  1876,  were 
elected:  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  Wm  H.  Wright,  S.  W.;  R.  D.  Jones,  J.  W.; 
L.  Lombard,  Treas.;  T.  C.  Billings,  Sec.  They  were  publicly  installed  January 
4, 1877,  by  R.  W.  Fessenden  L  Day,  assisted  by  Archie  L.  Talbot.  The  instal- 
lation services  were  followed  by  a  collation  and  sociable. 

May  1,  1877,  Webster  Lodge  buried  Bro.  James  Keates.  Bro.  Keates  was 
an  Englishman,  49  years  of  age,  and  a  wool-spinner.  He  was  an  interested 
and  active  member  and  a  much-esteemed  citizen.  The  lodge  was  officially 
visited  during  the  year  by  R.  W.  Simeon  Stone,  who  highly  complimented  it 
on  its  accuracy  in  the  third  degree.  This  commendation  was  highly  valued. 
Soon  after,  the  lodge  accepted  Bro.  Stone's  invitation  and  visited  him  at 
Ancient  York  Lodge,  Lisbon  Falls.  December  20,  1877,  officers  were  chosen: 
F.  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  Wm  H.  Wright,  S.  W. ;  R.  D.  Jones,  J.  W. ;  L.  Lombard, 
Treas.;  T.  C.  Billings,  Sec;    who  were  publicly  installed  January  16,  1878. 

January  17,  1878,  a  board  of  trustees  of  the  charity  fund  was  selected  and 
duly  organized.  A  list  of  all  property  of  the  lodge  was  made,  and  March  14, 
1878,  transferred  to  its  custody.  December  5, 1878,  were  chosen :  F.  E.  Sleeper, 
W.  M.;  R.  D.  Jones,  S.  W.;  A.  S.  Potter,  J.  W.;  L.  Lombard,  Treas.;  T.  C. 
Billings,  Sec  They  were  publicly  installed  by  R.  W.  Augustus  Callahan, 
P.  M.,  of  Tranquil  Lodge,  after  which  a  supper  was  served  at  the  Sabatis  House, 
followed  by  a  sociable  at  the  hall.  March  5, 1879,  Masonic  honors  were  paid  to 
the  remains  of  Bro.  James  F.  Heney,  conveyed  to  Biddeford.  Bro.  Heney  was 
46  years  of  age,  English  by  birth,  and  a  weaver.  In  1872  he  received  the 
degrees  in  Webster  Lodge  and  remained  an  active  and  efficient  member.  With 
his  death  originated  the  relief  fund  of  the  lodge.  About  this  time  the  lodge 
procured  an  album  and  has  made  efforts  to  secure  photographs  of  the  brethren, 

258  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

but  many  pages  are  yet  empty.  June  24,  1879,  Webster  Lodge,  joining  with 
Rabboni  Lodge,  attended  the  celebration  of  St  John's  Day,  at  Portland. 

The  annual  communication  of  1 879  falling  on  Christmas,  evening,  the  lodge 
was  duly  opened  and  called  to  refreshment  to  allow  the  brethren  to  attend  a 
Christmas  festival  at  the  Free  Baptist  church.  Later  in  the  evening  the  officers 
were  re-elected,  and  on  New-Year's  eve  they  were  publicly  installed  by  R.  W. 
F.  I.  Day,  assisted  by  R.  W.  Augustus  Callahan.     After  supper,  served  by  Bro. 

A.  S.  Potter,  of  the  Sabatis  House,  Bro.  Callahan  gave  an  instructive  lecture 
on  Masonry.  Nothing  worthy  of  note  took  place  in  1880-1881.  Not  an 
application  was  received.  December  16,  1880,  showed  -tl 77.48  in  the  treasury, 
and  a  charity  fund  of  -1105.  Chose  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M. ;  R.  D.  Jones, 
S.  W. ;    J.  G.  Jordan,  J.  W. ;    L.  Lombard,  Treas. ;    T.  C.  Billings,  Sec. 

1881  — officers:  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  R.  D.  Jones,  S.  W.;  Jas.  G. 
Jordan,  J.  W. ;  Luther  Lombard,  Treas. ;  T.  C.  Billings,  Sec. ;  A.  S.  Potter, 
Chap.;    Jos.  G.  Bragg,  Marshal;    Judson  Bangs,  S.  D.;    E.  G.  Thomas,  J.  D.; 

B.  P.  Jordan,  S.  S.;  L.  H.  Lombard,  J.  S.;  L  N.  Spofford,  Sent.;  Herman 
Amback,  Tyler.  1882  — officers:  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  R.  D.  Jones, 
S.  W.;  J.  G.  Jordan,  J.  W. ;  Luther  Lombard,  Treas.;  T.  C.  Billings,  Sec; 
Geo.  H.  Bingham,  Chap.;  J.  G.  Bragg,  Marshal;  Judson  Bangs,  S.  D.;  E.  G. 
Thomas,  J.  D.;  B.  P.  Jordan,  S.  S.;  L.  H.  Lombard,  J.  S. ;  Herman  Amback, 
Sent.;  Joseph  Heck,  Tyler.  January  31,  in  the  presence  of  a  very  large 
company,  many  visitors  being  present  from  adjacent  lodges,  the  officers  were 
publicly  installed.  A  Past  Master's  jewel  was  presented  to  Worthy  Bro. 
Sleeper  by  the  lodge,  and  a  beautiful  steel  engraving  was  given  to  the  lodge 
by  its  lady  friends.  1883  —  Brothers  Sleeper  and  Lombard  positively  declining 
re-election,  the  following  officers  were  chosen:  Retiah  D.  Jones,  W.  M. ; 
Judson  Bangs,  S.  W.;  B.  P.  Jordan,  J.  W.;  F.  E.  Sleeper,  Treas.;  T.  C. 
Billings,  Sec;  Geo.  H.  Bingham,  Chap.;  E.  G.  Thomas,  Marshal;  W.  H. 
Wright,  S.  D.;  John  W.  Wood,  J.  D.;  C.  D.  Bubier,  S.  S.;  H.  Amback,  J.  S.; 
F.  E.  Marr,  Sent.;  C.  C.  Getchell,  Tyler.  1884  — officers:  Judson  Bangs, 
W.  M.;  W.  H.  Wright,  S.  W. ;  E.  G.  Thomas,  J.  W.;  F.  E.  Sleeper,  Treas.; 
T.  C.  Billings,  Sec;  R.  D.  Jones,  Chap.;  J.  G.  Bragg,  Marshal;  J.  W.  Wood, 
S.  D.;  C.  C.  Getchell,  J.  D. ;  H.  Amback,  S.  S. ;  F^E.  Marr,  J.  S.;  Gustave 
Graichen,  Tyler.  Publicly  installed  February  6  by  R.  W.  Fessenden  I.  Day, 
over  sixty  visitors  being  present  from  Ancient  York  Lodge,  Lisbon,  besides 
many  from  Ashlar,  Rabboni,  Tranquil,  Tyrian,  and  other  lodges.  Bro.  Billings 
was  presented  with  an  elegant  gold  pen,  a  stylographic  pen,  and  a  set  of  cut- 
glass  inkstands  by  the  members. 

1885  — officers:  Judson  Bangs,  W.  M.;  Wm  H.  Wright,  S.  W.;  E.  G. 
Thomas,  J.  W. ;  F.  E.  Sleeper,  Treas.;  T.  C.  Billings,  Sec;  R.  D.  Jones, 
Chap.;  J.  G.  Bragg,  Marshal ;  J.  W.  Wood,  S.  D.;  C.  C.  Getchell,  J.  D. ;  H. 
Amback,  S.  S.;   F.  E.  Marr,  J.  S. ;    G.  Graichen,  Tyler.      July  8  the  lodge 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  259 

buried  its  oldest  charter  member,  Bro.  Luther  Lombard,  its  Treasurer  con- 
tinuously for  ten  years.  1886  —  officers:  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  W.  M.;  F.  E. 
Marr,  S.  W.;  B.  P.  Jordan,  J.  W.;  Jas  G.  Jordan,  Treas. ;  T.  C.  Billings, 
Sec;  J.  W.  Wood,  Chap.;  J.  G.  Bragg,  Marshal;  C.  C.  Getchell,  S.  D.;  E.  G. 
Thomas,  J.  D.;  H.  Amback,.  S.  S.;  L.  H.  Lombard,  J.  S.;  G.  Graichen,  Tyler. 
January  22  they  were  publicly  installed  by  M.  W.  Fessenden  L  Day,  Grand 
Master.  Bro.  Sleeper,  being  Deputy  Grand  Master,  accepted  the  office  of 
Master  only  upon  the  earnest  solicitation  of  his  brethren  and  the  Grand 
Master.  1887  — officers:  Jos.  G.  Bragg,  W.  M.;  F.  E.  Marr,  S.  W. ;  Chas  C. 
Getchell,  J.  W. :  J.  G.  Jordan,  Treas.;  T.  C.  Billings,  Sec;  R.  D.  Jones, 
Chap.;  E.  G.  Thomas,  Marshal;  Judson  Bangs,  S.  D.;  H.  Amback,  J.  D. ; 
G.  Graichen,  J.  S.;  A.  D.  Ames,  Tyler.  September  23  Bro.  John  W. 
McFarland  was  buried  by  the  lodge.  1888  —  officers  same  as  1887.  They 
were  publicly  installed  on  February  29  by  Grand  Master  Frank  E.  Sleeper. 

1889  — officers:  Frank  E.  Marr,  W.  M.;  W.  H.  Wright,  S.  W.;  H. 
Amback,  J.  W.;  J.  G.  Jordan,  Treas.;  Judson  Bangs,  Sec;  R.  D.  Jones, 
Chap.;  E.  G.  Thomas,  Marshal;  T.  C.  Billings,  S.  D.;  L  N.  Spofford,  J.  D.; 
George  W.  Jordan,  S.  S.;  A.  D.  Ames,  J.  S.;  Fred  Dodson,  Tyler.  They 
were  publicly  installed  by  Grand  Master  Frank  E.  Sleeper  January  4.  On 
June  17  the  lodge  vacated  the  hall  over  the  mill  of  Bro.  R.  I).  Jones, 
which  it  had  occupied  for  seven  years.     1890  —  officers  same  as  1889,  except 

C.  D.  Bubier,  Tyler.  Officers  installed  by  Past  Master  Bangs,  in  the  hall 
of  the  Golden  Cross.  This  year  died  Bro.  Oren  A.  Jordan.  November  20  the 
lodge  entered  into  its  new  hall  —  the  upjjcr  part  of  the  building  erected  for 
a  post-office  and  store  by  Bro.  E.  Woodside.  1891  —  officers:  Judson  Bangs, 
W.  M.;  T.  C.  Billings,  S.  W.;  L  N.  Spofford,  J.  W.;  F.  E.  Sleeper,  Treas.; 
J.  G.  Jordan,  Sec;  R.  D.  Jones,  Chap.;  E.  G.  Thomas,  Marshal;  Edwin 
Woodside,  S.  D.;  Geo.  W.  Jordan,  J.  D.;  C.  A.  Amback,  S.  S.;  C.  A.  Dins- 
more,  J.  S.;  C.  D.  Bubier,  Tyler.  Publicly  installed  by  Past  Grand  Master 
Sleeper,  February  6.     May  7  Judson  Bangs,  the  present  master,  was  appointed 

D.  D.  G.  M. 

The  number  of  members  April,  1891,  was  45.  From  its  formation  43  have 
been  initiated,  eight  received  from  other  lodges,  which  makes  the  whole  number 
of  members  60.  Six  have  died  and  nine  dimitted.  A  steady  growth  has  been 
made,  and  an  interest  maintained  which,  considering  the  small  territory  of  the 
jurisdiction,  has  been  remarkable,  and  the  lodge  has  been  noted  for  the  excel- 
lence of  its  work,  which  has  caused  frequent  visits  from  other  lodges.  It  is  in  a 
prosperous  condition,  and  owns  one  of  the  best  lots  in  the  village,  where,  when 
the  ten  years  of  its  present  lease  expires,  it  hopes  to  have  a  home  of  its  own. 

Reuel  Washburn  Lodge,  F.  ^  A.  iHf.,  No.  181,  Livermore  Falls,  held  its 
first  meeting  under  dispensation  May  10,  1876,  in  Masons'  Hall,  on  Depot 
street.     There  were  present  Wor.  Levi  H.  Daggett,   W.  M.;    W.  H.  Wood, 

260  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

S.  W.;  Frank  Garcelon  as  J.  W.  (A.  G.  French  being  absent);  and  the 
Master  appointed  Winfield  S.  Treat,  Treas.;  George  O.  Eustis,  Sec. ;  Ensign 
S.  Goding,  S.  D.;  R.  C.  Boothby,  J.  D.;  Rev.  Phineas  Bond,  Chap.;  Chas  L. 
Eustis,  S.  S.;  John  C.  Eaton,  J.  S.;  A.  C.  Otis,  Marshal;  S.  J.  Burgess,  Tyler. 
There  were  also  present  Bros.  Chas  H.  Cram,  A.  R.  Millett,  Albert  Allen,  and 
some  visiting  brethren.  Committees  were  appointed  to  draft  constitution  and 
by-laws,  to  loan  -f 200  to  procure  jewels  and  furniture,  and  to  arrange  for  hall. 
Alonzo  M.  Bumpus  and  Sullivan  Newman  made  applications  for  admittance, 
and  at  the  next  meeting  Newman  was  initiated.  The  new  lodge  starts  in 
prosperously,  numerous  applications  being  received  and  much  good  work 
done.  From  the  number  of  rejections  a  very  high  standard  was  established 
for  the  lodge.  November  8  voted  to  lease  the  hall  one  year  for  $20,  and  to 
purchase  two  dozen  chairs.  January  10,  1877,  R.  W.  Fessenden  I.  Day, 
I).  D.  G.  M.,  made  an  official  visit.  A  special  meeting  was  held,  January  29, 
for  exemplification  of  the  work  on  the  third  degree  by  D.  D.  G.  M.  Day.  April 
11  it  was  voted  to  apply  to  the  Grand  Lodge  for  a  charter,  and  Levi  H. 
Daggett,  W.  H.  Wood,  A.  G.  French,  C.  L.  Eustis,  George  O.  Eustis,  W.  S. 
Treat,  J.  C.  Eaton,  Abel  Prescott,  S.  J.  Burgess,  E.  S.  Goding,  and  Elijah 
Wadsworth  were  chosen  representatives  to  the  Grand  Lodge.  May  9  the 
secretary  records:  "Unable  to  hold  our  regular  monthly  communication 
to-day  as  the  Grand  Secretary  has  not  returned  our  dispensation."  June  13 
accepted  the  invitation  to  attend  the  dedication  of  the  hall  of  Oriental  Star 
Lodge,  June  21;  also  voted  "that  this  lodge  be  constituted  and  officers 
installed  June  21,"  and  committees  were  chosen  to  make  arrangements,'  and  to 
provide  refreshments  and  entertainment  for  the  officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge. 
Officers  for  the  ensuing  year  were  chosen:  W.  H.  Wood,  W.  M.;  A.  G. 
French,  S.  W.;  Frank  Garcelon,  J.  W.;  M.  M.  Stone,  Treas.;  W.  S.  Treat, 
Sec;  E.  S.  Goding,  S.  D.;  R.  C.  Boothby,  J.  D.;  C.  L.  Eustis,  S.  S. ;  John  C. 
Eaton,  J.  S.;  S.  J.  Burgess,  Marshal;  Albert  Allen,  Tyler.  A  committee  was 
appointed  to  obtain  a  portrait  of  our  esteemed  brother,  Reuel  Washburn. 

June  21,  1877,  was  a  great  and  a  gala  day.  Authority  had  been  granted 
to  the  lodge  to  appear  in  public  procession  at  the  dedication  of  the  Masonic 
hall  of  Oriental  Star  Lodge,  and  a  large  number  of  the  members  were  escorted 
by  Oriental  Star  Lodge  to  its  hall.  After  the  ceremonies  they  were  escorted 
to  refreshments,  then  to  a  grove  where  M.  W.  Josiah  H.  Drummond  gave 
an  eloquent  oration.  Li  the  evening  Reuel  Washburn  Lodge  was  duly  con- 
stituted, and  its  officers  publicly  installed  at  the  Baptist  church  by  M.  W. 
Edward  P.  Burnham,  Grand  Master,  assisted  by  other  officers  of  the  Grand 
Lodge.  The  charter  now  received  (granted  May  3,  1877,)  declared  the  pre- 
cedence of  the  lodge  to  commence  from  May  4,  1876.  The  charter  members 
were:  Frank  Garcelon,  Stephen  J.  Burgess,  Wm  H.  Wood,  W.  S.  Treat,  Elijah 
Wadsworth,  Albert  Allen,  George  O.  Eustis,  T.  Everett  Eustis,  Roswell  C. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  261 

Boothby,  Henry  D.  Parker,  Alvin  Record,  Charles  H.  Cram,  Augustus  L. 
Young,  John  C.  Eaton,  Charles  L.  Eustis,  J.  W.  Eaton,  Alanson  C.  Otis, 
Matthew  M.  Stone,  Levi  H.  Daggett,  Alexander  O.  Nelson,  G.  O.  Foye,  Ensign 
S.  Goding,  Wm  W.  Noyes,  Albion  R.  Millett,  John  B.  Drake,  Chas  B.  Knapp, 
Thomas  F.  Palmer,  Albert  G.  French,  Joseph  Brown,  Sullivan  Newman, 
Charles  W.  Brown,  Henry  A.  Strout,  Abel  Prescott,  David  C.  Searles,  Prince 
E.  Hinds,  Alonzo  M.  Bunipus. 

July  11  the  annual  meeting  was  changed  to  June,  and  the  lodge  received 
the  following  letter  from  the  venerated  brother  whose  name  it  bears:  — 

To  the  Worshipful  Master,  etc.— I  was  very  sorry  that  I  could  not  be  witli  you  last 
evening  at  the  consecration  of  your  lodge,  but  at  my  age,  and  with  my  infirmities,  at  the 
late  hour  of  your  meeting  I  must  have  denied  myself  the  pleasure  of  being  present,  even 
if  the  weather  had  been  pleasant,  but  stormy  as  it  was  it  would  have  been  presumptuous 
folly  to  have  undertaken  it.  You  know  how  much  I  lamented  your  withdrawal  from  Oriental 
Star  Lodge,  and  if  I  could  have  persuaded  you  to  remain  would  gladly  have  done  so;  but 
as  you  decided  otherwise  I  wish  you  abundant  success,  and,  to  this  end  I  expect  you  to  be  true 
and  faithful  to  the  high  trust  and  responsibility  you  have  assumed.  You  cannot  reasonably 
expect  success  without  working  for  and  deserving  it.  Be  honorable  and  honest  in  all  your 
dealings  and  business  transactions  with  each  other  and  with  the  world,  and  demonstrate 
by  example  that  you  are  better  men  for  being  good  Masons.  Guard  well  the  outer  door 
and  be  wise  in  the  acceptance  of  worthy  applicants  for  the  honors  of  Masonery  and  firm 
in  rejecting  the  unworthy.  Be  kind  and  courteous  to  neighboring  lodges,  respecting  their 
rights  as  well  as  your  own.  If  you  have  work  to  do  be  prepared  to  do  it  promptly,  correctly, 
and  creditably.  The  importance  of  making  a  good  and  favorable  impression  upon  the 
candidate  when  receiving  the  degrees  cannot  be  overestimated.  If  you  have  no  work  to 
do,  remember  and  regard  the  admonition  of  our  most  excellent  Past  Grand  Master  Josiah 
H.  Drummond,  to  assemble  yourselves  together  at  your  stated  communications  socially,  as 
friends  and  brothers  spread  the  cement  of  brotherly  love  and  aflection,  learn  the  lectures 
and  the  work,  study  and  practice  the  teachings  of  our  ancient  and  honorable  institution, 
and  you  will  not  materially  err;  you  will  have  your  reward  —  the  approval  and  blessing 
of  your  God.     Farewell.  Reuel  Washburn. 

North  Livermore,  June  22,  1877. 

Friday,  March  8,  1878,  united  with  Oriental  Star  Lodge  in  conferring  the 
last  honors  of  masonry  on  the  remains  of  this  honored  Mason,  and  March  13 
a  committee  was  appointed  to  draft  resolutions  on  his  death.  June  12  the 
death  of  Bro.  E.  N.  Wheeler  reported,  and  officers  elected.  W.  H.  Wood,  W. 
M.;  F.  Garcelon,  S.  W.;  E.  S.  Goding,  J.  W.;  M.  M.  Stone,  Treas.;  W.  S. 
Treat,  Sec;  L.  P.  Gould,  Chap.;  R.  C.  Boothby,  S.  D.;  P.  E.  Hinds,  J.  D. 
The  officers  were  installed  July  10.  March  12,  1879,  voted  to  attend  the 
celebration  of  St  John's  Day  at  Portland.  Officers  for  1879-80 :  W.  H.  Wood, 
W.  M.;  F.  Garcelon,  S.  W.;  E.  S.  Goding,  J.  W.;  M.  M.  Stone,  Treas.;  W.  S. 
Treat,  Sec;  C.  B.  Knapp,  Chap.  June  24  was  passed  pleasantly  at  Portland, 
as  the  secretary  records  "having  had  a  big  time."  In  1880  the  lodge  was 
reported  as  "nearly  out  of  debt."     Frank  Garcelon  was  elected  W.  M.;  R.  C. 

262  History  of  Androscogoin  County. 

Boothby,  S.  W.;  Alonzo  M.  Bunipus,  J.  W.;  M.  M.  Stone,  Treas.;  C.  B. 
Knapp,  Sec.  They  were  installed  by  R.  W.  David  Cargill,  P.  G.  M.,  July  19. 
October  13  voted  to  attend  a  celebration  of  Wilton  Lodge,  October  21.  Feb- 
ruary 9,  1881,  R.  W.  C.  R.  Whitten,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  made  an  official  visit.  He 
was  "much  pleased  to  see  such  good  work."  May  11  voted  "to  allow  the  Odd 
Fellows  the  use  of  our  hall  for  meetings."  Officers  elected  June  8  were  pub- 
licly installed  June  24  by  A.  M.  Roak,  D.  D.  G.  M.;  Frank  Garcelon,  W.  M.; 
R.  C.  Boothby,  S.  W.;  A.  M.  Bumpus,  J.  W.;  Rev.  G.  L.  Burbank,  Chap.; 
M.  M.  Stone,  Treas. ;  C.  B.  Knapp,  Sec.  September  26  lodge  attended  memo- 
rial exercises  in  honor  of  the  late  President  James  A.  Garfield. 

The  first  meeting  in  the  new  Masonic  Hall  in  Treat's  Block  was  held  Jan- 
uary 4,  1882,  and  it  was  voted  to  furnish  it  at  an  expense  of  $250.  March  1 
D.  D.  G.  M.  Algernon  M.  Roak  visited  the  lodge  officially,  and  complimented 
it  on  its  correct  work  and  its  neat  and  commodious  hall.  June  28  were  elected 
and  installed  the  officers  for  the  ensuing  year:  R.  C.  Boothby,  W.  M. ;  A.  M. 
Bumpus,  S.  W.;  D.  C.  Searles,  J.  W. ;  M.  M.  Stone,  Treas.;  C.  B.  Knapp,  Sec; 
G.  L.  Burbank,  Chap.  June  20,  1883,  election  of  officers :  R.  C.  Boothby, 
W.  M.;  A.  M.  Bumpus,  S.  W.;  D.  C.  Searles,  J.  W.;  J.  A.  Rich,  Treas.;  E.  S. 
Coding,  Sec;  David  Cargill,  Chap.  February  15,  1884,  official  visit  of  D.  D. 
G.  M.  N.  U.  Hinkley,  who  exemplified  work  on  the  third  degree.  March  15 
the  death  of  Bro.  M.  M.  Stone,  so  long  treasurer,  was  reported.  May  29  the 
lodge  conducted  the  funeral  services  of  Bro.  John  W.  Eaton.  June  4  elected 
officers:  A.  M.  Bumpus,  W.  M.;  D.  C.  Searles,  S.  W. ;  W.  S.  Treat,  J.  W.; 
David  Cargill,  Chap.;  E.  S.  Coding,  Sec;  J.  A.  Rich,  Treas.  June  24,  1885, 
were  elected  the  same  officers  as  last  year  except  that  R.  C.  Boothby  was  made 
tyler.  Public  installation  July  1,  R.  C.  Boothby,  P.  M.,  installing  officer. 
January  20,  1886,  a  contribution  was  sent  to  the  sufferers  by  the  Galveston, 
Texas,  fire.  June  10  election  of  officers:  D.  C.  Searles,  W.  M.;  W.  S.  Treat, 
S.  W.;  H.  W.  Bailey,  J.  W.;  R.  W.  Weld,  Treas.;  J.  A.  Record,  Sec;  David 
Cargill,  Chap.  December  15  funeral  of  Bro.  C.  S.  Hutchins.  March  9,  1887, 
D.  D.  G.  M.  Geo.  S.  Woodman  made  an  official  visit.  June  1  annual  meeting. 
Officers  chosen:  D.  C.  Searles,  W.  M.;  W.  S.  Treat,  S.  W.;  H.  W.  Bailey, 
J.  W.;  R.  C.  Boothby,  Sec;  R.  W.  Weld,  Treas.  Public  installation  June  15, 
P.  M.  R.  C.  Boothby,  installing  officer.  After  the  installation  Mrs  S.  J.  Burgess, 
in  behalf  of  ladies  interested  in  the  lodge,  presented  the  brethren  an  elegant 
Bible.  A  magnificent  banquet  followed.  January  25,  1888,  the  death  of  Bro. 
Albert  G.  French  was  reported.  June  20  elected  W.  S.  Treat,  W.  M.;  H.  W. 
Bailey,  S.  W.;  H.  H.  Dyke,  J.  W.;  R.  W.  Weld,  Treas.;  R.  C.  Boothby,  Sec. 
June  30  they  were  publicly  installed,  David  Cargill,  P.  G.  M.,  officiating. 
August  15  the  death  of  Bro.  H.  H.  White  was  reported.  June  11,  1889, 
attended  the  funeral  of  Dr  Albion  R.  Millett,  a  worthy  brother.  July  10  were 
installed  the  officers-elect:     W.  S.  Treat,  W.  M.;    Henry  W.  Bailey,  S.  W.; 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  263 

Davilla  S.  Thompson,  J.  W.;  Roswell  C.  Boothby,  Sec;  Stephen  J.  Burgess, 
Marshal;  David  Cargill,  Chap.;  Clinton  Newman,  Tyler.  April  8,  1890,  R.  C. 
Boothby,  having  been  made  I).  D.  G.  M.,  visited  the  lodge  oflicially  and  made 
corrections  in  the  work.  May  28,  1890,  officers  elected:  D.  S.  Thompson, 
W.  M.;  R.  M.  Maxim,  S.  W.;  J.  G.  Ham,  J.  W.;  R.  W.  Weld,  Treas.;  R.  C. 
Boothby,  Sec.  Public  installation  June  10,  P.  M.  W.  S.  Treat  officiating. 
February  18,  1891,  the  third  degree  was  conferred  by  the  officers  of  Oriental 
Star  Lodge.  April  22  the  death  of  Bro.  Sullivan  Newman  was  reported.  The 
lodge  June  1,  1891,  has  95  members,  is  practically  free  from  debt,  with 
brotherly  love  existing  among  the  craftsmen,  and  the  prospect  that  much 
benefit  will  be  realized  through  its  labors. 

Androscoggin  Chapter  of  R.  A.  M,  No.  o4-,  Liocrmort'  Falh,  was  instituted 
in  1871  at  Canton.  A  petition  signed  by  13  R.  A.  Masons,  recommended  by 
King  Hiram  Chapter  of  Lewiston,  was  forwarded  to  M.  E.  Stephen  J.  Young, 
G.  H.  P.,  asking  for  a  dispensation,  which  was  granted  January  21,  1871,  to 
Hiram  A.  Ellis,  Charles  A.  Coolidge,  Otis  Playford,  Jr,  John  D.  Hodge,  R.  E. 
Hathaway,  Gideon  Ellis,  and  George  W.  Moore  of  Cant6n,  H.  T.  Gleason,  J. 
H.  Gleason,  P.  M.  Edwards,  and  John  H.  Ellis  of  Mexico,  H.  F.  Howard  of 
Dixfield,  Wm  H.  H.  Wood  of  Livermore  Falls.  The  officers  named  were : 
Otis  Hayford,  Jr,  H.  P.;  John  D.  Hodge,  King;  John  H.  Ellis,  Scribe.  The 
chapter  was  opened  January  30,  1871,  at  Masonic  Hall  in  Canton,  which  had 
been  erected  the  previous  summer  for  this  purpose,  and  duly  organized,  with 
these  officers:  M.  E.  Otis  Hayford,  Jr,  H.  P.;  ex-Comps.  John  D.  Hodge, 
King;  John  H.  Ellis,  Scribe;  Comps.  Henry  F.  Howard,  Treas.;  Hiram  A. 
Ellis,  Sec. ;  C.  T.  Gleason,  P.  S. ;  George  W.  Moore,  C.  H. ;  Charles  A.  Cool- 
idge, R.  A.  C. ;  C.  E.  Philoon,  M.  3d  V. ;  R.  E.  Hathaway,  M.  2d  V. ;  W.  H.  H. 
Wood,  M,  1st  v.;  P.  M.  Edmunds,  Sent.  It  received  its  charter,  dated  May 
3,  1871,  June  26,  1871,  when  these  officers  were  chosen  :  M.  E.  Otis  Hayford, 
H.  P. ;  John  D.  Hodge,  King ;  John  H.  Ellis,  Scribe  ;  Oscar  Hayford,  Treas. ; 
Hiram  A.  Ellis,  Sec.  October  6  there  were  present  M.  E.  Stephen  J.  Young, 
G.  H.  P. ;  Comp.  Warren  Phillips,  G.  Sent. ;  Comp.  Dura  Bradford  as  G.  C. ; 
Comp.  Geo.  W.  Moore  as  G.  C.  of  H.,  and  the  chapter  was  duly  constituted, 
after  which  the  above  officers  were  installed  by  M.  E.  Stephen  J.  Young,  G. 
H.  P.,  as  were  also  these  appointed  officers :  Geo.  W.  Moore,  C.  H. ;  Wm  H. 
H.  Washburn,  P.  S. ;  C.  A.  Coolidge,  R.  A.  C. ;  C.  S.  Brown,  M.  3d  V. ;  Wm 
K.  Decoster,  M.  2d  V.;  John  N.  Read,  M.  1st  V.;  Isaac  A.  Ellis,  S.  S.;  C.  E. 
Philoon,  J.  S.;  Rev.  O.  H.  Johnson,  Chap.;  F.  M.  Mayo,  Sent. 

August  15,  1872,  Masonic  Hall,  Canton,  was  dedicated,  these  taking  part 
Oriental  Star  Lodge,  No.  21,  Livermore ;  King  Hiram  Lodge,  No.  57,  Dixfield 
Nezinscot  Lodge,  No.  101,  Turner;    Evening  Star  Lodge,  No.  147,  Buckfield 
Whitney  Lodge,  No.  167,  Canton  ;  Androscoggin  R.  A.  Chapter  ;  Grand  Lodge 
of  Maine,  M.  W.  David  Cargill,  G.  M.;    Grand  Chapter  of  Maine,  M.  E.  John 

264  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

W.  Ballou,  G.  H.  P.  Comp.  Gideon  Ellis,  the  oldest  member  of  the  chapter, 
died  November  1,  1872,  in  his  77th  year.  December,  1873,  Comp.  Gilbert  L. 
Heald  died.  January  1,  1876,  the  chapter  had  60  members;  the  following 
from  this  county:  Wm  H.  H.  Wood,  Frank  Garcelon,  Elijah  and  Marshman 
E.  Wardsvvorth,  Roswell  C.  Boothhy,  Livermore  Falls  ;  Welcome  F.  Fuller  and 
Henry  Clay  Munson,  Turner;  Charles  Jones,  Livermore.  P^lected  officers: 
June  17,  1872,  Otis  Hayford,  H.  P.;  John  D.  Hodge,  King;  Dura  Bradford, 
Scribe;  Oscar  Hayford,  Treas. ;  H.  A.  Ellis,  Sec.  June  9,  1873,  John  D. 
Hodge,  H.  P.;  Dura  Bradford,  King;  George  W.  Moore,  Scribe;  Oscar  Hay- 
ford, Treas.;  H.  A.  Ellis,  Sec.  June  29,  1874,  M.  E.  Dura  Bradford,  H.  P.; 
W.  H.  Washburn,  King  ;  John  H.  Ellis,  Scribe  ;  Oscar  Hayford,  Treas. ;  H. 
A.  Ellis,  Sec.     June  14,  1875,  the  only  change  is  that  of  Otis  Hayford,  Sec. 

For  some  years  the  chapter  was  prosperous,  then  interest  waxed  cold,  pay- 
ment of  dues  was  neglected,  only  a  faithful  few  preserved  its  vitality,  and  the 
roll  of  the  officers  would  be  very  nearly  the  annual  repetition  of  their  names. 
Things  grew  from  bad  to  worse  as  the  years  wore  on.  In  1887  the  chapter  was 
holding  its  meetings  in  the  hall  of  the  brick  store,  as  the  old  Masonic  Hall  was 
let  and  occupied  for  other  than  Masonic  purposes  since  the  fire  of  January  28, 
1887,  and  in  October  a  chapter  was  opened.  Finding  the  old  hall  not  in  con- 
dition to  hold  said  meeting,  it  was  voted  to  act  with  Whitney  Lodge  to  see 
what  should  be  done  with  the  furniture  and  other  fixtures,  and  to  see  what 
arrangements  could  be  made  with  the  lodge  to  use  said  hall  in  common  with 
the  lodge;  also  voted  to  write  for  a  dispensation  to  elect  officers  at  the  regular 
convocation  in  November,  having  failed  to  do  so  at  the  annual  meeting. 
November  28,  Cyrus  T.  Bonney,  Jr,  was  chosen  H.  P.;  Thos.  Raymond,  King; 
A.Delano,  Scribe;  James  H.  Burbank,  Treas.  Again  the  chapter  failed  to 
elect  officers,  and  August  20,  1888,  a  dispensation  was  again  asked  for,  and  the 
visit  of  some  grand  officer  with  whom  to  consult  was  requested.  The  dispen- 
sation was  granted,  and  September  15  officers  were  elected,  and  October  15, 
installed:  Cyrus  T.  Bonney,  Jr,  H.  P.;  Thos.  Reynolds,  King;  John  D.  Hodge, 
Scribe;  E.  R.  Oldham,  C.  H.;  C.  M.  Holland,  R.  A.  C,  with  others.  Decem- 
ber 17  a  convocation  was  held  in  Grange  Hall,  Canton,  under  a  dispensation, 
and  a  counsel  was  held  with  the  Grand  Scribe.  At  a  later  convocation  14 
members  were  deprived  of  membership  for  arrearages  of  dues.  April  15,  1889, 
voted  18  to  1  in  favor  of  removal  to  Livermore  Falls. 

The  first  meeting  at  Livermore  Falls  was  the  annual  convocation,  June  10, 
1889.  R.  C.  lioothby  was  chosen  H.  P. ;  B.  C.  Waite,  K. ;  W.  S.  Treat,  Scribe  ; 
who  were  installed  by  M.  E.  Dura  Bradford,  P.  H.  P.  June  30,  1890,  R.  C. 
Boothby  was  elected  and  installed  H.  P.;  W.  S.  Treat,  K. ;  I).  S.  Thompson, 
S.  J.  G.  Ham  was  then  appointed  C.  of  H.  ;  E.  Eaton,  P.  S. ;  S.  E.  Perkins, 
R.  A.  C. ;  C.  R.  Loring,  M.  3d  V. ;  E.  S.  Coding,  M.  2d  V. ;  D.  C.  Searles,  M. 
1st  V.     Comp.  David  Cargill  was  made  an  honorary  member.     November  25 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  265 

A.  M.  Roak,  H.  P.  of  Bradford  Chapter,  by  request  confers  the  R.  A.  degree 
on  several  substitutes.  There  are  now  (Jun-e  1,  1891,)  54  members,  seven 
having  been  received  the  past  year  and  one  dimitted.  In  its  new  home  the 
chapter  is  in  good  condition,  and  bids  fair  to  have  a  flourishing  future.  Among 
its  treasures  the  chapter  cherishes  a  gavel  made  in  Jerusalem ;  the  head  is  of 
olive  wood  from  Mt  Olivet,  the  handle  of  wood  grown  on  the  banks  of  the 
Jordan.     This  was  a  present  from  Rev.  A.  C.  Herrick. 


Manufacturers  and  Mechanies  Lodge,  No.  62,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  Lewiston,  was 
instituted  March  19,  1853,  by  D.  G.  M.  John  Read,  assisted  by  J.  B.  Ham 
as  Grand  Marshal,  Ebenezer  Ham  as  Grand  Secretary,  Stephen  H.  Read  as 
Grand  Treasurer,  Ham  Brooks  as  Grand  Warden.  The  petition  was  signed  by 
Jordan  K.  Piper,  George  Webb,  E.  D.  Clark,  George  Latham,  and  Charles  J. 
Greene,  all  residents  of  Lewiston.  It  is  not  known  when  or  where  they  joined 
the  order.  The  charter  was  granted  by  the  Grand  Lodge  in  July,  1853.  The 
lodge  was  unquestionably  instituted  in  a  small  hall  in  the  upper  part  of  Jones's 
Block,  which  was  occupied  by  them  for  some  time,  renting  it  of  a  temperance 
society  who  controlled  it  and  subsequently  leased  it.  The  first  officers  installed 
were:  Geo.  Webb,  N.  G.;  Geo.  Latham,  V.  G.;  E.  D.  Clark,  R.  Sec;  Charles 
J.  Green,  Treas.  Geo.  W.  Farr,  Hermon  L.  Guild,  Benj.  Dexter,  Hanson  W. 
Small,  David  S.  Parker,  and  James  Lewis  were  elected  and  initiated  at  the 
meeting.  This  was  the  first  lodge  instituted  in  Lewiston,  and  entered  upon  a 
season  of  unusual  prosperity,  additions  being  made  to  its  membership  at  nearly 
every  meeting.  This  prosperity  continued  for  several  years;  but  from  1855 
to  1861  the  order  in  the  state  was  suffering  much  from  depletion  in  member- 
ship owing,  in  a  large  measure,  to  the  imperfect  administration  of  its  financial 
affairs.  At  that  time  the  relation  between  dues  and  weekly  benefits  was 
not  properly  adjusted.  During  these  years  many  of  the  lodges  throughout  the 
country  were  financially  ruined.  The  lodge  was  involved  in  the  general  depres- 
sion, but  continued  to  administer  its  affairs  until  September  20,  1858.  From 
that  time  until  October  3,  1859,  there  are  no  records  of  any  sessions.  It  met 
October  10,  1859,  in  the  hall  over  Keyes's  store.  This  was  on  the  northerly  side 
of  Haymarket  Square,  the  building  next  to  the  Frye  house.  This  hall  they 
secured  for  $25  per  annum.  Subsequently  another  room  for  an  anteroom  was 
leased  for  $5  per  annum,  which  made  comfortable  and  convenient  rooms  for  a 
short  time.  The  installation  of  officers,  October  21,  1859,  was  in  the  hall  of 
Androscoggin  Lodge,  in  Auburn.  They  were  installed  by  D.  G.  M.  Nahura 
Morrill,  as  follows :  Geo.  W.  Farr,  N.  G. ;  J.  W.  Hutchinson,  V.  G. ;  E.  D. 
Johnson,  Rec.  Sec. ;  George  Webb,  Treas.  These  rooms  were  soon  too  small, 
and  a  committee  was  raised  January  16,  1860,  to  ascertain  if  the  lodge  could 
procure  Cutter's  Hall,  which  was  obtained  for  t|55  per  year,  and  January  25, 

206  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

1860,  it  was  occupied,  holding  the  first  meeting  January  30.  The  lodge  did 
some  repairing  in  the  hall,  had  it  lighted  with  gas,  and  the  floor  neatly  car- 
peted. Prosperity  was  now  assured.  Accessions  were  made  at  almost  every 
meeting.  In  1864,  owing  in  a  great  measure  to  increase  in  membership,  a 
committee  was  appointed  to  secure  a  hall  better  adapted  to  their  needs,  and 
sufiiciently  large  to  give  them  ample  accommodations.  This  reported  Septem- 
ber 28,  1864,  in  favor  of  rooms  in  Central  Block.  The  lodge  voted  to  occupy 
the  rooms,  which  were  fitted  up  at  an  expense  of  #96.68,  the  carpet  being  paid 
for  by  subscription.  These  were  comfortable  and  convenient  quarters,  with 
sufficient  room  for  work,  and  the  lodge  was  supplied  with  ample  means  to  carry 
on  its  charitable  and  fraternal  labors.  This  hall  was  occupied  until  June, 
1870.  On  Sunday  morning,  June  12,  1870,  the  westerly  portion  of  Central 
Block,  which  included  Odd  Fellows  Hall,  was  destroyed.  The  lodge  lost  its 
furniture,  and  the  most  of  its  paraphernalia.  The  loss  was  '$800,  with  an 
insurance  of  -1500.  From  June  15  to  September  14,  1870,  the  lodge  held 
weekly  sessions  in  the  hall  of  Androscoggin  Lodge,  in  Auburn.  At  the  first 
session  after  the  fire,  June  15,  the  lodge  chose  Geo.  A.  Callahan,  Warren  E. 
Pressey,  and  Geo.  A.  Drew  to  act  with  a  committee  of  Androscoggin  Lodge  in 
procuring  and  furnishing  a  new  hall.  Rooms  were  found  in  Union  Block. 
They  were  completed,  fitted  up,  furnished,  and  formally  delivered  to  the  joint 
committee,  Tuesday  evening,  September  13,  1870,  and  were  occupied  by  this 
lodge  on  the  following  evening.  The  hall  was  also  occupied  by  Andros- 
coggin Lodge  and  Worombus  Encampment.  At  this  time  Manufacturers  and 
Mechanics  Lodge  entered  upon  a  period  of  marked  prosperity.  It  has  con- 
stantly increased  in  numbers  as  well  as  influence,  and  is  to-day  among  the 
large  and  strong  lodges  of  the  state.  Desiring  larger  and  better  accommoda- 
tions, the  lodge  in  connection  with  Golden  Rule  Lodge,  leased  the  upper  story 
of  Odd  Fellows  Block  for  the  use  of  the  order  in  this  city.  The  expense  to 
this  lodge  in  finishing  and  furnishing  was  about  -f  1,500,  and  the  members  joined 
with  Golden  Rule  Lodge  in  the  dedication,  January  8,  1877,  with  pride  and 
satisfaction.  The  hall  and  adjoining  rooms  are  among  the  best  in  the  state  and 
are  especially  adapted  to  the  needs  of  the  lodge.  They  were  occupied  for  the 
first  time  by  this  lodge,  in  January,  1877.  The  lodge  has  expended  for  the 
relief  of  its  members  about  'il'27,000,  an  average  of  more  than  -1700  per  annum. 
Its  membership  is  408.  In  1872  Geo.  A.  Callahan  of  this  lodge  was  elected 
Grand  Master,  and  filled  the  office  with  much  satisfaction  to  the  order 
througliout  the  state.  At  the  annual  session  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  1873,  he 
was  elected  representative  to  the  Sovereign  Grand  Lodge,  where  he  acquired 
a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  work  of  the  order,  and  undoubtedly  did  more 
than  any  of  his  predecessors  to  perfect  it  among  the  lodges  of  this  jurisdiction. 
Golden  Mule  Lodge,  No.  73,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  Lewiston,  was  instituted  September 
26,  1873,  by  Grand  M.  O.  B.  Whitten,  assisted  by  Grand  Sec.  Joshua  Davis, 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  267 

Past  Grand  Masters  Benjamin  Kingsbury  and  J.  E.  Haseltine.  The  charter 
members  were  George  A.  Callahan,  Silas  W.  Cook,  George  A.  Drew,  George 
W.  Maxfield,  Arthur  S.  Melcher,  Fred  A.  Hall,  Eben  J.  Atwood,  Samuel  O. 
Wood,  Edwin  Wakefield,  Ai  Brooks,  Abel  D.  Cook,  Isaac  H.  Estes,  Milton  C. 
Wedgwood,  Wm  F.  Garcelon,  Thos  W.  Murch,  Thos  A.  Eastman.  Eleven  of 
them  came  from  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Lodge,  and  five  from  Andros- 
coggin Lodge  of  Auburn.  The  following  were  initiated  in  Manufacturers  and 
Mechanics  Lodge:  George  A.  Callahan,  February  18,  1863;  Silas  W.  Cook, 
January  31,  1872;  George  A.  Drew,  June  19,  1869;  George  W.  Maxfield, 
February  5,  1867;  Arthur  S.  Melcher,  February  19,  1873;  Fred  A.  Hall, 
February  19,  1873 ;  Eben  J.  Atwood,  May  4,  1869 ;  S.  O.  Wood,  May  21, 
1873;  Edwin  Wakefield,  February  27,  1872;  A.  D.  Cook,  August  6,  1873;  L 
H.  Estes,  May  31,  1871 ;  and  the  following  in  Androscoggin  Lodge :  William 
F.  Garcelon,  January  10,  1870;  M.  C.  Wedgwood,  October  3,  1870;  Ai 
Brooks,  May  17,  1869;  T.  W.  Murch,  January  23,  1871;  T.  A.  Eastman, 
March  25,  1872.  The  grand  officers  installed  Ai  Brooks,  N.  G.;  S.  W.  Cook, 
V.  G.;  S.  O.  Wood,  R.  Sec;  Fred  A.  Hall,  P.  Sec;  and  T.  W.  Murch, 
Treas.  The  charter  was  granted  August  11,  1874.  The  lodge  purchased  one- 
half  of  the  furniture  and  paraphernalia  of  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Lodge, 
and  became  joint  tenant  of  its  hall,  where  it  held  weekly  sessions  until  January 
11,  1877,  when  it  occupied  its  present  rooms  in  Odd  Fellows  Block.  At  this 
session,  the  first  in  the  new  hall,  these  officers  were  publicly  installed:  Thos  H. 
Jordan,  N.  G.;  D.  Horace  Holman,  V.  G,;  J.  G.  Elder,  R.  Sec;  Fred  A.  Hall, 
P.  Sec;  L.  C.  Peck,  Treas.  This  hall  was  jointly  fitted  up  by  Manufacturers 
and  Mechanics  Lodge  and  this  lodge,  at  an  expense  of  |3,000.  It  contains  a  hall 
for  regular  sessions,  a  banquet  hall,  and  several  anterooms.  The  hall  was  pub- 
licly dedicated  January,  1877,  by  G.  M.  Stephen  K.  Dyer.  In  his  communication 
to  the  Grand  Lodge,  held  in  Portland,  August  14, 1877,  the  Grand  Master  said: 

January  8,  1877,  I  visited  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Lodge,  No.  62,  and  Golden  Rule 
Lodge,  No.  73,  in  the  city  of  Lewiston.  Assisted  by  S.  P.  Getchell,  G.  M.,  Chas  H. 
Blake,  G.  Chap.,  J.  E.  Haseltine  and  J.  N.  Read,  P.  G.  Representatives,  and  Past  Grands 
A.  D.  Smith,  0.  G.  Douglass,  and  S.  W.  Cook,  I  publicly  dedicated  their  beautiful  hall,  one 
of  the  largest  and  finest  in  the  state,  and  I  congratulated  the  brethren  upon  the  prosperity 
that  has  attended  them  in  thus  pi'oviding  themselves  with  such  a  comfortable  home.  At 
the  conclusion  of  the  dedicatory  service  we  had  the  pleasure  of  listening  to  an  able  address 
delivered  by  Rev.  Bro.  Bolton,  which  added  much  to  the  interest  of  the  occasion. 

The  officers  were  publicly  installed  by  the  Grand  Master,  January  7,  1878. 
This  was  the  first  installation  by  the  Grand  Master,  and  we  quote  from  his 
annual  communication  to  the  Grand  Lodge  his  reference  to  it:  — 

January  7,  in  the  presence  of  a  large  assembly  of  invited  friends,  with  the  assistance  of 
the  Grand  Marshal  and  Past  Grands  Pressey,  Snow,  and  Cook,  I  installed  the  officers  of 

268  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Golden  Rule  Lodge,  No.  73,  at  Lewiston.  Here  I  found  Odd  Fellowship  in  its  most  luxu- 
riant growth.  Our  brethren  here  had  prepared  a  rich  and  bounteous  banquet  in  the 
commodious  anterooms  of  their  beautiful  hall,  to  which  at  the  close  of  the  installation 
ceremony,  all  present  were  invited.  The  warm  greeting  the  ofiflcers  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
received  will  never  be  forgotten. 

At  the  annual  session  of  the  Grand  Lodge  held  at  Auburn,  August  8,  1882, 
Silas  W.  Cook  of  this  lodge  was  elected  Grand  Master  and  held  the  position 
with  honor  to  himself  and  fidelity  to  the  order.  In  1883  he  was  elected  repre- 
sentative to  the  Sovereign  Grand  Lodge,  and  held  the  office  for  two  years. 
Geo.  W.  Goss  was  elected  Grand  Master  at  the  session  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
held  in  Portland,  August  9,  1887.  He  was  an  able  officer  and  served  with 
much  acceptance.  In  1888  he  was  elected  representative  to  the  Sovereign 
Grand  Lodge,  holding  the  office  for  two  years  and  occupying  positions  upon 
important  committees.  The  lodge  has  expended  more  than  'if!l2,000  in  relief  of 
its  members,  and  is  in  a  prosperous  condition,  with  a  merabershijD  of  250. 

Worombus  Encampment^  No.  13,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  Lewiston. — The  warrant  for  the 
institution  of  Worombus  Encampment  was  dated  April  25, 1848,  and  signed  by 
Benjamin  Kingsbury,  G.  P.,  and  Nathaniel  F.  Deering,  G.  S.  The  petitioners 
were  J.  C.  Lane,  S.  P.  Gorham,  Elisha  Turner,  Benjamin  Dunn,  Temple  Tib- 
betts.  Nelson  B.  Reynolds,  Uriah  Read,  Levi  A.  Gould,  and  William  T.  Plaisted. 
The  institution  took  place  at  Odd  Fellows  Hall  in  Auburn,  April  27,  1848, 
under  the  direction  of  Nathaniel  F.  Deering,  Acting  G.  P. ;  Edward  P.  Banks, 
Acting  G.  H.  P.;  Wm  E.  Kimball,  G.  S.  W. ;  Fred  W.  Nichols,  Acting  G.  S.; 
Nathaniel  Walker,  Acting  G.  T.  After  the  institution  of  the  encampment 
these  patriarchs  were  elected  and  installed :  Levi  A.  Gould,  J.  W. ;  Elisha 
Turner,  Treas. ;  Benjamin  Dunn,  Scribe;  S.  P.  Gorham,  S.  W. ;  N.B.Reynolds, 
H.  P.;  J.  C.  Lane,  C.  P.;  W.  T.  Plaisted,  G. ;  Temple  Tibbetts,  S.  W. ;  Uriah 
Read,  T.  W.  In  the  evening  Geo.  W.  Foss,  Dan  Read,  3d,  Almon  C.  Pray, 
Stephen  Blethen,  Daniel  B.  Hawks,  and  Ai  Brooks  received  the  degrees. 

The  encampment  experienced  usual  prosperity,  holding  regular  sessions 
until  August  10,  1857.  Then  followed  a  period  of  great  depression,  from 
which  the  order  throughout  the  country  suffered.  It  was  largely  occasioned 
by  the  false  basis  on  which  the  financial  principles  of  the  order  rested.  From 
the  above  date  until  January  26,  1869,  no  session  was  held.  The  charter  had 
not  been  recalled,  having  been  cared  for  by  some  of  the  members.  The  few 
patriarchs  who  remained  in  the  vicinity  were  anxious  to  have  the  encampment 
revived,  and  the  officers  of  the  Grand  Encampment  appointed  a  meeting  for 
January  26,  1869,  and  reorganized  under  the  old  charter.  Not  enough  of  the 
old  members  could  be  found  to  constitute  a  quorum,  and  the  grand  officers 
were  compelled  to  initiate  new  members  before  the  organization  could  be 
perfected.  The  grand  officers  were:  James  E.  Haseltine,  G.  P.;  C.  C. 
Hayes,  Acting  G.  H.  P.;    George  A.  Walden,  G.  S.  W.;    Charles  H.  Rich, 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  269 

G.  J.  W.;  George  F.  Mariner,  G.  S.;  Charles  B.  Nash,  G.T.;  N.  G.  Cummings, 
G.  S.  The  officers  were:  Almon  C.  Pray,  C.  P.;  Geo.  A.  Callahan,  H.  P.; 
John  Holt,  S.  W. ;  C.  S.  Emerson,  J.  W. ;  J.  M.  Cook,  Scribe  ;  Frank  H.  Riggs, 
Treas.  With  this  new  lease  of  life  the  encampment  commenced  a  period  of 
usefulness  and  unremitted  prosperity.  It  has  now  a  large  and  steadily  increas- 
ing membership,  and  is  bestowing  its  bounties  as  well  as  its  charities  to  those 
deserving.  The  past  chief  patriarchs  are :  J.  C.  Lane,  S.  P.  Gorham,  N.  B. 
Reynolds,  Benjamin  Dunn,  Geo.  W.  Foss,  Almon  C.  Pray,  Samuel  Stetson, 
Everett  H.  Jones,  Nahum  Morrill,  Dan  Read,  3d,  Uriah  Read,  John  Holt,  Geo. 
A.  Callahan,  J.  M.  Cook,  Geo.  A.  Drew,  Wm  F.  Garcelon,  Hiram  Snow,  Wm 
Pulverman,  Ai  Brooks,  J.  D.  Johnson,  S.  W.  Cook,  J.  O.  Nickerson,  C.  B. 
Heath,  Frank  A.  Conant,  Thomas  W.  Murch,  Arion  C.  Peirce,  John  L.  Pea- 
body,  Melvin  J.  Googin,  D.  H.  Holman,  Thomas  H.  Jordan,  Geo.  W.  Furbush, 
J.  G.  Elder,  Lewis  C.  Peck,  Albert  L.  Wells,  Geo.  F.  Turner,  Chas  H.  Plobbs, 
John  S.  Manson,  Albion  K.  (3rdway,  E.  T.  Hatch,  L.  P.  Woodbury,  Geo.  W. 
Goss,  Chas  H.  Osgood,  R.  W.  Clark,  Fred  L  Morrell,  Fred  J.  Hodgkins, 
Everett  E.  Read,  Aubrey  G.  Lothrop,  Thomas  F.  Palmer,  James  M.  Sherman, 
Robert  W.  Keist,  Chas  O.  Morrell,  E.  O.  Carll,  J.  E.  Bailey,  L.  W.  Daly. 

Grand  Canton  Worombus,  JVo.  1,  I.  0.  0.  F.  —  The  organization  of  a 
military  branch  of  the  order  was  a  matter  of  special  legislation  by  the 
Sovereign  Grand  Lodge  in  1885.  In  1884  a  special  committee  was  appointed, 
authorized  to  present  a  plan  for  such  an  organization  at  the  next  session  of  the 
Sovereign  Grand  Lodge.  The  plan  presented,  with  slight  modifications,  was 
adopted  at  the  session  of  1885,  a  commanding  officer  elected,  and  measures 
adopted  to  institute  cantons  throughout  the  United  States.  Inspired  with  the 
belief  that  such  an  organization  would  give  a  healthful  enthusiasm  to  the  order, 
some  of  the  members  in  this  communit}''  took  measures  to  secure  the  institution 
of  one  at  Lewiston.  The  organization  was  perfected  and  a  Grand  Canton 
instituted  February  16,  1886,  by  Lieut-Gen.  J.  C.  Underwood,  assisted  by 
Lieut-Col  Henry  A.  Cox  as  aide-de-camp.  The  officers  were  Henry  M. 
Sprague,  Com.;  Chandler  H.  Barron,  Lieut;  J.  M.  Sherman,  E.;  J.  M. 
Fernald,  C. ;  L.  W.  Daly,  A.  The  charter  members  were  :  Oscar  G.  Douglass, 
Leonard  P.  Woodbury,  Geo.  W.  Goss,  Geo.  A.  Callahan,  Geo.  A.  Drew,  Edgar 
J.  Riker,  Arthur  S.  Melcher,  John  E.  Miller,  Lewis  C.  Peck,  John  Davis, 
Geo.  W.  Maxlield,  Geo.  H.  Harmon,  Wm  H.  Roberts,  James  Cooper,  Wm 
Pulverman,  Horace  C.  Beal,  Dennis  Harris,  Chandler  H.  Barron,  Rendall  W. 
Clark,  Fred  I.  Morrell,  Fred  J.  Hodgkins,  Israel  B.  Merrill,  Rendall  Dresser, 
Eben  W.  Dresser,  Chas  F.  Goss,  Benjamin  F.  Getchell,  Henry  T.  Haskell, 
John  Richardson,  John  L.  Frost,  Wm  A.  Shackford,  Geo.  W.  Monk,  Chas  H. 
Foster,  Jas  S.  Randall,  Albert  B.  Nealey,  John  L.  Peabody,  Jas  M.  Fernald, 
Frank  A.  Conant,  D.  Horace  Holman,  Edwin  Wakefield,  Edward  M.  Lowell, 
Phil  P.  Getchell,  Geo.  F.  Turner,  Henry  M.  Austin,  Byron  A.  Bearce,  Chas 

270  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

F.  Cornish,  Reuben  M.  Gordon,  Chas  W.  Hill,  Lucius  C.  Robbins,  Palmer  O. 
Spinney,  Geo.  W.  P'urbush,  Albert  A.  Foss,  J.  Frank  Pickering,  Fred  Olfene, 
James  O.  Nickerson,  Robert  W.  Keist,  Jas  M.  Sherman,  J.  G.  Elder,  Herbert 
A.  Cole,  Alvah  Doten,  Jas  T.  Small,  Ivory  D.  Stevens,  Chauncy  B.  White, 
Fred  G.  Payne,  Abner  Linnell,  Edwin  O.  Carll,  John  Corrigan,  Edwin  A. 
Lane,  Aubrey  G.  Lothrop,  Samuel  H.  Foster,  Lorenzo  W.  Daly,  Edwin  N. 
Hutchins,  Charles  G.  Corliss,  Melvin  J.  Googin,  Clinton  B.  Heath,  Frank  W. 
Dana,  Daniel  Guptill,  John  F.  Lamb,  Benj.  Palmer,  Silas  W.  Cook,  Albion  K. 
Ordway,  Nahum  Morrill,  Wm  E.  Longley,  Edward  H.  Kimball,  Geo.  W. 
Metcalf,  Everett  E.  Read,  Wm  Dixon,  Anson  O.  Wight,  Thos  Casson,  Arthur 
E.  Madison,  Geo.  L.  Read,  Henry  B.  Stearns,  Wm  A.  Haines,  Benj.  B. 
Bradford,  Anson  Gilman,  Warren  E.  Riker,  Geo.  W.  Proctor,  Fred  A.  Hall, 
Alvin  T.  Neal,  Hiram  A.  Morrell,  Chas  H.  Osgood,  Chester  M.  Lord,  David 
Williams,  David  P.  Field,  Henry  H.  Hanson,  Fred  S.  Weymouth,  Levi 
Greenleaf,  John  Harper,  William  Olfene,  Charles  Davis,  Orrin  A.  Horr,  Geo. 
H.  Harris,  Isaiah  Merrill,  Frank  E.  Sleeper,  Wm  H.  Newell,  Leonard  C. 
Moore,  Frank  L.  Noble,  Wm  Dickey,  Henry  A.  Torsey,  Horace  C.  Little, 
Frank  G.  Ham,  Chas  H.  Hinckley,  Wm  Entwistle,  Jos.  H.  Day,  Chas  W. 
Dexter,  Chas  S.  Crowell,  Geo.  M.  Coombs,  Rufus  Carr,  Sewell  H.  Bagley, 
Thomas  W.  Murch,  Marshall  Emery,  John  T.  Hale,  Thomas  F.  Palmer.  The 
canton  has  a  drill  corps  of  34  members  and  three  officers,  which  has  been 
thoroughly  trained,  under  the  direction  of  Major  Brabson.  At  a  tournament 
at  Cincinnati,  July  26,  1888,  participated  in  by  drill  corps  throughout  the 
country,  they  won  the  sixth  prize,  which  was  a  banner,  valued  at  $300,  a 
purse  of  $200,  and  a  gold  medal  valued  at  $100. 

Sahattus  River  Lodge,  No.  21,  I.  0.  0.  jP.,  Lisbofi,^  was  instituted  March 
17,  1874,  by  G.  M.  O.  B.  Whitten,  assisted  by  W.  F.  Garcelon,  D.  G.  M.,  Geo. 
A.  Callahan,  G.  S.,  Daniel  l^ucas,  G.  G.,  I.  Hicks,  G.  M.  The  charter  mem- 
bers were  A.  Callahan,  J.  M.  Corbett,  Thomas  Judd,  C.  H.  Keopka,  John 
Marsden,  F.  H.  Amback,  E.  M.  Shaw,  G.  L.  Stone.  The  officers  installed 
at  the  first  meeting  were  E.  M.  Shaw,  N.  G.;  F.  H.  Amback,  V.  G.;  J.  M. 
Corbett,  Treas. ;  William  Sheehan,  Sec.  From  its  organization  Sabattus  River 
Lodge  has  added  constantly  to  its  membership,  and  is  socially  and  financially 
one  of  the  best  lodges  of  the  order  in  the  state.  There  are  109  members  in  good 
standing.  The  lodge  owns  its  hall  building,  purchased  in  1875,  and  valued  at 
$2,000,  has  a  paraphernalia  second  to  none  in  Maine  and  valued  at  $500,  and 
has  a  handsome  amount  in  its  treasury,  with  a  large  sum  in  investments. 
Past  Grands  —  Augustus  Callahan,  E.  M.  Shaw,  F.  H.  Amback,  Wm  Sheehan, 
N.  J.  Shaw,  G.  R.  Avery,  John  Willard,  A.  H.  Macurda,  J.  C.  Moore,  N.  J. 
Wedgwood,  M.D.,  A.  Wakefield,  Wm  H.  Miles,  Frank  Miles,  Simeon  Stone, 
Harrison  Glidden,  Thomas  Douglass,  A.  W.  Potter,  M.D.,  H.  G.  Spear,  Frank 

1  By  C.  A.  Jordan,  Secretary. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  271 

A.  Jordan,  H.  P.  Thompson,  R.  G.  Greene,  B.  F.  Thorn,  Virgil  Crockett,  W. 
D.  Byrnes,  E.  T.  Smith,  C.  H.  Foster,  M.  D.  Oiificers,  December,  1890: 
Charles  Slater,  N.  G.;  Frank  Haley,  V.  G. ;  Charles  A.  Jordan,  Sec;  Arthur 
Wakefield,  Treas. 

Monami  Lodge ^  No.  ^O,  L  0.  0.  F.,  MecJianic  Falls.  —  This  lodge  was  insti- 
tuted by  G.  M.  F.  N.  Laughton  and  other  grand  officers,  November  20,  1874, 
at  J.  A.  Bucknam's  hall.  In  the  previous  September  Alvin  Reed,  Charles 
Dwinal,  F.  A.  Millett,  G.  L,  Reed,  and  D.  N.  McCann  held  an  informal  meet- 
ing to  consider  the  propriety  of  an  organization.  Their  petition  for  a  charter 
was  granted,  and  the  lodge  entered  upon  a  career  of  continued  prosperity. 
A.  C.  Denison,  A.  J.  Weston,  C,  M,  Cram,  A.  L.  Gaubert,  Luther  Perkins, 
J.  H.  Fernald,  Charles  Lane,  J.  I.  Martin,  D.  B.  Perry,  J.  W.  Pray,  J.  J. 
Bucknam,  and  D.  F.  Cummings  were  accepted  and  instructed  in  the  degrees 
at  the  first  meeting.  The  first  officers  were:  Alvin  Reed,  N.  G. ;  D.N. 
McCann,  V.  G.;  G.  L.  Reed,  Sec;  Wm  Whitney,  Treas.;  C.  H.  Dwinal,  W.; 
F.  A.  Millett,  C;  D.  F.  Cummings,  O.  G.;  John  Pray,  L  G.;  A.  J.  Weston, 
R.  S.  N.  G.;  A.  L.  Gaubert,  L.  S.  N.  G. ;  D.  B.  Perry,  R.  S.  V.  G.;  Charles 
Lane,  L.  S.  V.  G.;  J.  I.  Martin,  R.  S.  S.;  J.  J.  Bucknam,  L.  S.  S.  In  1888 
the  lodge  had  211  members  in  good  standing,  and  owned  real  estate  and  other 
property  to  the  amount  of  i<3,000.  This  membership  had  increased  to  223  in 
April,  1891.  During  ten  years  prior  to  1888  it  relieved  161  brothers,  paid  out 
for  sick  benefits  14,182,  for  burying  the  dead  |2,200,  and  to  widows  11,800. 
Colfax  Lodge,  No.  27,  Daughters  of  Rebekah,  connected  with  this  lodge,  is  in 
a  flourishing  condition.  Among  the  officers,  June,  1891,  are:  R.  C.  Mayberry, 
N.  G.;  A.  B.  Clapp,  V.  G.;  E.  K.  Holbrook,  R.  Sec;  O.  H.  Guptil,  P.  Sec; 
Z.  Lane,  Treas.;  A.  S.  Ellsworth,  W.;  C.  P.  Lawrence,  C;  F.  Newport,  Chap. ; 
F.  A.  Millett,  M.;  Geo.  E.  Moore,  L.  The  Past  Grands  are  Alvin  Reed,  A. 
Lewis  Gaubert,  George  L.  Reed,  Palmer  T.  Murray,  Nathaniel  Gammon, 
Hiram  Perkins,  David  F.  Cummings,  Charles  F.  Brown,  Herbert  A.  Gerry, 
Addison  E.  True,  Albert  V.  Hathaway,  Frank  E.  Thurlow,  E.  F.  Bradford, 
T.  D.  Sale,  O.  H.  Guptill,  C.  H.  Dwinal,  Andrew  J.  Weston,  F.  A.  Millett, 
John  W.  Pray,  Calvin  M.  Cram,  Dimon  B.  Perry,  John  F.  Briggs,  Jesse  M. 
Libby,  Luther  Perkins,  John  E.  Saunders,  George  W.  Bobbins,  J.  K.  Denning, 
W.  W.  Dennen,  Ernest  K.  Holbrook,  Charles  Lane,  George  Andrews. 

Orion  Encampment,  No.  27.,  I.  0.  0.  F..,  Mechanic  Falh. — November  20, 
1878,  Orion  Encampment  was  instituted  by  G.  C.  P.  E.  C.  Chamberlain, 
assisted  by  other  grand  officers,  a  charter  having  been  granted  on  the  petition 
of  G.  L.  Reed,  F.  A.  Millett,  E.  A.  Gammon,  Wm  Whitney,  Hiram  Perkins, 
J.  J.  Bucknam,  D.  B.  Perry,  I.  A.  Denison,  P.  T.  Murray,  and  W.  M.  Green- 
leaf.  The  first  officers  were:  G.  L.  Reed,  C.  P.;  F.  A.  Millett,  H.  P.;  P.  T. 
Murray,  S.  W.;  J.  J.  Bucknam,  J.  W.;  W.  M.  Greenleaf,  Scribe;  Hiram 
Perkins,  Treas.     The  encampment  has  grown  steadily  from  its  organization, 

272  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

and  is  now  in  a  prosperous  condition  with  sixty  members.  The  officers  for 
term  ending  June  30,  1891  are:  O.  H.  Guptill,  C.  P.;  A.  V.  Hathaway,  H.  P.; 
A.  E.  True,  S.  W. ;  A.  B.  Clapp,  J.  W.;  L.  W.  Mason,  Scribe;  J.  J.  Bucknam, 
Treas. ;  II.  C.  Mayberry,  G.;  Charles  Lawrence,  I.  S.;  W.  E.  Morton,  O.  S. 
The  past  chief  patriarchs  are:  George  L.  Reed,  F.  A.  Millett,  Dimon  B.  Perry, 
Hiram  Perkins,  P.  T.  Murray,  Wm  M.  Greenleaf,  P.  D.  Herrick,  Luther 
Perkins,  A.  J.  Weston,  A.  L.  Gaubert,  E.  A.  Thomas,  G.  W.  Robbins,  S.  T. 
Rowe,  F.  E.  Thurlow,  A.  V.  Hathaway,  H.  E.  Thurston.  The  Past  High 
Priests  are:  Frank  A.  Millett,  Hiram  Perkins,  P.  T.  Murray,  Wm  M.  Greenleaf, 
John  W.  Pray,  E.  A.  Thomas,  A.  E.  True,  W.  W.  Dennen. 

Livermore  Falls  Lodge.,  No.  83,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  East  Livermore,  was  organized 
June  9,  1881,  with  these  charter  members:  David  Cargill,  D.  F.  Blount,  A.  B. 
Swift,  H.  H.  Dyke,  O.  A.  Barker,  Granville  Richmond,  J.  F.  Lamb,  S.  E. 
Perkins,  J.  W.  Dunham.  The  first  officers  were:  David  Cargill,  N.  G.;  John 
W.  Dunham,  V.  G.;  D.  F.  Blount,  Sec;  G.  Richmond,  Treas.;  O.  A.  Barker, 
W.;  C.  B.  Knapp,  C;  J.  F.  Lamb,  R.  S.  S.;  C.  F.  Brown,  L.  S.  S.;  H.  W. 
Bailey,  I.  G. ;  W.  S.  Francis,  O.  G.;  A.  B.  Swift,  R.  S.  N.  G.;  H.  H.  Dyke, 
L.  S.  N.  G.;  S.  E.  Perkins,  R.  S.  V.  G. ;  R.  W.  Weed,  L.  S.  V.  G.  The  first 
year  27  joined  the  lodge,  15  during  the  second  year,  16  in  the  third,  nine  in 
the  fourth,  12  in  the  fifth,  20  in  the  sixth,  11  in  the  seventh,  12  in  the  eighth, 
and  in  its  ninth  year  37  became  members.  The  membership  March,  1891,  was 
148.  The  officers  then  were:  C.  H.  Dean,  N.  G.;  F.  H.  Foss,  V.  G.;  C.  H. 
Gibbs,  Sec;  G.  Richmond,  Treas.;  Alfred  Riggs,  W. ;  J.  Ridley,  Con.;  A.  S. 
Wyman,  R.  S.  S.;   C.  H.  Thurston,  L.  S.  S.;   F.  A.  Millett,  I.  G. ;    S.  Smith, 

0.  G.;  C.  P.  Brown,  R.  S.  N.  G. ;  R.  J.  Mitchell,  L.  S.  N.  G.;  Carroll  D. 
Cargill,  R.  S.  V.  G.;  F.  A.  Wendell,  L.  S.  V.  G.;  David  Cargill,  Chap.  Past 
Grands  — l>Ay-i&  Cargill,  J.  W.  Dunham,  R.  W.  Weld,  F.  A.  Millett,  H.  E. 
Haines,  James  Ridley,  C.  H.  Gibbs,  H.  C.  Burcely,  E.  C.  Dow,  C.  E.  Knight, 

1.  T.  Monroe,  Wilder  Pettingill.  The  lodge  has  had  a  most  prosperous 
existence,  and  has  erected  Odd  Fellows  Block  on  Depot  street.  This  block, 
an  ornament  to  the  village,  cost  17,000,  is  70  x  40  feet  in  size,  and  has  three 
stories;  the  first  one  contains  two  stores,  which,  with  the  two  suites  of  rooms 
in  the  second  story,  are  rented,  while  the  third  is  devoted  to  lodge  purposes. 
The  hall  was  dedicated  June  11,  1891. 

Worumho  Lodfie,  No.  107, 1.  0.  0.  F.,  Lisbon  Falls,^  was  instituted  in  Masonic 
Hall,  Parkin's  Block,  June  25,  1884,  by  J.  Henry  Crockett,  G.  M.,  assisted 
by  R.  B.  Capen,  G.  W.,  Joshua  Davis,  G.  Sec,  Stephen  K.  Dyer,  G.  Treas., 
Wm  E.  Plummer,  G.  M.,  and  Geo.  W.  Goss,  D.  D.  G.  M.  Its  charter  mem- 
bers were:  Simeon  Stone,  N.  G. ;  Wm  E.  Stevens,  V.  G.;  Benj.  F.  Thorn,  Sec; 
Thos  C.  Rogers,  Treas.;  Geo.  H.  Lanaaster,  Geo.  D.  Frost,  Geo.  R.  Foster,  A. 
D,  Sawyer,  Jeremiah  Philbrook,  A.  T.  Bibber,  Chas  E.  Applehy,  Jas  E.  Berry, 

1  By  William  Parkin,  Secretary. 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  273 

Frank  Maines,  E.  C  Tarr,  Luke  B.  Taylor,  Chas  IT.  Keopka,  and  Harris  Gins- 
burg.  Names  in  italics  are  those  of  Past  Grands.  Having  been  very  prosperous 
both  financially  and  in  other  ways,  April  3,  1889,  the  lodge  removed  from 
Masonic  Hall  into  the  large  hall  adjoining,  which  they  leased  for  seven  years, 
and  furnished  to  the  satisfaction  of  every  member.  At  this  date  (July  23, 
1890,)  the  lodge  is  in  a  flourishing  condition,  with  the  following  named 
members  admitted  since  its  institution  :  L.  L.  Barrell,  Wm  Maines,  Geo.  E. 
I'hilbrook,  Frank  A.  Coombs,  Vincent  A.  Hogan,  G.  Eugene  Robbins,  TFm  //. 
Foster,  Elmer  E.  Gordon,  W.  T.  Brodmerckel,  Geo.  W.  Pratt,  Reuben  Harmon, 
A.  D.  Holmes,  Jas  H.  Eaton,  Edward  31.  Holland,  Jno.  S.  Randall,  Wm 
Gyngell,  Thos  B.  Brooks,  Joseph  H.  Rabner,  Jas  S.  Sakind,  Albert  Risska,  Jas 
H.  Eacott,  Walter  E.  Plummer,  W/n  A.  Brimijout,  Moses  Sheehy,  Geo.  H. 
White,  Ofis  S.  Whife,  Geo.  W.  Beal,  Jas  A.  Beal,  Frank  Wagner,  Chas  F. 
Hackett,  Wm  Schellsmidt,  Geo.  E.  ILtskins,  Fred  W.  Jordan,  Clarence  L.  Proc- 
tor, Geo.  W.  Keene,  Geo.  W.  Curtis,  Alden  A.  Appleby,  Joshua  Wakley,  Fred 
F.  Prosser,  G.  E.  Reynolds,  Jno.  M.  Dennison,  Frank  L.  Smith,  Willard  Jones, 
Benj.  F.  Leavitt,  Jno.  C.  French,  Robert  L.  Dwelley,  Herbert  E.  Lombard, 
Wm  Parkin,  Lorenzo  D.  Libby,  E.  R,  Campbell,  C.  E.  Huskins,  L.  Irving  Phil- 
brook,  Boothroyd  Fearnley,  Geo.  A.  Prosser,  Harry  H.  Severin,  Herbert  W. 
Pike,  and  Fred  E.  Crosman.  Meetings  are  held  on  Wednesday  evenings. 
The  officers  installed  January  14,  1891,  were:  B.  F.  Leavitt,  N.  G.;  Wm 
Parkin,  V.  G. ;  W.  E.  Stevens,  Sec;  F.  C.  Rogers,  Treas.;  C.  E.  Huskins,  W. 
L.  I.  Philbrook,C.;  W.  H.  Foster,  R.  S.  N.  G.;  B.  Fearnley,  L.  S.  N.  G.;  O.  S. 
White,  R.  S.  V.  G.;  Geo.  N.  Pratt,  L.  S.  V.  G.;  W.  Jones,  R.  S.  S.  C. ;  F. 
Hackett,  L.  S.  S.;  G.  E.  Reynolds,  Chap.;  L.  D.  Libby,  O.  G.;  H.  E.  Lombard, 
I.  G. ;  W.  E.  Stevens,  W.  A.Brimijoin,  C).  S.  White,  Trustees. 

Androseoijiiln  Lodge,  No.  24,  I-  0.  0.  F.,  Auburn,^  was  organized  under  a 
dispensation  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  Febrnary,  1845,  with  these  charter 
members:  Alonzo  Garcelon,  Temple  Tibbetts,  George  W.  Foss,  Freeman 
Newell,  S.  P.  Gorham,  Wm  R.  Frye,  Edward  P.  Weston,  Nelson  B.  Reynolds, 
W.  R.  French,  C-harles  Clark,  Daniel  B.  Hawk,  James  F.  Davis,  John  Herrick, 
John  H.  Durgin,  Joel  Lane,  Samuel  Stetson,  Isaac  C.  Thompson,  James 
Dingley.  The  charter  is  dated  May  2,  1845.  Edward  P.  Weston  was  elected 
the  first  Noble  Grand.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Bowdoin  College,  of  the  class  of 
1849,  and  principal  of  Lewiston  Falls  Academy.  He  was  afterwards  state 
superintendent  of  schools,  principal  of  Gorham  Seminary  and  Little  Blue 
School  of  Farmington.  He  died  in  Chicago,  where  he  was  president  of  a 
college.  He  was  one  of  the  best  educators  in  Maine.  Dr  A.  Garcelon,  Hon. 
Wm  R.  Frye,  Rev.  W.  R.  French,  and  others,  were  extensively  known,  and 
the  lodge  commenced  under  favorable  circumstances.  Many  applications  were 
soon  sent  in;    quite  a   number   from  adjoining    towns.      Several    came  from 

1  By  H.  G.  Garcelon. 

274  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

Canton  and  Durham,  and  Lewiston  was  equally  represented  with  Auburn. 
The  lodge  soon  became  a  strong  one,  and  has  always  been  regarded  one  of  the 
best  in  the  state.  Past  (^rnw^s  —  Edward  P.  Weston,  Frank  W.  Brooks, 
George  W.  Bumpus,  George  W.  Curtis,  James  Dingley,  George  L.  Duston, 
Richard  Dresser,  Clarence  A.  Davis,  Ira  W.  Fitz,  Horatio  G.  Garcelon,  Lewis 
W.  Haskell,  John  T.  Hale,  Rev.  James  J.  Hall,  Frank  M.  Jordan,  Charles  A. 
Jordan,  Horace  G.  Kingsley,  Josiah  P.  Longley,  Edmund  Libby,  A.  P.  Lamb, 
Thomas  Littlefield,  Frank  L.  Lowell,  Nahum  Morrill,  R.  M.  Mason,  S.  P. 
Miller,  Franklin  Martin,  Clark  Mitchell,  Rev.  Jason  Marriner,  Henry  W. 
Oakes,  O.  C.  Phillips,  Merritt  L  Paine,  John  Read,  Levi  N.  Smith,  L.  M. 
Starbird,  L.  L.  Small,  E.  G.  Spofford,  Benjamin  L.  Tuttle,  Albert  E.  Verrill, 
Dr  L.  P.  Woodbury,  Daniel  Wood,  George  W.  Yeaton,  Clarence  Young, 
Roscoe  P.  Wood,  Frank  C.  Currier.  Permanent  Secretaries  —  Benjamin  Dunn, 
H.  G.  Garcelon,  J.  M.  Steadman,  Joseph  Littlefield,  F.  M.  Brooks,  George  W. 
Bumpus.  Mr  Dunn  served  12  years,  Garcelon  10  years.  Brooks  11  years. 
Bumpus  has  held  the  place  since  1885.  Treasurers  —  Wm  S.  Young,  J.  P. 
Longley,  F.  M.  Jordan,  Daniel  Wood,  James  Dingley,  L.  W.  Haskell,  Frank 
A.  Rendall.  Recording  Secretaries  —  James  G.  Read,  John  Read,  Dana  Goff, 
A.  T.  Bean,  C.  C.  Frost,  F.  W.  Gamage,  W.  H.  Foss,  H.  G.  Garcelon,  A.  M. 
Peables,  O.  C.  Phillips,  John  March,  H.  A.  Thompson,  N.  B.  Reynolds,  F.  M. 
Jordan,  C.  F.  Dunlap,  Philip  Briggs,  J.  F.  Davis,  Henry  M.  Sprague,  L.  L. 
Small,  A.  E.  Verrill,  Clarence  Chase,  George  L.  Duston.  Since  the  lodge  was 
organized  it  has  had  about  700  members,  and  now  has  (1890)  400.  It  has 
changed  its  place  of  meeting  several  times.  For  the  last  few  years  it  has  been 
located  in  Goff  Block,  the  lodge  leasing  the  entire  upper  story  when  it  was 
built,  and  it  was  finished  under  its  direction,  so  they  have  fine  and  convenient 
accommodations,  and  a  long  lease  of  them.  Tliis  hall  is  sublet  to  the  other 
lodges  of  the  order.  The  relief  Androscoggin  Lodge  has  afforded  in  times  of 
sickness  has  been  a  great  blessing  to  brethren  when  pecuniary  aid  was  needed, 
and  also  when  a  few  kind  words  and  a  warm  grasp  of  the  hand,  with  a  "  God 
bless  you,  my  brother,"  has  brought  joy  and  comfort  to  the  sick  and  affiicted. 
The  words  of  a  visiting  brother  Odd  Fellow  have  often  been  like  "aj)ples  of 
gold  in  pictures  of  silver." 

JIi(/her  Officers  froin  this  Lodge.  —  P.  G.  John  Read  has  held  the  office 
of  Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  and  Grand  Representative  to  the 
Sovereign  Grand  Lodge.  P.  G.  Dr  L.  P.  Woodbury  holds  an  office  in 
the  Grand  Encampment.  P.  G.  H.  G.  Garcelon  has  been  Grand  Chaplain  of 
the  Grand  Lodge.  P.  G.  Read  is  secretary  of  Odd  Fellows'  Mutual  Relief 

Most  of  the  old  members  have  gone  to  their  immortality.  Their  record 
has  been  made  up.  Tliey  ever  had  the  respect  of  the  community  at  large. 
The  influence  they  imparted  to  the  lodge  endures,  and  the  good  deeds  it  has 

Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  Societies.  275 

done,  and  the  virtues  it  has  inculcated  have  been  in  line  with  the  principles  of 
the  order,  and  it  has  always  stood  well  with  the  lodges  of  the  state. 

Aboii  Ben  Adhem  Lodge,  No.  23,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  Auburn.^  — Although  this 
lodge  is  the  youngest  of  this  order  in  this  vicinity,  its  organization  and 
subsequent  work  make  it  worthy  a  place  beside  any  kindred  organization  in 
this  city,  and  it  has  had  a  marked  influence  in  bringing  the  order  to  the  high 
position  it  occupies  in  Auburn  and  Lewiston.  In  1872  Odd  Fellowship  was 
almost  unknown  to  the  writer,  he  knowing,  like  many  others,  that  such  an 
order  existed,  but  being  entirely  ignorant  of  its  aims  find  purposes.  At  that 
time  Lewiston  and  Auburn  had  but  one  lodge  each,  and  such  low  ebb  had  the 
order  touched  that  Androscoggin  Lodge,  of  Auburn,  held  its  meetings  in  Odd 
Fellows  Hall,  Lewiston.  With  such  a  state  of  affairs,  it  is  but  reasonable  to 
suppose  that  some  residents  of  Auburn  joined  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics 
Lodge  who  would  have  connected  themselves  with  Androscoggin  Lodge  had  it 
met  in  Auburn.  The  writer  was  one  of  that  number,  but  in  looking  back  he 
feels  quite  satisfied  that  he  was  ignorant  of  the  situation,  for  it  has  enabled 
him  to  assist  in  a  work  that  otherwise  would  have  fallen  to  another.  About 
this  time  the  members  of  the  order  seemed  to  awake  from  their  lethargy. 
Androscoggin  Lodge  began  to  agitate  a  return  to  its  original  home,  new  life 
seemed  to  be  given  it,  a  deeper  interest  soon  prevailed,  and,  as  a  result,  rooms 
were  leased  in  Phoenix  Block,  Auburn,  and  a  hall  fitted  up,  which  was 
considered  second  to  none  in  the  state.  Li  the  fall  of  1873  the  Lewiston 
brethren  felt  the  need  of  another  lodge  in  Lewiston  to  such  an  extent  that 
enough  members  of  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Lodge  and  Androscoggin 
Lodge  withdrew  from  their  respective  lodges  and  formed  Golden  Rule  Lodge. 
This  is  mentioned  to  show  the  rapid  strides  taken  by  the  order  inside  of  three 
years,  and  how,  indirectly,  the  above  events  aided  the  organization  of  this 
lodge  and  are  closely  allied  with  its  formation.  With  this  addition  of  a  lodge 
and  a  rapidly  increasing  membership,  it  seemed  possible  to  some  of  the 
brethren  of  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Lodge  who  resided  in  Auburn,  to 
add  greater  interest  to  the  order  and  a  contribution  to  its  membership  by 
forming  another  lodge  in  Auburn.  A  few  of  them  had  been  quietly  at  work 
for  some  time  to  accomplish  this  object,  which  was  at  first  met  by  opposition 
and  thought  to  be  downright  folly  by  those  who  opposed  it.  They  argued 
that  in  a  city  which  so  short  a  time  before  could  not  support  even  one  lodge, 
a  second  could  but  be  a  failure.  It  sometimes  happens,  however,  that  the 
greater  the  opposition,  the  more  complete  the  success.  It  was  so  in  this  case. 
To  C.  M.  Lander,  Enoch  Perkins,  Geo.  B.  Briggs,  and  Chas  S.  Yeaton  must  be 
given,  in  a  large  measure,  the  credit  for  the  existence  of  Abou  Ben  Adhem 
Lodge.  They  were  residents  of  Auburn  and  believed  in  Auburn  institutions. 
They  met  opposition  with  one  answer:  "We  are  bound  to  have  another  lodge." 

1  By  Charles  S.  Yeaton,  P.  G. 

276  History  of  Androscoggin  County. 

The  sympathies  of  seven  brothers  of  Androscoggin  Lodge  were  enlisted,  who, 
in  conjunction  with  the  15  from  Manufacturers  and  Mechanics  Lodge,  were 
able  to  present  quite  a  strong  petition  to  the  grand